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What is it to be French?
Transcript of What is it to be French?
Pont Des Arts
Of course Bread has to be on this presentation. When you think of France one of the first things you would probably think is bread. Here are three french foods from bread.
Sport - Cycling
Cycling is a major sport in France, hosting one of the most prestigious cycling events known called the Tour de France.
Architecture - Eiffel Tower
What is it to be French?
What is it to be French? In this presentation I will show you the best of France. Sort of like a brochure or an episode of Getaway. This is why you will want to go to France sometime in the near future.
Sport - Football
Food - Ratatoullie
The next section of this presentation is kind of like a cooking show except I'm not showing you how to cook what I'm showing you. The first food I will show you is a dish called Ratatouille.
Sport - Tennis
Tennis in France is a much loved sport and has recieved a lot of attention, hosting the French Open.
Foods - Wine
Cheese and Wine are two things that go really well together and France has both of them.
Architecture is a major part in the French culture. It is the reason for many of France's most popular attractions.
Sport - Rugby
The third sport I will show you is a sport that has had much success for France and it is Rugby.
Rugby is surely in the top 10 for most popular sports in France. The national rugby team has had much success. They were in the 2011 Rugby World Cup Grand Final against New Zealand and hosted the 2007 RWC.
They have been in a World Cup final three times and lost all three (two to New Zealand, one to Australia). They won their first Rugby Grand Slam in 1968, they have qualified for the knock-out stage of Every World Cup since the inaugural world cup. Clearly they're a good team.
The Tour de France is a 21 stage race over a period of 23 days. The race covers 3500 kilometres. Normally the number of teams vary between 20 and 22 and 9 riders in each team, the rider with the lowest time and the leader of the race gets to wear the yellow jersey.
The Eiffel Tower is arguably France's best attraction and is praised also becoming a global cultural icon for France.
The tower was the tallest man-made structure for 41 years until it was surpassed by the Chrysler Building (NYC) in 1930.
It is now taller than the Chrysler Building by 5.2 metres due to the addition of the aerial at the top of the tower.
Geography - English Channel
The English Channel is the body of water that seperates Southern England from Northern France and joins the southern part of the North Sea to the rest of the Atlantic Ocean.I t is about 560 km long and varies in width from at its widest to 32.3 km. It is the smallest of the shallow seas around the continental shelf of Europe, covering an area of 75,000 km.
The Pyrenees is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between France and Spain. It separates the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe, and extends for about 491 km from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean Sea.
History - WWI
During World War 1,France was one of the Triple Entente powers allied against the Central Powers.
The Pont Des Arts is a symbol of love for France. It is a bridge located in Paris that crosses the River Seine. It is known for having thousands of padlocks (love locks) attached to the sides of the bridge.
Couples attach padlocks to the bridge and then throw away the key as a romantic gesture.
Soon the locks were turning into safety hazards and many have been cut off the bridge only for more to be put back on.
Architecture - Notre Dame de Paris
The Notre Dame Cathedral is a medieval Catholic cathedral located in Paris. It is widely considered to be on of the best examples of French Gothic architecture and is among the most well known church buildings in the world.
Construction started in the year 1163 and ended in 1345.
It suffered desecration in the 1790s during the French Revolution when much of its religious imagery was either destroyed or damaged.
It was one the first buildings to use the flying buttress.
Architecture - Louvre
The Louvre is the worlds largest museum and a historic monument in Paris. It holds both the record of largest museum and the worlds most visited museum.
It was originally a fortress build in the medieval period then a royal palace used by the Kings of France for their main Paris residence but in 1793 it officially opened as a public museum with only 537 paintings. It now has nearly 30000 items in the museum including the famous Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci.
The collection is divided among eight curatorial departments:
Egyptian Antiquities; Near Eastern Antiquities;
Greek, Etruscan and Roman Antiquities;
Islamic Art; Sculpture; Decorative Arts;
Paintings; Prints and Drawings.
Architecture - Palais Garnier
The Palais Garnier is an opera house built from 1861 to 1875 specifically for the Paris Opera. It was originally called the Salle des Capucines because of its location on the Boulevard des Capucines but soon became the Palais Garnier named after its architect Charles Garnier. It is also referred to as the Opera Garnier.
It is also home to the Paris Opera Library-Museum which is included in unaccompanied tours of the Palais Garnier.
