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UN WWAP UNESCO: GENDERING WATER MONITORING, ASSESSMENT AND REPORTING

water conflicts, water related hazards and gender, UN WWAP UNESCO, WWDR4 World Water Development Report gender mainstreaming
by Francesca Greco on 18 September 2013

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Transcript of UN WWAP UNESCO: GENDERING WATER MONITORING, ASSESSMENT AND REPORTING


Gendering Water Monitoring : water-related hazards, water cooperation, water decision making

Thank you!
Marta & Martina
SHORT OVERVIEW OF THE FOURTH EDITION OF THE WORLD WATER DEVELOPMENT REPORT
WWDR4 PRESENTS THE WORK OF UN-WATER
DELIVERING "AS ONE"
WWAP's MILESTONES
2003–2006-2009-2012
the 3 volumes
Towards a more efficient analysis of gender disparity in the water sector and
the role of “women in water management”: getting indicators that measure women access to decision  making in the water-sector.
Is that possible? a debate from Marseille 2012 to Stockholm 2013:
discussion points over indicators and sex-disaggregated data are currently taking place
THE WAY FORWARD: DATA GATHERING ,
INDICATORS AND SEX-DISAGGREGATED DATA
Tales of Water,
a Child's View. Jordan
© Taco Anema
FOR INFO, PLEASE CONTACT FRANCESCA GRECO
Gender Focal Point, Regional Political Processes

f.greco@unesco.org

http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/water/wwap/

Follow us on our Twitter account: UNWWAPUNESCO
Created in 2011, the Advisory Group on Gender Equality assisted WWAP in mainstreaming gender equality considerations in its activities and products
CREATION OF THE GENDER ADVISORY GROUP AT UN-WWAP UNESCO
STEREOTYPE 1:
farmers are not at all only men : half of them are women in many areas of the world
the problem is ownership: across the world regions, less than 5% to 15% of women actually own agricultural land (FAO, 2011)
GENDER AND WATER : FACTS AND FIGURES FROM THE FOURTH EDITION OF THE WORLD WATER DEVELOPMENT REPORT
© Shutterstock/Thor Jorgen Udvang
The gender mainstreaming
was not considered
as an accomplished
task by having a
section dedicated to
the“water and gender”

Gender mainstreaming was intended as a clear strategy of providing a qualitative work, putting into practice the main UNESCO guidelines on gender all over the Report
GENDER IN MAINSTREAMING IN WATER REPORTING: THE CASE OF WWDR4
Water roller
© UN Photo
Albert Gonzalez Farran
Co-chaired by :
Gulser Corat ( UNESCO Division for Gender Equality) and
Kusum Athukorala ( Women for Water Partnership) ,
is formed by highly experienced professionals and academics in the gender and water sector
CREATION OF THE GENDER ADVISORY GROUP AT UN-WWAP UNESCO
Girl in flood © UN-HABITAT
Extreme events:
a recent study of 141 countries found that more women than men die from natural hazards, and that this disparity is linked most strongly to women’s unequal socio-economic status
GENDER AND WATER : FACTS AND FIGURES FROM THE FOURTH EDITION OF THE WORLD WATER DEVELOPMENT REPORT
Drinking © UN Photo/UNICEF/ZAK
INDICATORS AND POST-2015 DEBATE
A Chapter of WWDR4 is about water and gender :

It was an achievement to have a chapter in a UN flagship publication such as the WWDR4
it is good that gender is treated as a separate section in order to have a clear perspective
but there is something more…
GENDER IN MAINSTREAMING IN WATER REPORTING: THE CASE OF WWDR4
© UN Photo/Devra Berkowitz
Changes should happen at higher levels, where decisions take place, subsequently affecting the fate of the “fetching water woman”
STEREOTYPE 2:
the burden of fetching water: this is just one part of a bigger picture towards women empowerment
GENDER AND WATER : FACTS AND FIGURES FROM THE FOURTH EDITION OF THE WORLD WATER DEVELOPMENT REPORT
© UN-HABITAT/Julius Mwelu
GENDER AND WATER AS A TARGET TOPIC for UN-WWAP
and for UNESCO GENDER DIVISION


Commitment on water and gender was reinforced by WWAP decision to assert a stronger dedication to gender mainstreaming in all of its activities and products, in particular the production of the 4th edition of the UN World Water Development Report
Women’s Preconference to World Water Forum 6
GENDER MAINSTREAMING AND GENDER IN WATER REPORTING : THE CASE OF THE
WORLD WATER DEVELOPMENT REPORT 4

MERCI / THANK YOU
solutionsforwater.org
worldwaterforum6.org
Mainstreaming gender in water governance
Build political leadership
Develop local capacity
Mobilize funding
Improving women’s access to water and productive resources

