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Child Sexual Abuse: A Hidden Probem?

Looking at the research on CSA and sexual violence from a gender perspective
by

christine wekerle

on 10 August 2016

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Transcript of Child Sexual Abuse: A Hidden Probem?

Child Sexual Abuse: A Hidden Probem?
Child Sexual Abuse
US Juvenile Offenders and Victims 2014 National Report
(ojjdp.gov)
Sexual Abuse Definition: Involvement of child in sexual activity, either forcefully or without force, including contacts for sexual purposes, prostitution, pornography, or other sexually exploitive activities

Completed after each of 6 data collections
Re-analyzed by 1+ Clinical Score on TSCC subscore:
Small sign increase in "upsetting" not "distressing"

Consistently high "would participate again' among higher trauma symptom and highr maltx severity
TED Ed Lessons on Risk and Resilience in Youth Suicidality lesson:
http://ed.ted.com/on/6nReRcN0

TED Ed Lessons on ACES, child maltreatment, and outcomes
http://ed.ted.com/on/iOyQVfhd
Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Longitudinal Study
(Wekerle & Colleagues)
Randomly selected cases from child protection on-going services case list
Youth, age 14-17, assessed every 6 months for 2-3 years
N=561 tested at initial assessment
n=199 (35%) self-reported CSA, including n=133 (67%) females and n=66 (33%) males (
Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire
, Tanaka et al., 2012 ; CTQ; Bernstein et al., 19997)
CEVQ: Before grade school, n=19 females; n=12 males
Grades 1-5: n=45 females, n=16 males
Grades 6-8: n=33 females; n= 10 males
High School: n=55 females; n=16 males
Primary offender non-relative male/father/father figure

OUTCOMES (vs. non-CSA group):
CSA group > likely than non-CSA to also experience Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, Emotional Neglect (CTQ)
CSA youth > likely to report not using protection regularly
CSA youth > likely to report sexual minority status
CSA youth > likely to report sex for partner approval motives
Police reported?
Resilience is Real
Reflections on
Child Sexual Abuse
Theo Fleury, NHL star on hockey coach, Graham James, convicted sex offender:
"The direct result of my being abused was that...He destroyed my belief system. I didn't trust what I was thinking and feeling...The most influencial adult in my life at the time was telling me that what I thought was wrong was right. I no longer had faith in my own judgment..... " (p. 27,
Playing with Fire
)
Among Child Welfare-Involved Youth
US NCANDS
(2013)
Alleging maltreatment for 6.4 million children
Overall maltx rate 9.1/1000 children
9% CSA rate
US NatSCEV (2015) (past yr; ages 14+)
Sex Abuse - low - 0% males
Sex assault
14.3% females; 6% males (peer > known adult > stranger)

Rape
12.9% females; 5.1% males

Sex Harassment
20. 5% females; 3.4% males

Internet Sex Talk
13.9% females; 5.6% males

Polyvictims - Any sex offense
4.9X any physical assault
4.0X any maltreatment
3.7X any property crime
4.2X any witnessing violence

US CDC YRBS 2013
7.3% forced intercourse
10.5% females
4.2% males
10.4% sexual dating violence
14.4% females
6.2% males
US National Incident-Based Reporting System
Juveniles victims in 64% of sexual assaults
Modal age for sexual assault victims
Females - Age 14
Males - Age 4
Forced fondling
62% male; 55% female
Forced sodomy
30% male; 5% female
Forced rape
5% male; 35% female
YouTube: ResilienceInYouth
Twitter: ResilienceInYouth@ResilienceInYou

International Network of Child and Adolescent Resilienc
e (www.in-car.ca)
International Journal of Child and Adolescent Resilienc
e (annual; open access)

March 2016, Hamilton Convention Centre:
Picturing Wellness: From Adversity to Resilience
Twitter: @DrWekerle
#picturingwellness
#childabuseprevention
#resilienceinyouth

GLOBAL ESTIMATES
18% for females
7.6% for males (Stoltenborgh et al., 2011)
Sibling 2X likely to also report CSA (MacMillan et al., 2013)
2-9% official CSA substanitated
5-15% high school youth self-reports
35% CPS youth self-reports in-line with Juvenile Justice Youth
CSA query need for at-risk groups
Male CSA critical area of gap
Missing CSA cases
Youth poly-victims
Juvenile Justice-involved youth
76% boys:
Polyvictims
(n=101)
28% CSA; 18% witness CSA
Higher re-experiencing, avoidance, hyper-arousal
Higher substance use, anger, somatic complaints, suicide ideation, depression/anxiety (Ford et al., 2013)

Dr. Christine Wekerle
McMaster University
wekerc@mcmaster.ca
& MAP Research Team
(M. Boyle; D. Goodman; B. Leslie; E. Leung; H. MacMillan; B. Moody; Trocme, N.; R. Waechter; A-M. Wall)
2015 UK Children's Commissioner Report
Pre-Post Reactivity
Questionnaire

Into the Light, Issue 198,
International Innovation
openaccess
Full transcript