The Palais Garnier has been called "probably the most famous opera house in the world, a symbol of Paris like Notre Dame Cathedral, the Louvre," That is partly due to the 1910 novel The Phantom of the Opera which has recieved many stage and flim adaptions.
Sport - Croquet
My next topic will be a leisure activity for many and a job for some, it's sport. And to start it off I have a sport that is mostly considered France's national sport. Football (or soccer).
Ligue 1 is the top division of french football. It is usually dominated by Paris Saint-Germain who have won six Ligue 1 titles, a record ten Coupe de France, a record six Coupe de la Ligue, five Trophée des Champions and the Ligue 2 title once.
As of the 5th of May 2016 the French national football team is the 21st best football team according to the FIFA World Rankings.
The national team was one of the four European teams to compete in the inaugural World Cup in 1930. They are also one of the three teams to have been in every World Cup in existance.
France has experienced much of its success during three major "golden generations": in the 1950s, 1980s, and late 1990s/early 2000s. In 1958 they finished third at the FIFA World Cup. In 1984, France won the UEFA Euro 1984. In 1998 France won the World Cup on their own soil, becoming one of six teams to win a world cup they hosted. Two years later they won the UEFA Euro 2000 and was ranked as the best team in the world for the first time. In 2006 France lost to Italy in the Grand Final of the World Cup 5-3 on penalties. That was also the event when the infamous Zinedine Zidane headbutt happened.
The UEFA Euro 2016 will be held in France this year as an annual event to crown the best team in Europe. Germany are the favourites to win the tournament and France is second favourite (According to bet365).
Stade de France
The national stadium of France.
The French Open (or the Roland Garros) is one of the four Grand Slam tennis events. The other three being the Australian Open, Wimbledon and the US Open.
The French Open is the only tournament out of those four to be played on a clay court.
One of the most famous French tennis players is Suzanne Lenglen. The Women's trophy in the French Open is named after her for her remarkable achievements during her career.
She dominated tennis from 1914 to 1926. She was the first female tennis celebrity and one of the first international female sport stars. Lenglen won 241 titles, had a 181 match winning streak and 341-7 (98%) match record. It's hard to imagine someone replicating that today.
Ratatoullie is also the name of a Disney film. In the film Ratatoullie is cooked Confit byaldi style. (I recommend the film.)
Bell peppers (capsicum)
Ratatoullie is a traditional french vegetable dish that originated in Nice. It is popular among the Mediterranean coast as an easy summer dish. Ratatoullie is usally served as a side but can be a meal if accompanied by pasta, rice or bread.
The main character in the film Ratatoullie is a rat. Rats are a bigger version than mice. Do you know what mice stereotypically like? Cheese!
Here is a brief introduction to four of the most popular types of cheese from France.
Soupe a l'oignon (French Onion Soup)
Camembert is considered the most famous french cheese. It is a soft and creamy cheese produced in Normandy. A ripe camembert should be soft on the inside but not too runny.
"Americans love their guns like the French love camembert."
Brie is an incredibly versatile cheese that has many varieties today; however, there are only two types of "King's Cheese" that are graded by the French government. It is a soft cheese, typically pale-yellow in color with a small dusted, moldy rind.
Emmental is a medium-hard, cow-milk's cheese that holds a nice yellow tinge. It is like the swiss cheese of France. The famous large holes are formed when carbon dioxide tries to leave the cheese during the last stage of production.
Comté is highly regulated in France and actually graded and labeled according to a governmental board. There are over 83 distinct flavors of Comté, such as: chocolate, apricot and butter. This cheese also goes by the name Gruyère de Comté.
Soupe a l'oignon is a type of soup usually based on meat stock and onions, and often served gratinéed with croutons and cheese on top or a large piece of bread.
Onion soups have been popular at least as far back as Roman times. They were seen as food for poor people as onions were plentiful.
Stock (Beef or chicken)
France is one of the largest wine producers in the world. Producing 7-8 billion bottles of wine a year.
A croissant is a buttery, flaky, pastry named for its well-known crescent shape. Croissants are made of a layered yeast-leavened dough. The dough is layered with butter, rolled and folded several times in succession, then rolled into a sheet,
A baguette is a long thin loaf of French bread that is commonly made from basic lean dough. It is distinguishable by its length and crisp crust. A baguette has a usual length of about 65 centimetres, although a baguette can be up to a metre long.
