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Indirect Speech/Reported Speech Rules

Here is a prezi which explains how to convert direct speech to indirect speech or reported speech. There is also a video included here.
by

Jaspreet Gloppen

on 21 February 2013

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Transcript of Indirect Speech/Reported Speech Rules

Tense change To report something you usually go back a tense. Tense Change The tense usually changes when we use
reported speech. This is only natural
because we usually report something
that was said in the past and therefore
we have to change the verbs. Indirect Speech / Reported Speech Indirect speech is used to report what someone said.

For example:
Direct speech: "I am a happy guy," he said.
Indirect speech: He said he was a happy guy.

We do not use quotation marks and there are usually many changes made to what actually was said. These changes are: Modal Verbs Change Examples of Modal Verbs: Will, shall, can etc. Use of Present Tense The present tense in reported speech can be used to state something that was true yesterday and is true today:-
Direct speech: "My name is Jude," he said.
Indirect Speech: He said his name was Jude. Pronoun change In reported speech, the pronoun often changes. Indirect Speech/Reported Speech NB - There is no change to; could, would, should, might and ought to. You can also use the present tense if you are talking about a future event. Direct speech: "I will see you next wek," she said.
Indirect speech (not exact):She said she will see us next week. For Example:
Direct Speech: Jude said, "I am hungry."
Indirect Speech: Jude said that he was hungry. Reporting Verbs Most common verbs used in indirect speech: Said, told and asked. We use asked for questions:-
For example: I asked Rose what time she would be home.

We use told or said to with an object.
For example: Jude said to me that he was hungry or Jude told me that he was hungry.

We usually use said without an object.
For example: Jude said that he was hungry.

Other verbs we can use:
accused, admitted, advised, alleged, agreed, apologised, begged, boasted, complained, denied, explained, implied, invited, offered, ordered, promised, replied, suggested and thought. Use of 'That' in reported speech In reported speech, the word that is often used. However, that is optional.
For example: He told me that he likes food.

For example: He told me he likes food

NB: Use if instead of That in questions.
For example: They asked us if we enjoyed the evening. Time change If the direct speech contains an expression of
time, it must be changed in reported speech. The following changes occur:
-here changes to there.
-today changes to that day
-this changes to that
-these change to those
- now changes to then
-next (week) changes to the following (week) Direct Speech
-Present Simple changes to Past Simple. For Example, She said, “I am happy.” changes to She said that she was happy.

-Present Progressive changes to Past Progressive.
For Example, She said, “I am eating food.” changes to She said that she was eating food.

-Present Perfect Simple changes to Past Perfect Simple.
For Example, She said, “I have a book.” changes to She said that she had a book.
-Present Perfect Progressive changes to Past Perfect Progressive.

For Example, She said, “I have been writing a letter.” changes to She said that she had been writing a letter.

-Past Simple changes to Past Perfect
For Example, She said, “I ate a fruit.” changes to She said that she had eaten a

-Past Progressive changes to Past Perfect Progressive.
For Example, She said, “I was writing a letter.” changes to She said that she had been writing a letter.

Past Perfect = NO CHANGE
For Example, She said, “I had eaten a fruit.” changes to She said that she had eaten a fruit.

Past Perfect Progressive = NO CHANGE
For Example, She said, “I had been teaching in a school before I moved here.” changes to She said that she had been teaching in a school since she moved here. -Will changes to Would. For Example, She said, “I will write a letter.” changes to She said that she would write a letter.
-Can changes to Could. For Example, She said, “I am eating food.” changes to She said that she was eating food.
-Must changes to had to. For Example, She said, “I must eat now.” changes to She said that she had to eat then.
-Shall changes to should. For Example, She said, “what shall I wear today?” changes to She asked what she should wear that day
-May changes to MightFor Example, She said, “How may I help you?” changes to She asked how she might help us. Excercises Go to this website here to practice
use of reported speech: http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/reported-speech#exercises

Good luck! :-)
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