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Leadership or management of change?

Qucik intro to some perspectives on change

Leo Chivers

on 9 March 2017

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Transcript of Leadership or management of change?

Leo Chivers Mar. 2017
Leading or Managing Change?
‘The teacher who sees her/himself as the hero innovator, planning to implement a favoured practice through ‘getting colleagues on board’ may well see collaboration as a euphemism for strategic manipulation.

In contrast, the collaborative approach could be seen as essential to building of trust and therefore the social capital that an organisation needs not only to nourish its members but also to produce results.’

Frost & Durrant 2002: 153
Argyris, C. & Schon, D. A. (1978) Organisational Learning: A theory of action perspective. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.
Beer, M., Eisenstat, R. A. & Spector, B. (1990) Why change programmes do not product change. Harvard Business Review. Nov-Dec.
Burnes, B. (1996) Managing Change: A strategic approach to organisational dynamics (2nd Edn). London: FT Pitman Publishing
Chan J., Goh J. & Prest K. (2015) Soft skills, hard challenges: Understanding the nature of China’s skills gap London: British Council
Conner, Daryl (1993)Managing at the Speed of Change New York: Random House.
Flood, R. L. & Jackson, M. C. (1991) Creative Problem Solving: Total Systems Intervention. Chichester: Wiley.
French, W. L. & Bell, C. H. (1984) Organization Development. Englewood NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Frost, N., 2001, Professionalism, Change and the Politics of Lifelong Learning. Studies in Continuing Education, 23/1: 2-14
Fullan, M. G. (1991) The New Meaning of Educational Change (2nd Edn). London: Cassell.
Fullan, M. (2008) Leading in a culture of change: The change puzzle. October 6, http://www.nsdc.org/connect/Fullan.pdf.
Gantt, H.L. (1910) Work, Wages and Profit, New York : The Engineering Magazine repub. (1974) As Work, Wages and Profits, Easton :Hive Publishing Co.
There may be many reasons why change decisions are made, not all of which represent sustained commitments, as there are too many, hence they can be or seem, inauthentic.

Some change is adopted naively without the implications truly being considered.

Some change is incoherent in terms of goals, beliefs, values etc aligning.

The status quo is so fixed it leaves little room for change. A number of different realities exist that need to be explored.

Change can be deep and create doubts about purpose, sense of competence and self-concept.

How do we know if a particular change is valuable, and who decides?
Observations regarding Educational Change (Fullan, 1991)
Will it have ‘first’ or ‘Second order’ effects?

First order change is concerned directly with changing front line practice to target quality, attainment targets etc… .

Second order change is concerned with increasing the capacity of others and self to achieve the first order effects.
(Hallinger 2003: 337-8)

Perhaps its about the way you think about what your target for change is….?
What type of change do you want to bring about?

‘A powerful enough guiding coalition with sufficient leadership is not created by people who have been taught to think in terms of hierarchy and management. Visions and strategies are not formulated by individuals who have learned only to deal with plans and budgets..........’

‘Someone puts together a plan, hands it to people, and then tries to hold them accountable. Or someone makes a decision and demands that others accept it….’

Kotter, JP (1996) Leading Change Harvard Business School pp29-30
Assumptions in the Leadership & Management of change?
Force field Analysis
Defined within a cultural context, and hence wholly rational analysis is not generally accepted.
Organisational Development (OD) approach emphasises goals and processes with particular emphasis on process; looks longer term; is participative, facilitated and adaptive rather than prescriptive.

Concept of organisational learning (Argyris & Schon, 1978).

Lewin’s (1951) three phases of change: unfreeze – move – refreeze.

Action research (French & Bell, 1984)

Doesn’t always face up to harsh realities or recognise constraints?
Soft Systems Model of Change
Systematic, Logical and rational approach to problem-solving
Clear objectives can be identified , and plans formulated to achieve them. 3 distinct phases:

Description – diagnosing the situation, understanding what is involved, setting the objectives for the change.
Options– generating options for change, selecting most appropriate, thinking about what might be done.
Implementation – putting feasible plans into practice, monitoring results.

Not always good at identifying politics and resistance, and hence cultural issues can prevent successful implementation.
Hard Systems Model of Change (Flood & Jackson, 1991)
Criticisms of strictly planned approaches (HARD) :

We live in chaotic, turbulent times
Emphasis on isolated, incremental change
Assumption that common agreement can be reached
Assumes that one type of change is suitable for all orgns, all situations and all times

Emergent approach stresses the developing and unpredictable nature of change, as it unfolds through the interplay of multiple variables – e.g. Personalities and cultures .
Planned & Emergent /Hard & Soft approaches to change
Throughout periods of changes, which is just about all the time for a good organization, leaders need to concentrate on having their people go from change avoidance to change acceptance. There are five steps accompanying change according to Conner, (1993):

Denial - cannot foresee any major changes
Anger at others for what they're putting me through
Bargaining - work out solutions, keep everyone happy
Depression - is it worth it? doubt, need support
Acceptance - the reality
Change is a process rather than a definable
object or entity.....
but how does it make us feel?

