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Chemistry Mission Impossible

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Matthew T

on 23 February 2016

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Transcript of Chemistry Mission Impossible

Qualitative
Non-numerical information
Quantitve
Qualitative information obtained through the use of our senses
Observation
Qualitative information obtained through the use of our senses
Interpretation
An attempt to put meaning into an observation
Description
A list of the properties of something
Mission Impossible: Chemistry
Data
Quantitative information which is experimentally-determined or obtained from references
Experiment
A test or procedure that is carried out in order to discover a result
Hypothesis
A single, unproven assumption or idea which attempts to explain why nature behaves in a specific manner. When initially put forward, hypotheses are tentative but, if they survive testing, eventually gain general acceptance
Theory
Are composed of one or more underlying hypotheses, and are broad in scope and may have subtle implications which are not foreseen when they are when they are proposed because they provide explanations for entire “fields” of related behavior. Two examples of theories are Lewis Theory and the Theory of Relativity
Law
Laws summarize the results of experiments and observations and say what will happen under the same specific conditions. Laws to not explain why something happens. Two laws are Boyle’s Law and the Law of Conservation of Energy.
Substance
Something with unique and identifiable properties.
Physical Property
A property of a substance found without making a new substance.
Chemical Property
The ability of a substance to undergo chemical reactions and change into new substances. This can be done with itself or another substance.
Extensive
A property that depends on the amount of substance present.
Intensive
A property that only depends on the nature of the substance and not how much of it is present.
Solid
Matter that is rigid, does not readily change its shape, and experiences very small changes in volume when heated or subjected to pressure.
Liquids
Change shape based on the container they are in and change slightly in volume when heated or subjected to pressure.
Gases
Conform to the shape of their container and change greatly in volume when heated or subjected to pressure.
Plasma
A gas made of charged particles at extremely high temperatures.
Super Conductor
A material that allows electricity to flow without any resistance.
Superfluid
A special kind of helium that, when at -272°C, has no frictional forces. Once in motion, it will move at a constant rate.
Super Condensed
State found in collapsed stars. Particles are squeezed into a solid having a huge density.
Hardness
Ability of a solid to resist scratching or abrasion.
Malleability
Ability to be rolled or hammered into sheets.
Ductility
Ability to be stretched into wires.
Lustre
How a surface reflects light. Ranges from metallic to dull.
Diffusion
The intermingling of fluids as a result of motion within the fluid.
Vapour
Gaseous material formed by the evaporation of a substance which boils above room temperature.
Vapour Pressure
The pressure made when a liquid evaporates, abbreviated as VP.
Boiling Temperature
The temperature at which a liquid boils.
Melting Temperature
The temperature at which a solid melts.
System
A part of the universe being studied in a given situation.
Phase
Any part of a system which is uniform in both its composition and properties.
Element
A substance which cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means.
Atom
The smallest unit of an element that still retains the properties of that element.
Molecule
A cluster of two or more atoms held together by strong electrical forces.
Ion
An atom or molecule that is electrically charged.
Particle
A small bit of matter such as an atom, ion, or molecule.
Homogeneous
A substance with only one phase.
Heterogeneous
A substance with multiple phases.
Pure Substance
A homogeneous substance with an unchangeable composition.
Mixture
A system of multiple substances in varied relative amounts.
Mechanical Mixture
Heterogeneous mixture
Solution
Homogeneous mixture.
Solvent
The part of the solution with the greatest quantity.
Aqueous
Solutions with water as the solvent.
Solute
The part of the solution with a smaller quantity than the solvent.
Compound
Pure substance consisting of one type of molecule made of multiple types of atoms.
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