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HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF MODELS OF THE UNIVERSE

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Stefan Blazevic

on 16 July 2015

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Transcript of HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF MODELS OF THE UNIVERSE

240BC
140 AD
384-322 BC
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF MODELS OF THE UNIVERSE
Aristotle (384-322BC)
Aristarchus (240 BC)
Aristarchus is an astronomer and ancient greek mathematician from Ionia who claimed that the center of the universe was in fact the Sun and not the Earth, along with the other plants revolving around the Sun. He also stated that the stars were distant suns that remained unmoved and that the size of the universe was much larger than his contemporaries believed.
Ptolemy (140 AD)
COPERNICUS (1473-1542)
Copernicus had two main reasons for asserting that the Sun was the center of our solar system.

1. While the Ptolemaic model was very good at predicting the positions of the planets, it wasn't precise, and over the centuries its predictions got worse and worse.

2. Copernicus didn't like the fact that the Ptolemaic model had big epicycles to explain the retrograde motions of the planets. He knew that this could be explained instead by having the Earth also moving around the Sun.
BRAHE (1546-1601)
Brahe plotted all his observations of the heavens using instruments of his own design. He was extremely thorough, so the predictions he made were much more accurate than many other methods. His model of the universe was both helio, and geo centric, with the planets revolving around the sun, and the sun revolving around the earth. IN his studies of the heavens, he witnessed and record two supernova, which opposed Ptolemy’s idea that the stars were unchanging.
KEPLER (1571-1630)
Kepler was a mathematician who had his own views of the universe- that planetary orbits were based on geometric shapes. Kepler was able to use Brahe’s records for his own research from which he finally developed his own heliocentric model. He said that the planets movements around the sun were elliptical though. He also believed that the closer the planets were to the sun, the faster they orbited. Using a model of this, he was able to predict motions of the universe fairly accurately.
GALILEI (1564-1642)
Galilei was able to make many observations not yet made, because of the invention of the telescope. Galilei made his own telescopes through which he proved the geocentric model to be incorrect.
Aristotle's model of the universe was designed with the thought of the Earth being the center of the universe, with the planets and Sun orbiting around us. The model he created consisted of an earth center, with 55 concentric spheres rotating around the Earth demonstrating the movements of the planets and stars.
Ptolemy model of the universe was a refinement of Aristotle's model. Ptolemy’s major contribution, however, was that his model could so accurately explain the motions of heavenly bodies, it became the model for understanding the structure of the solar system. His model lasted the longest of any, because he had the support of the church.
1473-1542
1546-1601
1571-1630
1564-1642
Newton expanded on the work of Galileo to better define the relationship between energy and motion. In particular, he developed the following concepts:

change in velocity = acceleration -> caused by force
inertia = resistance to change in velocity and is proportional to the mass of the object
momentum = quantity of motion energy and is equal to mass times velocity
law of conservation of momentum = total momentum (mass x velocity) of an interaction is conserved -> is the same before and after
NEWTON(1642-1727)
1642-1727
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