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Earth's Interior

Prezi about Earth's Interior
by

E Andrews

on 13 August 2015

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Transcript of Earth's Interior

The layers of Earth’s Interior by:
Chemical composition
Physical composition
The approximate temperatures of each layer
Plasticity and how it can be described By the end of this prezi you should know... Earth’s Interior 8.4 Layers Defined by Composition Major zones of interior determined
by chemical composition

Core, Mantle, Crust Earth’s Inner Core Definition
Solid, most inner layer of Earth

Composition
Solid Iron (Fe) and Nickel (Ni)
Solid and dense because of all of the pressure on it

Presence of Fe may explain Earth’s magnetic field Depth
5150 km or 3200 mi
Temperature
5000ºC or 9032°F
Compare w/ Sun’s Core Temperature
15,000,000° C or 27,000,000° F Earth’s Outer Core Definition
Liquid, molten layer of Earth’s interior surrounding the Inner core
Composition
Molten Iron (Fe) and Nickel (Ni)
Molten because of high temperature Depth Below Earth’s Surface
2900 km or 1802 mi
Temperature
Outer Core closest to the Mantle= 2200°C or 3992°F
Outer Core closest to the Inner Core = 5000 ° C or 9032 °F Earth’s Mantle Definition
Layer of the Earth that extends from the bottom of the Crust to the Earth’s Core
Composition
Silicon (Si), Oxygen (O2), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg)
Upper most Mantle - peridotite rock
Density
More dense than Earth’s outermost layer, the Crust Depth Below Earth’s Surface
32km - 2900 km
20 mi - 1802 mi
Temperature Range
870°C - 2200°C
1600 ° F - 3992 °F Earth’s Mantle Miscellaneous Information Has plasticity- The ability of a solid to flow like a liquid
Lower Mantle Contains more Iron (Fe) than the upper Mantle
Makes up over 82% of Earth’s volume Mantle’s Convection Currents Because of unequal heating, convection currents happen
Hot mantle materials rises toward the Crust
Cools near the Crust
Cold mantle material sinks toward Core
Heats up near Core Moho Definition
The boundary between Earth’s Crust and the Mantle

Depth
Between 5 and 75 km deep (3 and 47 mi)

Miscellaneous Information
Discovered by Andrija Mohorovicic, 1909
Noticed a change in seismic wave speed
Speed up 50 km below surface Andrija Mohorovicic Croatian Meteorologist & Seismologist Earth’s Crust Definition
Thin outermost layer of Earth
Composition
Three types of solid rock
Igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
Oxygen (O2), Silicon (Si), Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), Calcium (Ca), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Titanium (Ti), Hydrogen (H2) Earth’s Continental Crust Definition
Section of the Earth’s Crust that makes up the Earth’s landmasses
Composition
Mostly granitic rock
Thickness (depth- starts at surface)
Varies, average = 40 km
Thickest under mountains
Age (miscellaneous)
Can be as old as 4 billion yrs old! Earth’s Oceanic Crust Definition
Section of the Earth’s Crust under the ocean floor

Composition
Mostly igneous rocks: basalt and gabbro
Thickness (Depth- starts at surface)
Average = 7km

Miscellaneous
Age
180 million yrs or less
Density
More dense than continental crust Lithosphere Definition
Topmost solid part of the earth
Composition:
Broken up into large sections called lithospheric plates
Consists of Crust & uppermost part of Mantle
Misc. Info.
Average thickness = 100 km LithosphereMiscellaneous Information Seven major lithospheric plates
Pacific plate - LARGEST
North American plate
South American plate
Eurasian plate
African plate
Indo-Australian plate
Antarctic plate Asthenosphere Definition
Soft, comparatively weaker layer than lithosphere
Depth
Lies beneath lithosphere
Temperature
Pressure conditions cause a bit of melting
Rocks close enough to melting temp, deform rocks
Like hot wax
Misc
Lower lithosphere & asthenosphere = upper Mantle Seismic Waves Definition
Shockwaves produced by earthquakes
3 Types
Primary
Secondary
Surface
We’ll discuss further later…w/ Equakes Primary Waves Definition
Fastest type of seismic wave, which can travel through solids, liquids, and gases
Speed up in the Inner Core, which is solid Secondary Waves Definition
Type of seismic wave that can travel through solids but not through liquids and gases
Completely stop at the Outer Core, which is molten/liquid Seismograph Definition
Instrument that detects and measures seismic waves
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