Boule is a traditional shape of French bread, resembling a squashed ball. It is a rustic loaf shape that can be made of any type of flour. The name of this bread is the reason a bread baker is referred to as a "boulanger" in French, and a bread bakery a "boulangerie."
Croquet is a sport that involves hitting plastic or wooden balls with a mallet through hoops or wickets in a grass playing court.
The game was introduced to Britain from France during the reign of Charles II and was played under the name of pall mall. It is originally a french sport.
There are many variations of Croquet such as: Association, Golf, Garden, American Six-Wicket, Nine-Wicket Croquet and Ricochet Croque.
A Game of Croquet
" by Louise Abbéma
Château Rayas - $800
Musigny - $4500
Corton-Charlemagne - $2700
Château Léoville-Las Cases - $200+
Jacques Selosse Substance - $300
History - WWII
History - Hundred Years War
History - French Revolution
History - First King of France
First Army (7, 8, 13, 14, and 21), with the objective of capturing Mulhouse and Sarrebourg. Second Army (9, 15, 16, 18 and 20), with the objective of capturing Morhange.
Third Army (4, 5 and 6), defending the region around Metz.
Fourth Army (12, 17 and Colonial) held in reserve around the Forest of Argonne.
Fifth Army (1, 2, 3, 10 and 11), defending the Ardennes.
The order for mobilisation was given on 1st August, the same day that Germany declared war on Russia. Most of his forces were concentrated in the north east of France, both to attack Alsace-Lorraine and to meet the expected German offensive through the Low Countries.
The war scare led to another 2.9 million men being mobilized in the summer of 1914.
At the end of the war on November 11, 1918, the French had called up 8,317,000 men, including 475,000 colonial troops. France suffered over 4.2 million casualties, with 1.3 million dead.
The French Army on the eve of the German attack in 1940 was commanded by General Maurice Gamelin. It consisted of 117 divisions with 94 committed to the North-Eastern front of operations. The North-Eastern Front Command was held by its Commander-in-Chief, General Alphonse Georges, at La Ferte-sous-Jouarre. The air force was commanded by General Joseph Vuillemin. France surrendered in the Battle of France and the next day signed the Armistice of 22 June 1940. The armistice established a German occupation zone in Northern and Western France that encompassed all English Channel and Atlantic Ocean ports and left the remainder "free" to be governed by the French. After the French armies surrendered, Germany seized 2 million French prisoners of war and sent them to camps in Germany.
Free French Forces were created in 1940 as a rebel faction of the French Army, refusing both the armistice and Vichy's authority. It evolved to a full army after its merger with the Army of Africa in 1943, then with new recruits from the French Resistance.
Charles de Gaulle reviews French navy sailors willing to fight as Free French Forces.
French soldiers in Paris, 1940.
Far East French Expeditionary Forces (FEFEO) was created on 4 October 1943 to fight in the Asian theatre of World War II and liberate French Indochina which was still occupied by the Japanese since 1940. Free French commando groups called Corps Léger d'Intervention (C.L.I.) were created by de Gaulle in November 1943 as part of the FEFEO and trained in French Algeria then in British India, to fight the Japanese forces in occupied French Indochina.
Charles de Gaulle and Winston Churchill in 1944.
The Hundred Years' War is the modern term for a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, rulers of the Kingdom of France, for control of the Kingdom of France. It was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, in which five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe.
The war is divided into three phases separated by truces: the Edwardian Era War (1337–1360); the Caroline War (1369–1389); and the Lancastrian War (1415–1453). Conflicts in neighbouring areas, directly related to this conflict, included the War of the Breton Succession (1341–1364), the Castilian Civil War (1366–1369), the War of the Two Peters (1356–1375) in Aragon, and the 1383–85 Crisis in Portugal.
Historians later invented the term "Hundred Years' War" as a periodization to encompass all of these events, thus constructing the longest military conflict in history.
The Battle of Castillon was fought on 17 July 1453 in Gascony near the town of Castillon-sur-Dordogne. It is considered to mark the end of the Hundred Years' War. The french won and as a result, the English lost all landholdings in France, except Calais. England and France remained formally at war for another 20 years, but the English were in no position to carry on the war as they faced unrest at home.
