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Key Note: What research on classoom practice can tell us about endangered learners

Key note: RECIPE conference, Portugal, September 2015

Lisbeth M Brevik

on 4 October 2015

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Transcript of Key Note: What research on classoom practice can tell us about endangered learners

Education at a Glance (OECD, 2014)
In some European countries, only 40% of students who entered upper secondary school (16–18 years) completed their education
In Norway, more than 90% of the students continue on to upper secondary education
71%–74% of these graduate (Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training, 2013)
Only 40% of vocational students graduate within the stipulated time.
What research on classroom practice can tell us about endangered learners

Three studies
Teacher Professional Development
The findings are in line with international research saying that the most motivated and effective teachers seek professional development, while the weaker ones are confident that they already teach well (Borko, 2004; Pressley, 2008).
Mayor of Oslo,
Fabian Stang
At the opening of a new secondary school, he asked the students to reflect on their future:

«Statistics show that at least one third of the students in upper secondary school will drop out. Will that third please raise their hands?»
Reading tests
Differentiation & classroom research
Lisbeth M Brevik, University of Oslo
E-mail: l.m.brevik@ils.uio.no

“All teachers must be prepared to take into account the different experiences and academic needs of
a wide range of students
as they plan and teach”
(Banks et al. 2005, p. 233).
“Education shall be adapted to the abilities and aptitudes of
the individual pupil
, apprentice and training candidate”
(Norwegian Education Act, 1998).
International research
Lisbeth M. Brevik
Associate professor, author, and former teacher
Professor Hilda Borko, Stanford University
Study I
Study III
Study: Brevik (2014)
Studies: Brevik, Olsen, & Hellekjær (under review); Brevik & Hellekjær (under review)
Study II
Classroom observation: English classes
Vocational studies
General studies
: What do you do first?
Student 1
: Cut the materials, 8mm steel plates.
: Then what do you do?
Student 1
: Spot weld it. Start with the back plate, position 1.
Student 2
: I would place plate no. 2. It’s the bottom plate.
Student 3
: Then I would place the side plates, position 4.
Student 4:
I would spot weld position no. 3.
Student 5
: Cut and spot weld the front of the shovel, position no. 5.
Student 6
: I would make the brackets position 6 and 7 and spot weld
them to position no. 2.
Student 7
: Fully weld the parts together. And remember the special
electrodes, when you weld the front steel to the rest of the
Student 8
: Grind it and paint it, to get a good surface.
: So the drawing was easy to understand?
: Yes.
Student 6:
If a drawing or text in English concerns for example the workshop, then I read closely. But if I am going to read something from a book or a couple of pages that has nothing to do with what I do, then it becomes somewhat boring and I just read.
: Even though you started by saying that you knew nothing about the U.S., you did.
: Yes … well, but these are things that come gradually.
The Nike
mode of reading
"Just do it!"
The Sherlock Holmes mode of reading
The two modes of reading were suggested by Professor P David Pearson in a personal conversation 23/10-13
Learning strategies
Search for clues and draw inferences
Classroom research
Study: Brevik (2015)
The mode of reading continuum (Brevik, 2014)
The Quadrant Model (Edwards, 2015)
Five steps of gradual release of responsibility from the teacher to the student (not necessarily covered in this order):

1. Naming and describing the strategy
[all five classrooms]
2. Modelling the strategy in action
[all five]
3. Using the strategy collaboratively
[all five]
4. Guiding practice using the strategy
[all five]
5. Using the strategy independently
[only vocational classes]
The gradual release of responsibility model (Duke & Pearson, 2002)
The PLATO manual of classroom observation
Pam Grossman,
Stanford University
Associate Professor
Lisbeth M Brevik, University of Oslo
P David Pearson, UC Berkeley
Professor Emerita, Anne Edwards, University of Oxford
Twelve elements of quality teaching

1. Purpose
2. Intellectual Challenge
3. Representation of Content
4. Connections to Prior Knowledge
5. Modeling/ Use of Models
6. Strategy Use and Instruction
7. Feedback
8. Classroom Discourse
9. Text-Based Instruction
10. Accommodations for Language Learning
11. Behavior Management
12. Time Management
"My favourite no"
Feedback (score 1-4)
Score 1
No feedback from teacher to student
Score 3
Procedural or substantial feedback from teacher to student or between students
Score 2
Vague feedback:
"Yes", "No", "Right!", "I agree", etc.
Score 4
More substantial feedback, that is understood and used by the student
Students' personal purpose
Source: Myhre (2014)
Banks, J. et al (2005).
Teaching diverse learners. In Linda Darling-Hammond & John Bransford (eds.),
Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should learn and be able to do
(pp. 232-274). Jossey-Bass.

Borko, H. (2004).
Professional Development and Teacher Learning: Mapping the Terrain.
Educational Researcher, 33
(8), 3–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X033008003

Brevik, L. M. (2015).
Strategies and shoes – Can we ever have enough? Teaching and using reading comprehension strategies in general and vocational programmes.
Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research
. DOI: 10.1080/00313831.2015.1075310

Brevik, L. M. (2014).
Making implicit practice explicit: How do upper secondary teachers describe their reading comprehension strategies instruction?
International Journal of Educational Research, 67,

Duke, N.K., & Pearson, P.D. (2002).
Effective practices for developing reading comprehension. In A. E. Farstrup & S. J. Samuels (Eds.),
What research has to say about reading instruction
(3rd ed.) (pp. 205–242). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Edwards, A. (2015).
Designing tasks which engage learners with knowledge. In I. Thompson (Ed),
Designing tasks in secondary education. Enhancing subject understanding and student engagement
(pp. 13–27). UK and USA:Routledge.

Grossman, P., Cohen, J., Ronfeldt, M., & Brown, L. (2014).
The test matters: The relationship between classroom observation scores and teacher value added on multiple types of assessment.
Educational Researcher, 43
(6), 293–303.

Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training (1998).
Education Act of 17 July 1998 no. 61 relating to Primary and econdary Education and Training.

Pressley, M. (2008).
Epilogue. What the Future of Reading Research Could Be. In C. C. Block & S. R. Parris, (Eds.), Comprehension Instruction.
Research-Based Best Practices
(2nd ed.) (pp. 391–413). New York: The Guilford Press.
Book for endangered learners
The importance of deep understanding (NOU2015:8)
Brevik (2014)
Brevik (2015)
In my study this was observed in the vocational classrooms only (Brevik, 2015)
Source: Grossman, Cohen,
Ronfeldt, & Brown (2014)
The University of Oslo, Blindern Campus
my office
Brevik, Olsen,
& Hellekjær
(under review)
All 21 teachers in this study said they taught reading comprehension strategies.
The outliers understand less than 20% of the reading tasks in Norwegian (L1), while understanding more than 60% of the reading tasks in English (L2). Most of these are boys in vocational programmes.
The vocational students read significantly poorer than students in general programmes.
The importance of activating background knowledge in the classroom:
The importance of relating classroom activities to the vocational study:
The PLATO manual
Source: Grossman, Cohen, Ronfeldt, & Brown (2014)
Full transcript