Achieve access to water supply and sanitation
Provide water for supplementary irrigation, small enterprises
Protect ecosystems and build
resilience to disasters
Projects work better with the full participation of women and men
Disaster management
Improving disaster resilience – women and men must participate
Women to be trained to move children and animals to safe area
Child-care facilities to enable women to assist with disaster management
Prior gender analysis to know who does what
Early Warning systems – first responders
Communications that can be accessed by women
Community-based information systems in flood zones
Women take appropriate action as first responders – monitoring, warning, response
Indigenous knowledge
Women’s knowledge of drought-resistant crops, forest products should be tapped
Women should be consulted on best water sources
Potential contributions of women (cont.)
Water Supply
Women provide water supply for cooking, health an d hygiene
Need sex-disaggregated data on access to adequate water supply (JMP)
Water minders, local maintenance of facilities
Water Committee
Consultation with women on location and type of water systems
Sanitation
Community Complexes (Tamil Nadu)
Ecological sanitation
Training as masons, latrine construction
Potential contributions of women (cont.)
Agriculture
Women produce 60-80% of the food in most African countries
Need access to land , water and appropriate technology
Could improve GDP by 2.4-4%
Involve both women and men in WUAs
Knowledge of native varieties, soil and water sources
Food Security
Small household plots
Urban agriculture
Land tenure security needed
Requires water for supplemental irrigation and livestock production
Rainwater harvesting – example from Mwihoko Community, Kenya
Potential contributions of women (cont.)
Watershed Management
Community based watershed management
Protecting traditional water sources (repair of village ponds, weirs)
Improved water quality, reduced pollution
Planting native species along banks
Reduced erosion
Improved livelihoods, leadership recognized
Drought reduction
Experimentation with drought-resistant varieties
Adaptation of crops to different conditions
Better irrigation management – supplementary irrigation in dry spells
Seasonal forecasting and early warning
Potential contributions of women
Relationship between gender and water & sanitation MDGs
from the speech of Marcia Brewster, WWAP Advisory Group on Gender, WWDR4
Author,12 March 2012,
World Water Forum in
Marseille


Taking Gender into
Account in Water and
Disaster Risk Management


Goal: Ensure the participation and involvement of women in all water-related development activities. Therefore, not only sanitation, but also:
- access to water for productive purposes
- access especially to irrigation for subsistance and independence
- access to political decision making over water , in both water sharing and water-related hazards prevention
UN-Water Focus Area: Gender and Water
1. Recognizes the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential for the full enjoyment of life and all human rights;
GENDERING WATER INDICATORS: A NEW CHALLENGE FOR UN WWAP UNESCO
HOWEVER....
UNDESA - NEW YORK 2008 ( report out in 2009) held the First Expert Meeting on Gender Sensitive Indicators and Sex Disaggregated data
FAO has always been producing sex-disaggregated data for agriculture labour force irrigation management by women and men + a guidebook for mainstreamin gender in water projects in the field
UNICEF / WHO have developed sex-disaggregated data for health and sanitation
ANTECEDENTS IN SEX-DISAGGREGATED DATA FOR GENDER AND WATER
UNESCO and UN WWAP UNESCO is particularly interested in assessing :
not only water access for health and sanitation ( fundamental task, already developed at the UN)
but also water use in all its sectors ( domestic, agricultural ,productive, ecosystem provision etc..)
vulnerability to water-hazards and ,
least but not last, water policy decision making

Is it possible to mainstream for gender all these aspects?
IN ORDER TO MANAGE YOU
NEED TO MEASURE....BUT WHAT TO MEASURE?
THERE IS A LONG LIST OF OTHER INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITIONS OF THE LINKS AMONG WATER, GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT
Piped household water connection located inside the user’s dwelling, plot or yard. Public taps or standpipes, tube wells or boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs or rainwater collection.
An improved sanitation facility is one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact and can consist of one of the following facilities: Flush/pour.flush.to piped sewer system, septic tank, pit latrine; Ventilated improved pit latrine; Pit latrine with slab; Composting toilet.
SOME OFFICIAL DEFINITIONS
3. Welcomes the decision by the Human Rights Council to request that the independent expert on human rights obligations related to access to safe drinking water and sanitation submit an annual report to the General Assembly,13 and encourages her to continue working on all aspects of her mandate and, in consultation with all relevant United Nations agencies, funds and programmes, to include in her report to the Assembly, at its sixty-sixth session, the principal challenges related to the realization of the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation and their impact on the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.
2. Calls upon States and international organizations to provide financial resources, capacity-building and technology transfer, through international assistance and cooperation, in particular to developing countries, in order to scale up efforts to provide safe, clean, accessible and affordable drinking water and sanitation for all;
On September 30th 2010, the UN Human Rights Council adopted by consensus Resolution 64/292 the human right to water and sanitation affirming that water and sanitation are human rights.
Resolution in 2010
The role of the UN
Vulnerable groups are those, such as children, who require special attention due to their physical conditions. Marginalised groups are those, such as those living in informal settlements, which require special attention due to their traditional and/or current exclusion from political power and resources.
Vulnerable and marginalised groups
The United Nations Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that all 191 UN member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015. The United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000 commits world leaders to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women. The MDGs are derived from this Declaration, and all have specific targets and indicators.

