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Barrie Gunter (2008). Media Violence : Is There a Case for Causality?
Transcript of Barrie Gunter (2008). Media Violence : Is There a Case for Causality?
Attributes of media violence Real-world violence Artificial aggression Non-behavioural effects Audience attributes Media Violence : Is There a Case for Causality?
Barrie Gunter (2008) How is media content interpreted?
What is seen as violent?
Violence justified or not?
Realism - cartoon vs. real/realistic violence
How is the victim portrayed? Psychological characteristics and preference of persons
Different reactions to the same content 'Indirect effects'
Cognitive learning, responses, and mediation
Attitudes to violence
Emotional reponses, reduced arousal
Literacy models Link viewing and behaviour in individuals
Only measure inference of violence
Self-reporting accuracy is problematic Anecdotal is always just that
Connect mediated events (e.g. war, assassination) and violence?
Pornography and rape - which came first? Play aggression - observing children
Electric shocks as proxy
Artificial conditions always a limiting factor, but not to be disregarded Theoretical bias towards negative effects
Negative: Social learning theory, Disinhibition theory, Arousal theory, Desensitization theory
Postive/Neutral: Catharsis model, Time pre-emption theory, Ostracism theory, Predilection theory, conventionality theory Social significance of statistical significance
Larger sample = more possibility of statistical significance
Correlation is not causation
Meta-analyses: useful, but may compound methodological weaknesses Conclusions
Need to go beyond simple aggregation of data
Need to look over time and in social context
Take into account personal profiles, behaviours, social environment
Over a long time, engage, sample from time to time