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Course2

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by

Annie Mercier

on 12 September 2018

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Transcript of Course2

Module 1 - Ocean Exploration
Recap Expedition 1
Great start!
Log book: 75/81 submitted
(can be filled any way you want but must be complete; next time more strict; 1 file only please)
Quiz: 75/81 completed (avg 94%)
(remember that next quizzes = 1 attempt)
*This expedition was smaller/shorter and less content-rich, so plan accordingly!

Ocean & Land Mapping
Ocean Exploration
A few ocean Instruments
Critical Thinking
Questionnaire
430 BCE
150 CE
1490
1492
1630
Hendrik Hondius
adjusted from Gerard Mercator
The way Columbus imagined the world... 75% smaller with extra wide Asia.
Claudius Ptolemy
Herodotus
Bartholomew Columbus
HMS Beagle
2nd voyage (1831-36)
HMS Challenger
https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/72085#page/1/mode/1up
1976-1977
Near the Galápagos Islands
By a team of geologists
First photos of hydrothermal vent ecosystem
Hydrothermal vents
Earlier expeditions to the Galápagos Rift had uncovered intriguing evidence for hydrothermal vents, so researchers from Scripps returned for another look in 1976 aboard ship R/V Melville (Pleiades Expedition).

A towed sensor used to measure water temperature detected a zone of water with temperatures about 0.2°C higher than the surrounding seawater.

The spike rose up to nearly 40 m above the seafloor.

Was this the plume of buoyant, venting hydrothermal fluids?

Also took pictures of empty shells (and a beer can!).
In 1977 the Galápagos Hydrothermal Expedition used ANGUS (Acoustically Navigated Geophysical Underwater System) built at Woods Hole for Project FAMOUS in 1974.

Towed by R/V Knorr at 2500 m.

Took one photo every 10 seconds.
Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) - velocity of currents
Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) - conductivity (salinity), temperature, depth
BIOMAPER - counting zooplankton with video and sonar
Corer (piston or gravity) - properties of ocean sediment
Ocean-Bottom Seismometer (OBS) - earthquakes deep below the sea
Towed Camera System "TowCam" - deep-sea imaging
Sediment Trap - catching 'marine snow' as it falls to the sea floor
MOCNESS - remote-controlled nets for catching zooplankton
Multiple Opening and Closing Net, with an Environmental Sensing System
Complete Expedition 2: The signs and effects of climate change.
Prepare for Assessment 1 (next week).
Optional: pages 30-39 of Ocean textbook.
Ocean Day survey - sign up!
Questions?
Assignments
Why did oceanography develop as an interdisciplinary science?
Why was the Challenger expedition so important to the development of oceanography?
What is the current status of knowledge of the ocean?
A few notes
(again)
Log books
To Dropbox as doc, docx, rtf or pdf files only.
Answers not evaluated (posts on "Any Questions" forum will be addressed in class).
Intended as study guide.
Disregard floating 0% (dropped) mark in grade book.
Please CC the TAs in D2L emails.
Ocean Day survey (before 1 Oct)
1872-76
Stick Charts
Significant contribution to history of cartography
Map ocean swell, waves, currents
Memorized rather than carried on a trip
Marshallese
stick charts
Mattang
are personal charts that show swell lines only (shells = unnamed islands).
Meddo
sharts identify specific islands.
Rebbilib
charts show most of the archipelago.
Rilib
is strongest "backbone" swell. Generated by northeast trade winds.
Kaelib
is weaker year round swell.
Used long ago but only comprehensively described in the 19th century.
Instructional and mnemonic devices
Retrieving equipment on the sea floor by acoustic release
Area of study
(~discipline, concentration, field of research) e.g.
Marine biology

Technique
(procedure/method used in an area of study) e.g.
Dive survey

Instrument
(tool or device used to measure, monitor, etc.) e.g.
Camera
Heads up
(Greek historian)
(Greco-Egyptian scientist/poet)
(Flemish cartographer)
Sudden appearance of white clams led scientists to first hydrothermal vent
https://www.hmschallenger.net/home
(Christopher's brother)
Darwin on board as unpaid naturalist
Not nearly as covered as flight to the moon... but probably as important!
Note that I will be away Sep 13-24
Full transcript