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Inhalants: Abuse, Addiction and Adolescents

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Jenn Briggs

on 29 April 2011

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Transcript of Inhalants: Abuse, Addiction and Adolescents

Inhalants: Abuse, Addicton and Adolescents
Conclusion
Scope
Popularity
Complications
Pharmacology
Categories of Users
Treatment
major substance for abuse in US because of accessibility
proximity
cost
virtually NO legal restrictions
http://www.nationalpost.com/life/health/story.html?id=651a5106-acb7-4f13-8cf4-01ddb1db6b49
http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=620644n
Unique Treatment Needs
As identifited by Dr. Neil Rosenberg and Dr. Charles Sharp
Transient Social
Chronic Social
Transient Isolate
Chronic Isolate
Street Terms
53 known terms
Common terms:
Huff
Hippie Crack
Air Blast
Moon Gas
Poor Man's Pot
Whippets
When inhaled, the chemicals in these prodcuts:
*enter the bloodstream quickly and with little to no interference
*cross the blood-brain barrier quickly - effects achieved w/in seconds
Categories
volatile organic solvents
aerosols
volatile nitrites
general anesthetics
Media focus seems to be on U.S.
but it is a world-wide problem.
In Europe, 1/7 adolescents age 15-16 abuse inhalants
Nationally: NSDUH (2005)
inhalants rank 3rd drug of choice
following marijuana and prescription drugs
In 2004, Wilson-Tucker & Dash report:
most commonly abused drug for adolescents
after alcohol and tobacco
Current Patterns Locally: MWYRBS
inhalants abused by small population
8% lifetime
3% last 30 days
Younger students more likely to use
mean for first time users: 13 years of age
average age for abusers: 16.6
Boys:Girls 3:1
Solvent toxicity dependent on concentration in abused compound
Compounds inhaled recreationally are ALL toxic:
*most of what is known is based on short-term effects
*little research on chronic exposure
THUS: understanding complete pharmacology is difficult as compounds can contain dozens of chemicals
Administration
direct inhalation from a container (sniffing/snorting)
direct inhalation from a plastic bag (bagging)
direct inhalation from a soaked rag (huffing)
Fumes from areosols inhaled directly or sprayed into mouth (huffing, whippets)
Some try to boil substance to inhale fumes: DANGER if flammable
Effects
Stage 1:
sense of euphoria, visual/auditory hallucinations, excitement
Stage 2:
confusion, disorientation,
loss of self-control,
blurred vision, tinnitus,
mental dullness
Stage 3:
sleepiness,ataxia (loss of coordination),
diminished reflexes, nystagmus (involuntary eyeball shaking from side to side)
Stage 4:
seizures,paranoia,
bizarre behavior, tinnitus, possible death SSDS)
Possible Consequences:
liver damage
cardiac arrhythmia
kidney damage or failre
changes in lung function
respiratory depression
reduction in blood cell production
possible permanent brain damage (inhalant induced organic psychosis)
vomitting and aspiration
death
psychological addiction and physiological dependence does occur
chronic abusers likely to require greater doses for effect
some users who stop for a period of time report intense cravings
Gateway
for a minority of users,
inhalant abuse may be a marker for risk of other drug use
SAMHSA 2007: 17% of users began drug use with inhalants.
Detox:
chemicals are stored in the fatty tissue
residual effects may be experienced for some time
detox will need to be longer than for the typical drug abuser
Symptoms:
sleep disturbance
nausea
tremors
irritability
sweating
halluciantions
Abuse often begins early (sometimes as early as elementary school - neurological damage, academic/life-skills issues
extended period of care necessary
non-confrontational
supportive
action therapies beneficial as they encourage multisensory action

xxDangerxx
Lack of awareness
Possible brain damage or death (1st, 10th, or 100th use)
Suicide?
fire/explosion
http://jezebel.com/5365234/intervention-follows-up-on-huffing-addict
Full transcript