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Indirect Speech/Reported Speech Rules
Transcript of Indirect Speech/Reported Speech Rules
reported speech. This is only natural
because we usually report something
that was said in the past and therefore
we have to change the verbs. Indirect Speech / Reported Speech Indirect speech is used to report what someone said.
Direct speech: "I am a happy guy," he said.
Indirect speech: He said he was a happy guy.
We do not use quotation marks and there are usually many changes made to what actually was said. These changes are: Modal Verbs Change Examples of Modal Verbs: Will, shall, can etc. Use of Present Tense The present tense in reported speech can be used to state something that was true yesterday and is true today:-
Direct speech: "My name is Jude," he said.
Indirect Speech: He said his name was Jude. Pronoun change In reported speech, the pronoun often changes. Indirect Speech/Reported Speech NB - There is no change to; could, would, should, might and ought to. You can also use the present tense if you are talking about a future event. Direct speech: "I will see you next wek," she said.
Indirect speech (not exact):She said she will see us next week. For Example:
Direct Speech: Jude said, "I am hungry."
Indirect Speech: Jude said that he was hungry. Reporting Verbs Most common verbs used in indirect speech: Said, told and asked. We use asked for questions:-
For example: I asked Rose what time she would be home.
We use told or said to with an object.
For example: Jude said to me that he was hungry or Jude told me that he was hungry.
We usually use said without an object.
For example: Jude said that he was hungry.
Other verbs we can use:
accused, admitted, advised, alleged, agreed, apologised, begged, boasted, complained, denied, explained, implied, invited, offered, ordered, promised, replied, suggested and thought. Use of 'That' in reported speech In reported speech, the word that is often used. However, that is optional.
For example: He told me that he likes food.
For example: He told me he likes food
NB: Use if instead of That in questions.
For example: They asked us if we enjoyed the evening. Time change If the direct speech contains an expression of
time, it must be changed in reported speech. The following changes occur:
-here changes to there.
-today changes to that day
-this changes to that
-these change to those
- now changes to then
-next (week) changes to the following (week) Direct Speech
-Present Simple changes to Past Simple. For Example, She said, “I am happy.” changes to She said that she was happy.
-Present Progressive changes to Past Progressive.
For Example, She said, “I am eating food.” changes to She said that she was eating food.
-Present Perfect Simple changes to Past Perfect Simple.
For Example, She said, “I have a book.” changes to She said that she had a book.
-Present Perfect Progressive changes to Past Perfect Progressive.
For Example, She said, “I have been writing a letter.” changes to She said that she had been writing a letter.
-Past Simple changes to Past Perfect
For Example, She said, “I ate a fruit.” changes to She said that she had eaten a
-Past Progressive changes to Past Perfect Progressive.
For Example, She said, “I was writing a letter.” changes to She said that she had been writing a letter.
Past Perfect = NO CHANGE
For Example, She said, “I had eaten a fruit.” changes to She said that she had eaten a fruit.
Past Perfect Progressive = NO CHANGE
For Example, She said, “I had been teaching in a school before I moved here.” changes to She said that she had been teaching in a school since she moved here. -Will changes to Would. For Example, She said, “I will write a letter.” changes to She said that she would write a letter.
-Can changes to Could. For Example, She said, “I am eating food.” changes to She said that she was eating food.
-Must changes to had to. For Example, She said, “I must eat now.” changes to She said that she had to eat then.
-Shall changes to should. For Example, She said, “what shall I wear today?” changes to She asked what she should wear that day
-May changes to MightFor Example, She said, “How may I help you?” changes to She asked how she might help us. Excercises Go to this website here to practice
use of reported speech: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/reported-speech#exercises
Good luck! :-)