Following defeat in the Hundred Years' War, English landowners complained vociferously about the financial losses resulting from the loss of their continental holdings; this is often considered a major cause of the Wars of the Roses,was a series of wars for control of the throne of England.
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon that rapidly brought many of its principles to Western Europe and beyond.
The causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. The French government was deeply in debt and attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes.
France rapidly transformed into a democratic society with freedom of religion, legalization of divorce, decriminalization of same-sex relationships, and civil rights for Jews and black people.
The first year of the Revolution saw members of the Third Estate taking control, the assault on the Bastille in July, the passage of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in August, and a women's march on Versailles that forced the royal court back to Paris in October.
A central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime.
The next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on foiling major reforms.
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793.
Clovis I (466-511)was the first king of the Franks, to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs. Clovis was the son of Childeric I, a Merovingian king of the Salian Frank, and Basina, Queen of Thuringia, and he succeeded his father in 481, at the age of fifteen.
He was King of the Salian Franks from 481–509. He was King of the Franks from 509-511 after uniting all of the Franks and becoming the first French Monarch.
Royal Coat of Arms
Two ways of transport between the UK and France are a Ferry ride and going through the Channel Tunnel.
It is also home to the Channel Islands which includes two Crown dependencies, Jersey and Guernsey. Although they are not part of the United Kingdom, it is responsible for the defence and international relations of the islands. They have a total population of about 168,000.
Geography - Vosges
The Vosges Mountains are a range of low mountains in eastern France, near its border with Germany. Together with the Palatine Forest to the north on the German side of the border, they form a single geomorphological unit and low mountain range of around 8,000 square kilometres in area.
The range is divided south to north into three sections:
The Higher Vosges, extending in the southern part of the range from Belfort to the valley of the Bruche.
The Middle Vosges, between the Permian Basin of Saint-Die including the Devonian-Dinantian volcanic massif of Schirmeck-Moyenmoutier and the Col de Saverne.
The Lower Vosges, between the Col de Saverne and the source of the Lauter.
In addition, the term "Central Vosges" is used to designate the various lines of summits, especially those above 1000 metres in elevation. The French department of Vosges is named after the range.
Geography - France Itself
France (mainland) is the third largest country (by area) in Europe if the Asian parts of Kazakhstan, Turkey and Russia are not counted. If they are then France would be the fifth largest country in Europe.
The area of mainland France is 551,695km and if overseas departments are included the country would be 643,801km in area.
Geography - Pyrenees
Geography - Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc meaning "White Mountain", is the highest mountain in the Alps and the second-highest peak in Europe after Mount Elbrus. It rises 4,808.73m above sea level.
The mountain lies in a range called the Graian Alps, between the regions of Aosta Valley, Italy, and Savoie and Haute-Savoie, France.
The location of the summit is on the watershed line between the valleys of Ferret and Veny in Italy and the valleys of Montjoie and Arve in France. The Mont Blanc massif is popular for mountaineering, hiking, skiing, and snowboarding.
For the most part, the main crest forms a massive divider between France and Spain, with the microstate of Andorra sandwiched in between. The Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Navarre have historically extended on both sides of the mountain range, with smaller northern portions now in France and larger southern parts now in Spain.
Physiographically, the Pyrenees may be divided into three sections: the Atlantic (or Western), the Central, and the Eastern Pyrenees. Together, they form a distinct province of the Alpine System division.
Pico del Aneto, the highest mountain of the Pyrenees.
Art - Performing Arts
Art - Music
Art - Sculptures
Art - Painting
Art - Lace
"La Marseillaise" is the national anthem of France. The song was written in 1792 by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle in Strasbourg after the declaration of war by France against Austria, and was originally titled "Chant de guerre pour l'Armée du Rhin" ("War Song for the Rhine Army"). The Marseillaise was a revolutionary song, an anthem to freedom, a patriotic call to mobilize all the citizens and an exhortation to fight against tyranny and foreign invasion.
France is also the 5th largest market by value in the world, and its music industry has produced many internationally renowned artists, especially in the nouvelle chanson and electronic music.
The music of France reflects a diverse array of styles. In the field of classical music, France has produced a number of romantic composers, while folk and popular music have seen the rise of the chanson and cabaret style. The earliest known sound recording device in the world, the phonautograph, was patented in France by Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville in 1857.
