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Learning Styles

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Alice Graham

on 3 December 2013

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Transcript of Learning Styles

One of the challenges for educators is to understand their students, and how they learn. The millennial generation includes people born from 1980-2000.

Millennials are accustomed to quick access to information and answers, and visual presentations. They expect information to be relevant and to be communicated in short periods of time.
The hidden curriculum is the implicit set of values, knowledge, and standards that is passed from instructor to student. A large part of the hidden curriculum includes the apprenticeship.
Millennials are critical to the future workforce. Therefore, their education and training must be effective.
Millennials have integrated technology into their lives more so than any previous generation.

Problem: The discontinuities between the previous generation and millenials due to technology may lead to miscommunication and misunderstanding

"Digital immigrants" (members of the previous generation) must adapt old methods to accommodate the "digital natives," such as millennials (Prensky, 2001).
The millennial generation is accustomed to information technology and rapid feedback. It is imperative that educators adapt and enhance learning techniques to optimize effectiveness. This presentation offers information to help educators train and prepare health-care professionals. Topics "under the microscope" present facts and videos designed to help the educator.
The characterization of the Millenials is based on observation and perception as well as on self-reports and preference surveys (Dillulo, 2011).

-The current model of the Millenial student includes positive and negative characteristics and is often over-simplified (DiLullo, 2011).
-Some characteristics are: special, sheltered, confident, conventional, pressured, team-oriented, achieving, ability to multi-process, narcissistic, feeling of entitlement, unmotivated, impatient, unprepared for individual life (Howe & Strauss, 2003)
-The millenial generation is the most diverse generation in history
The Millenial population is the first generation to experience such a wide range of teaching methods, which may have lead to a loss in critical thinking (Spellings, 2006)
Classifying students by preferred learning styles (e.g., audio vs. visual learner) is used by some educators to develop effective educational approaches. The
meshing hypothesis
indicates that after determining the learning styles of the student population, instruction should be geared towards students. However,

(Pashel, 2008). There are, however, learning techniques (e.g., repetition, active engagement, reinforcement) that enhance teaching.

Despite the lack of empirical evidential support for learning styles or the meshing hypothesis, many educators use Self Report surveys and preferences to guide their teaching.

Because of the diversity within the Millennial generation, the learning styles approach is
for large groups. Instead, it is valuable to consider effective teaching techniques (see video in brackets).
U.S. employers report the key skills for successful performance in the workplace are:
Critical Thinking
Oral Communications
Professionalism and Work Ethic
Teamwork and Collaborations
Written Communications
(Casner-Lotto & Barrington, 2006)

These skills should be developed during training and education.

Lapses in professionalism, knowledge, and conduct have serious implications in health-care professions. It is imperative to include development of appropriate behaviors, effective communication skills, teamwork, and informed decision-making in the education of health-care professionals.
The video explains the value of: repetition, visualization, reward, and active engagement and involvement. These techniques are useful for all students.
To navigate through the tutorial,
use the


arrow key to move forward
in the tutorial
and left arrow key

to move back.

under the microscope provides information about topics indicated on the heading.

under the microscope indicate a video "mini-lesson" about application of different techniques.
To play the videos, click play.

Hughes, J. (2000). Ferris Bueller's day off. [Hollywood, Calif.]: Paramount Pictures.

Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2008). Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9(3), 105-119. doi: citeulike-article-id:6456651 doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6053.2009.01038.x

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants Part 1. On The Horizon - The Strategic Planning Resource for Education Professionals, 1-6. doi: citeulike-article-id:2988851

A test of leadership [electronic resource] : charting the future of U.S. higher education / a report of the Commission appointed by Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings. (2006). [Washington, D.C: U.S. Dept. of Education.

Casner-Lotto J., & Barrington, L. (2006). Are they really ready to work? Employer's perspectives on the basic knowledge and applied skills of new entrants to the 21st century workforce. 1st Ed. Washington DC : Conference Board, Inc. , Partnership for the 21st century skills, Corporate Voices for Working Families, Society for Human Resource Management. 64 p.

DiLullo, C., McGee, P., & Kriebel, R.M. (2011). Demystifying the millenial student: A reassessment in measures of character and engagement in professional education. Anotomical Sciences Education, 4, 214-226.

Friedlander, M. J., Andrews, L., Armstrong, E. G., Aschenbrenner, C., Kass, J. S., Ogden, P., . . . Viggiano, T. R. (2011). What Can Medical Education Learn From the Neurobiology of Learning? Academic Medicine, 86(4), 415-420 410.1097/ACM.1090b1013e31820dc31197.

Howe, N., & Strauss, W. (2003). Millennials go to college: strategies for a new generation on campus: recruiting and admissions, campus life, and the classroom: American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers

Shaping millennial professionals:
Learning styles and techniques

Created by:
Alice Graham & Neil E. Grunberg Ph.D.


is no support for this concept
Simple additions or technological adaptations to teaching methods can be very useful for the millenial student.
To satisfy the millenial expectation for feedback (e.g.
using Social Networking
) to help students organize and discuss information on a broader scale in a public arena
Using Personal Learning Networks (PLNs)
such as note taking Google Docs, etc, can help students organize information and allows students to permanently store and share documents amongst their peers
directing students to alternative internet resources
, students are more inclined to further investigate topics when given direction on where to access it

(DiLullo, 2011)
Full transcript