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Science Final Review

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Megan Comer

on 5 May 2010

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Transcript of Science Final Review

Science Final Review
By: Megan Comer Earth Science Life Science Forces and Motion Space Science Moon Phases New Moon Waxing Crescent First Quarter Moon Waxing Gibbous Full Moon Waning Gibbous Third Quarter Moon Waning Crescent Moon Phases happen
because of the
perspective the Earth
has of the moon. Tides are formed from the gravitational
pull that Moon and Sun have on the earth. In space, distance is measured
in number of light years. While, Lunar eclipses are when the sun, earth and moon are in a line (in that order), but light is blocked by the earth from hitting the moon, causing it to yet again seem to disappear. A solar eclipse is when the sun, earth and moon are in line, but the moon is in between the earth and the sun, which makes it seem to disappear. Spiral Galaxy- When a galaxy has arms outstretching from an "eye" in the middle. Elliptical Galaxy- usually a
bright spherical galaxy. Irregular Galaxy- any other type of galaxy
found in the universe. Life Cycle of a Star-
All stars start out in a nebula, and
then become a proton star. Next, they either
become an average star or a massive star. After spending most of their life as this, average stars become Red Giants, and massive stars become Red Super Giants. Red Giants then become become white or black dwarfs because of a Nova, which is how they end their lives. Red Super Giants go through a Super Nova, and become either a neutron star or a black hole, depending on their size. A comet is made up of
ice, gas and dust. On the other hand, a meteroid is remnants of other space material, floating throughout space. A meteor is a meteoroid
that has entered
Earth's atmosphere Finally, a meteorite
is a meteor that has hit
Earth's surface. Seasons are formed by the revolution
of the Earth around the Sun, where the direct
suns rays are at during a certain time period. Days and Nights are caused
by the rotation of the earth
on its axis. A year happens when
the Earth has made one
revolution around the
sun.This takes around
365 days.
Asexual reproduction is when
a single organism reproduces
to make an offspring. The offspring
have the exact same genetic DNA
as their parent. While sexual
reproduction is
when two organism
mate to form offspring.
The offspring get
different traits from both parents. An example of natural selection
would be giraffes. As time went on, all giraffes became taller and taller. This is because as giraffes would feed, the taller giraffes would have less competition for food at the tops of trees, therefore they lived longer. The trait of tallness was passed down through generations, while the short gene was not, since the shorter giraffes would die and not be able to reproduce. This process of natural selection is why all giraffes today are very tall.
Seasons, Day and Night,
Year Eclipses Comets, meteoroids,
meteors, meteorites Galaxies Stars Spring Tide Neap Tide Convection Currents Convection currents happen because
of the different densities of material
inside of the earth. Warmer materials
near the core of the earth rise up, and
the cooler material already near the crust
sinks. This cycle goes on and on, forming
convection currents. Theories The Theory of Continental
Drift says that the continents are
moving apart from one another,
and are plowing through the ocean floor as they go. The Theory of Seafloor Spreading states that at a divergent plate boundary, new crust is being created. This new crust pushes older crust away from the boundary, causing the movement of the continents? The Theory of Plate Tectonics
states that the Earth's crust is
divided into tectonic plates,
and these plates are moving. Law of Superposition The Law of
Superposition states
the oldest layers of
rock are on the
bottom of layers found
in the earth and the
youngest layers are on
top. While the bedrock is the oldest
layer of rock in this diagram. The Diabase is the youngest
layer of rock in the diagram. Life Science Life Science Alfred Wegener was a German meteorologist who
proposed the Theory Of Continental Drift.
Wegener's idea changed science forever,
because it started off the creation of Theory of Plate
Tectonics, which is how modern-day scientists
explain why our planet looks like it does. Boundaries At a convergent plate boundary,
two tectonic plates are coming
together. Here, mountains,
trenches, and subduction zones
will occur, which are major signs
that there is a convergent plate
boundary. Oceanic and Continental
Plate colliding. Continental and Continental Plates colliding. At a divergent plate boundary,
two plates are pulling apart from
each other. Magma then seeps through the crack, and eventually
forms mountains. Undersea mountains are a good indicator of a divergent boundary, along with many earthquakes, and the forming of new crust right along the boundary. At a transform plate boundary,
two plates are basically rubbing together. Earthquakes are the best indicator for a transform boundary. Faults At a normal fault, the direction
of the land is down, and tension forces pull out, causing the rocks to break apart. At a reverse fault, the direction
of the land is up, and compression forces push the land together, causing the rock
to break. Finally, at a "strike-slip" or "transverse" fault, the direction of the land is moving side to side. Shear forces move the land and cause it to break. The main layers of the Earth are
the inner core, outer core, mantle,
asthenosphere, and finally the lithosphere. These layers can be told apart from one another because of the different densities each one has. For example, the core is a solid ball of iron, while the mantle is more of a "silly putty" type of material. If two cars are traveling next to
each other, and are going the exact same speed, to each car it appears that the other car is not moving. Acceleration is when the
balance of forces acting upon
an object is change, causing
either positive acceleration or negative acceleration. Velocity is an objects
displacement divided by
the time it took the
displacement to happen. Speed is the time it takes
an object to get from one
point to another. If a person see's a bird fly by them,
to the human it appears the bird is
moving, but to the bird it appears
that the human is moving. I In space, distance is measured in
light years. Light years are defined
by long it takes light to travel.
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