One of the most well known cabaret singers is Edith Piaf who became widely regarded as France's national female singer, as well as being one of France's greatest international stars. She was born on 19 December 1915 and died on 10 October 1963 at the age of 47. Her music was often autobiographical with her singing reflecting her life, with her specialty being of chanson and torch ballads, particularly of love, loss and sorrow. Among her well known songs are "La Vie en rose" (1946), "Non, je ne regrette rien" (1960), "Hymne à l'amour" (1949), "Milord" (1959), "La Foule" (1957), "L'Accordéoniste (fr)" (1955), and "Padam ... Padam ..." (1951). Since her premature death in 1963 and with the aid of several biographies and films, Piaf has cultivated a legacy as one of the greatest performers of the 20th century, and her voice and music continues to be celebrated globally.
Rodin is famous for works such as: The Age of Bronze (1877), The Walking Man (1877-78), The Burghers of Calais (1889), The Kiss (1889) and The Thinker (1902).
Auguste Rodin was a French sculptor. He was born on 12 November 1840 in Paris and he died on 17 November 1917 aged 77.
Sculpturally, Rodin possessed a unique ability to model a complex, turbulent, deeply pocketed surface in clay. Many of his most notable sculptures were roundly criticized during his lifetime.
From the unexpected realism of his first major figure to the unconventional memorials whose commissions he later sought, Rodin's reputation grew, such that he became the preeminent French sculptor of his time. By 1900, he was a world-renowned artist. Wealthy private clients sought Rodin's work after his World's Fair exhibit, and he kept company with a variety of high-profile intellectuals and artists. He married his lifelong companion, Rose Beuret, in the last year of both their lives. His sculptures suffered a decline in popularity after his death in 1917, but within a few decades, his legacy solidified. Rodin remains one of the few sculptors widely known outside the visual arts community.
In 1516, Francis I of France invited Leonardo da Vinci to the Château d'Amboise and provided him with the Château du Clos Lucé, then called Château de Cloux, as a place to stay and work. He arrived with three of his paintings, namely the Mona Lisa, Sainte Anne, and Saint Jean Baptiste, today owned by the Louvre museum of Paris.
In the late 15th century, the French invasion of Italy and the proximity of the vibrant Burgundy court (with its Flemish connections) brought the French into contact with the goods, paintings, and the creative spirit of the Northern and Italian Renaissance, and the initial artistic changes in France were often carried out by Italian and Flemish artists, such as Jean Clouet and his son François Clouet and the Italians Rosso Fiorentino, Francesco Primaticcio and Niccolò dell'Abbate of the first School of Fontainebleau (from 1531).
The art of the period from Francis I through Henry IV is often inspired by late Italian pictorial and sculptural developments commonly referred to as Mannerism, characterized by figures which are elongated and graceful and a reliance on visual rhetoric, including the elaborate use of allegory and mythology.
The first School of Fontainebleau produced some of these artworks.
Marcel Marceau was a French actor and mime most famous for his stage persona as "Bip the Clown". He referred to mime as the "art of silence," and he performed professionally worldwide for over 60 years. As a youth, he lived in hiding and worked with the French Resistance during most of World War II, giving his first major performance to 3000 troops after the liberation of Paris in August 1944. Following the war, he studied dramatic art and mime in Paris.
A Fest Noz is a Breton traditional festival, with dancing in groups and live musicians playing acoustic instruments.
Although it is all too easy to write off the fest nozou as modern inventions, most of the traditional dances of the Fest Noz are ancient, some dating back to the Middle Ages, providing a way for the community to grasp hold of its past and relish a deep sense of being with ancestors and with place.
On 5 December 2012 the fest-noz was added by UNESCO to the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
Some people wouldn't consider making Lace as an art, but articles from Google do so I'm showing you some Lace.
Lace is a textile displaying openwork, obtained through the intersection of threads that form motifs linked by a ground. This intersection is produced either with a needle or with bobbins. The appearance of the lace depends on the technique used, its geographic origins and also the era when it was made.
In the early 19th century only England could produce perfect bobbinet tulle with a hexagonal mesh. The fabric that was so desirable in France, but could only be obtained as contraband. These were troubled times: the war between France and England resulted in an economic blockade. While inside the country overproduction caused Luddite Revolt, workers formed gangs and were breaking the looms they deemed responsible for their unemployment.
But nothing can stop the progress. Looms were smuggled in secret to France so the first production of bobbinet tulle and lace started in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region.