How skilled are you at coping with change?

How much routine do you have in your life?
What happens if your routine changes?
How do children/families/colleagues you work
with react to your changing?

Remember – if you change, it changes things for others. This may not always be welcome.
How do we feel about change?
“We are living in a society where change has become the only constant, which leads to new challenges for the professions. Change is likely to have occurred in the legal structure in which they work, the organisation in which they work, and the technical detail of the specific field in which they operate. The claim to expertise is then doubly challenged, first, by questioning of expertise by different social groups, and second, by the pace of organisational and knowledge-based change they face.” (Frost, 2001)

‘The more things change, the more they remain the same.’ Alphonse Karr – Les Guêpes (January 1849)
We must always change, renew, rejuvenate ourselves; otherwise we harden

What has been will be again, what has been done will be done again; there is nothing new under the sun.

Ecclesiastes 1:9. 163

There is nothing permanent except change
Our attitudes to change

Some constructs that could help – hard & soft models

Identifying areas of change

Educational change

Our leadership & management roles
Session Outline

Grint K (2010) Leadership: A very short introduction Oxford UP
HALLINGER, P. (2003): Leading Educational Change: reflections on the practice of instructional and transformational leadership, Cambridge Journal of Education, 33:3, 329-352
House, R. J. (1971) A path-goal theory of leader effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly. Sept. Pp321-338.
Kotter, J. P. (1995) Leading change: why transformation efforts fail. Harvard Business Review. March-April.
Lewin, K. (1951) Field Theory in Social Science. New York: Harper & Row.
Marion, R (1999) The Edge of Organization. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Senior, B. (1997) Organisational Change. London: Pitman Publishing
Schein, E (1985) Organisational Culture & Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass
Schratz, M . & Walker, R. (1995) Research as social change. London: Routledge
More References!
Group work to produce a poster (30 mins) of topics, techniques and views on change.
What are the key changes that have taken place in your workplace in the last two years?

What were the driving forces behind the changes?

How did the changes impact on the structure of your workplace?

How did the change impact on the content of your job/job role?

Was the change intended/planned? Did you (help) lead/manage the process?
Identifying areas of change
‘the only thing of real importance that leaders do is create and manage culture ‘ (Schein 1985:2)
Dimensions of change
Project planning – steps and stages

Why do you really resist change?

What forces around you prevent you from changing easily?

What can you do now to help create a more change-friendly environment?
Resistance to Change
Mandarin translation for crisis/change? ‘Wei-ji’
Kotter, JP (1996) Leading Change Harvard Business School pp29-30
“The solution to the change problem is not one larger than life individual who charms thousands into being obedient followers. Modern organisations are far too complex to be transformed by a single giant. Many people need to help with the leadership task, not by attempting to imitate the likes of Winston Churchill or Martin Luther King Jr., but by modestly assisting with the leadership agenda in their spheres of activity.“
Lewin, K. (1951) Field Theory in Social Science. New York: Harper & Row.
Forcefield Analysis
Do you know how each group of stakeholders will be disposed towards your project? Will they be:

actively supportive
against it
TASK: Position your stakeholders on a line – can you identify their disposition towards your suggestion of change?
What is their disposition to change?
Which roles come more naturally to you, and which would you have to work at?

Interpersonal roles – figure head; liaison; leader.

Inspirational roles – disseminator; spokesperson, staff development & vision

Entrepreneurial roles - negotiator, creativity, new projects

Perhaps Leadership is Change?
The role of the leader in change
Accountability: – budgets & responsibility, resource allocator

Informational roles – monitor; disseminator; planning

Decision-making roles –; disturbance-handler; negotiator.
The role of the manager in change
Are procedural directives for change confounded by the personal nature of inter-actions?
Diagram adapted from Schratz & Walker (1995: 171)
Inter-personal depth?
Planning Action…
Gantt Chart
P.R.I.N.C.E. Projects in Controlled Environments
Observable data

Unobservable data
assumptions, hopes,
fears, needs, beliefs
Double Loop Learning - can you think of examples?
Argyris, C. &
Schon, D. A. (1978)
All the companies interviewed said that
a lack of
soft skills
posed a much greater
challenge than the absence of hard skills.
Notable soft skills mentioned as posing
the greatest business and organisational
challenges in China include
communication and self-motivation.

Chan J., Goh J. & Prest K. (2015 : 3)

What about our values?
But why should Educationalists be concerned with change
Full transcript