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THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
Transcript of THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
enzymes The Seconnd Line Defence Macrophage
Used in both non- specific and specific defence. Found in interstitial fluid. Destroys Microoraganisms by eating them whole Neutrophil
Ingests bacteria by phagocytosis (eating). releases bleach-like chemicals that kill invading pathogens. Natural Killer Cell Deystroys virus-infected body cells and cancer cells. This is done by releasing chemicals that poke holes in teh cell's membrane causing it to explode and die. Mast Cell
secretes histamine, which stimulates blood vessel dialation and blood flow to the damaged area. Very important alergetic reactions. Interfuron
Specialized protiens produced by cells that are infected with a virus. interfuron stops other cells from being infected. Interfuron are non-specific meaning it is effective against a large variety of viruses please excuse my spelling The Third Line of Defence Helper T Cell Cytotoxic T Cell Plasma Cell B Cell A type of Lymphocyte that detects infection, and secrete chemicals that call help from the T cells and B cells. A type of Lymphocyte that detects and destroys body cells infected with a specific pathogen. This is type are of lymphocyte that is specialized to recongnize a specific forgin antigen. A plasma cell is an activated B cell that secreates antibodies that will help kill off the invaders Memory Cell This activated B or T cell remains inteh body after the inital exposure to a specific pathogen. should the invaider ever enter the body agian the momory cells produce more plasma cells to attack the invader Macrophage Displays the antigens of a pathogens that it has eaten. This display activates a helper T cell that recongizes teh specific antigens altering it to stimulate B and T cells. the infalmmatory responce imagine u get a cut on your skin, the firt thing your body does to prevent a bacteria from entering the body is by sending for mast cells which release histamine. This causes the area to sweal and open the blood vessel more for blood to flow to the area. then the area becomes inflamed and red.
next the macrophages and the neutrophil coem and consume the invaiding bacteria. Cell-Mediated Immunity You have caught some sort of virus and several of your body cells are infected with the virus.
first your macrophages with eat one of the viruses and desplays antogen molecules which a helper T cell will hook on to and send chemical messages to the rest of the body and now there are two parts.
Cytotoxic T cells are called into action and destroy body cells that have been infected with the virus. They do this by useing periforn to punch holes into the cell causing it to explode Humoral Immunity This time the signal is sent out to B cells which hook on too the virus with its antegen receptors and then muliplys dramaticly to make more B cells to help attack the other virus molecules.
The B cells hav the obility to turn into a plasma cell which produces just over 2000 antibodies to attack the invaders. the rest of the B cells that did not transform into plasma cells, turn into memory cells which remember the type of antibody need ed to fight of this partictular virus, so that it the same virus ever tryes to enter the body agian the memory cells can quickyproduce many antibodies Vactionations all a vactionation is: putting a small or dead amount of the virus into your body, too little for it to be harmfull.
But the body treats the invaders the same as any with the humoral immunity system. which then keeps a copy of the antogen needed to distroy the virus incase the real virus ever enters the body. Thx for watching