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The Great discoveries

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Alena Maskaeva

on 14 February 2014

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Transcript of The Great discoveries

The Great discoveries
11 "A"
Lyceum #33
Newton and his laws of motion
The Periodic table of Mendeleev
The Periodic Table of Mendeleev is a chemical elements classification that allows to recognize dependency of their different characteristic from the number of protons in the atomic nucleus. Although precursors to this table exist, its invention is generally credited to Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869, who intended the table to illustrate recurring ("periodic") trends in the properties of the elements. The layout of the table has been refined and extended over time, as new elements have been discovered, and new theoretical models have been developed to explain chemical behavior.
Done by Mary Okhlopkova
http://www.bestfree.ru/soft/obraz/tablicamendeleyeva-en.php
Nicolaus Copernicus and his theory.
whose work is it?
Archimedes's law
Archimedes's law is one of the main laws of a hydrostatics and a statics of gases.
In his treatise on hydrostatics, On Floating Bodies, Archimedes states: any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
Rodin Nikita
The Discovery of the Electron
Scientists worked with electricity long before they understood that current was made of electrons. The cathode tube was a prime example. By switching on some voltage, scientists could make fluorescent streams of electricity travel from the bottom part of a glass tube to the top -- but no one knew how it worked. Some thought the rays were a wave traveling through a mysterious "ether" which they thought permeated all space. Others thought the rays were streams of particles.

J.J. Thomson decided to find out for sure. Thomson was a physics professor at Cambridge University in the UK. He placed cathode tubes in electric and magnetic fields. He knew that these fields will move particles from side to side, but don't have much effect on how a wave moves. In his experiments, the cathode rays bent over to one side, so Thomson knew the cathode rays must be made of some small particle, which he dubbed a "corpuscle."


Thomson initially thought his corpuscles were much too small to be of interest to anyone outside a science lab. However, people quickly realized that electric current was in fact made of moving electrons. Since electricity is the lifeblood of everything from computers to phones to microwaves, the electron turned out to be interesting to just about everybody. Let's watch the video to know more!
The discover of radioactivity and radioactive decay
Moseev Evgeny
Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting particles of ionizing radiation. A material that spontaneously emits this kind of radiation—which includes the emission of energetic alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays—is considered radioactive.
It has been claimed that radioactivity was discovered by Abel Niepce de Saint-Victor in 1857. But it was not well publicised and was soon forgotten.[citation needed]
Radioactivity was rediscovered in 1896 by the French scientist Henri Becquerel, while working on phosphorescent materials. These materials glow in the dark after exposure to light, and he suspected that the glow produced in cathode ray tubes by X-rays might be associated with phosphorescence. He wrapped a photographic plate in black paper and placed various phosphorescent salts on it. All results were negative until he used uranium salts. The result with these compounds was a blackening of the plate. These radiations were called Becquerel Rays.
It soon became clear that the blackening of the plate had nothing to do with phosphorescence, because the plate blackened when the mineral was in the dark. Non-phosphorescent salts of uranium and metallic uranium also blackened the plate. It was clear that there is a form of radiation that could pass through paper that was causing the plate to become black.
At first it seemed that the new radiation was similar to the then recently discovered X-rays. Further research by Becquerel, Ernest Rutherford, Paul Villard, Pierre Curie, Marie Curie, and others discovered that this form of radioactivity was significantly more complicated. Different types of decay can occur, producing very different types of radiation. Rutherford was the first to realize that they all occur in accordance with the same mathematical exponential formula (see below), and Rutherford and his student Frederick Soddy were first to realize that many decay processes resulted in the transmutation of one element to another. Subsequently, the radioactive displacement law of Fajans and Soddy was formulated to describe the products of alpha and beta decay.
The early researchers also discovered that many other chemical elements besides uranium have radioactive isotopes. A systematic search for the total radioactivity in uranium ores also guided Pierre Curie and Marie Curie to isolate a new element polonium and to separate a new element radium from barium. The two elements' chemical similarity would otherwise have made them difficult to distinguish.
The discovery of radioactive elements in the 1890s opened the way for new dating techniques that suggested an age for Earth of several billion years.
Pierre Curie and Marie Curie
Titov Artyom
Klimina Vera 11A
Newton's law of universal gravitation
Newton's law of universal gravitation states that any two bodies in the universe attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. This is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Newton called induction. It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton's work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("the Principia"), first published on 5 July 1687.

Dynamite
is an explosive material based on nitroglycerin, using diatomaceous earth, or another absorbent substance such as powdered shells, clay, sawdust, or wood pulp. Dynamites using organic materials such as sawdust are less stable and such use has been generally discontinued. Dynamite was invented by the Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel in Geesthacht, Germany, and patented in 1867. Dynamite is a high explosive, which means its power comes from detonation rather than deflagration. Dynamite is mainly used in the mining, quarrying, construction, and demolition industries, and it has had some historical usage in warfare. However the unstable nature of nitroglycerin, especially if subjected to freezing, has rendered it obsolete for military uses. Lauren Morris familiarity with dynamite led to metaphoric uses, such as saying that a particular issue is "political dynamite."
Alina
Bagno Elena
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