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Heredity

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by

Robert Williford

on 5 December 2014

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Transcript of Heredity

Exception to Complete Dominance
Incomplete Dominance
- each allele in a heterozygous individual influences the phenotype. The result is a blend of the phenotypes of the parents.
What is Heredity?
Heredity
- the passing of genetic material from parents to offspring.
A puppy may have floppy ears like his mother and dark brown hair like his father. The traits received from the parents are a result of information store in the puppy's genetic material.

Gregor Mendel
studied the characteristics of pea plants and the inheritance of those traits from generation to generation.
Traits Depend on Inherited Factors
Mendel took two sets of pea plants: one true-breeding for yellow seed pods and one true breeding for green seed pods. He cross pollinated each plant to ensure a cross of the genes. The seeds that resulted from this were called the first generation. They all ended up with green seed pods so he called this trait
dominant
.
The yellow traits did not show up so it was called
recessive
.

What percentage of offspring will end up with dominant and what percentage will end up with recessive if he crosses the generation one plants?
Multiple Genes can Influence a Single Trait
Skin color, hair color, and eye color are a result of several genes acting together. Different combinations can result in different shades of eye color.
Genes are Passed from Parents to Offspring
Genes
- are segments of DNA found in chromosomes that give instructions for producing a certain characteristic. Each parent gives one set of genes to the offspring. The offspring has two forms of the same gene.

Alleles
- the different versions of a gene.

Two dominants =
homozygous
1 dominant and 1 recessive =
heterozygous
Genes Influence Traits
genotype
- the combination of alleles you inherited from your parents.
Heredity
In this section we will learn to analyze the inheritance of traits in individuals.
phenotype
- your observable traits
dominant
- the dominant allele contributes its phenotype if one or two copies are present in the genotype.
recessive
- the recessive allele contributes to the phenotype only when two copies of it are present.
A Single Gene can Also Influence Many Traits. The gene that makes certain tigers have white fur also makes them have blue eyes.

Environment can influence phenotype as well.
Codominance
- both of the alleles in a heterozygous individual contribute to the phenotype, but they do not blend. Instead you see both physical traits.
Full transcript