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
Water conflicts mitigation is largely practiced by women
WOMEN IN WATER CONFLICTS
AND COOPERATION
UNESCO advocates for the implementation and use of local and traditional knowledge of women in the mitigation of both water-related hazards and water disputes
International Water Law and its application are still lacking a gender vision because the epistemic community of international relations and engingeers are dominated by a masculine approach ( hydraulic mission, supply-side driven)
UNESCO IHP and UN WWAP UNESCO will be implementing a joint project on transboundary ( dispute-prone) water while mainstreaming the whole actionplan for gender, including the 2 first pilot-projects testing of a set of sex-disaggregated indicators on the realm of water management , conflict mitigation , water equality , gender in ---------------water decision making
GRAZIE PER l'ATTENZIONE !
Recent UN-Water survey shows that the WWDR is
used extensively for:
- advocacy and policy development
- educational support, self learning
- drawing on the lessons learned which
are presente in the report

Use of technical jargon has been minimized with a general audience in mind.
 
WHAT IS NEW IN WWDR4?

  Comprehensive scope: 17 areas/topics/sectors

New regional component

Holistic within and outside the water box

Glimpses into possible futures
 
Gender-mainstreamed

Thematic focus: ‘Managing water under uncertainty and risk’
WWDR4 VOLUME 1
Part 1: Status, trends and challenges

Recent developments, trends, key challenges
Externalities; the uncertainties and risks they create
Sectoral, regional, local perspectives
 
Part 2: Managing water under uncertainty and
risk

Lens of risk and uncertainty, emphasis on climate change and other drivers
Response options from within and outside the water box
WWDR4 VOLUME 2
Part 3: Knowledge base Comprehensive reports from challenges and regions

CHALLENGE AREA REPORTS
State of the Resource: Quantity and Quality
Human Settlements
Managing water along the livestock value chain
The global nexus of energy and water
Freshwater for industry
Ecosystems
Allocating water
Valuing water
Investing in water infrastructure, operation and maintenance
Water and institutional change
Developing knowledge and capacity
Water-related disasters
Desertification, land degradation and drought
REGIONAL REPORTS
Africa / Europe and North America / Asia and the Pacific / Latin America and the Caribbean / Arab region and Western Asia
SPECIAL REPORTS
Water and health / Water and gender / Groundwater
Part 4: Facing the Challenges
WWDR4 VOLUME 3

15 case studies (country and basin level)
With the recent change introduced to the WWDR, this UN-Water flagship report will become annual and thematic with a focus on different strategic water issues each year.

The first annual WWDR will be published in 2014 and will address the theme "Water and Energy".
“Water and Sustainable Development” will be the new theme for the 6th edition of the WWDR. It will be launched in 2015.
HOWEVER, in 2012 we still
didn't have any indicator for monitoring gender issues in global water development
UNESCO Director Irina Bokova encouraged WWAP in the promotion of this research
While there is a proliferation of "recommendations" , and case studies of good practices,
there is no sex- disaggregated data availability for measuring :
1) gender and sectoral water use ( productive , domestic, sanitation allocation ) at the intra-household level
2) gender and water policy decision making
3) gender index of water-related hazards vulnerability
4) gender water equality in a broader sense,
including perceived inequality
Women's role in Conflict Mitigation in transboundary water resources
demand management side: water harvesting,
water saving
knowledge about sharing wells and rivers with women of other communities, sometimes from other countries which are bordering with each other
Water Conflicts over water-related
hazards and risks:
interesting finding is that
strategies differ along gender lines
In order to prevent water floods , a study from Pakistan ( Mustafa 2013) found out that women wanted to protect the river banks and to enlarge the expansion area in case of floods. Public park, fruit trees for the poorest families and a fence in order to avoid waste dumping on the river bank
Men wanted to build a channel
FREE DOWNLOAD AT
http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/water/wwap/wwdr/wwdr4-2012/
Big debates on:
the Sustainable Development Goals ( one goal on gender?One only on water?)
Critiques to previouse MDGs indicators ( improved water definition)
How to actually get good reliable verifiable indicators for water and gender issues?
WHAT WWAP IS DOING IN 2013
1) AMCOW Indicators Taks Force + AMCOW gender strategy
2) Pilot Project to test a gender-sensitive methodology and sex-disaggregated indicators
for transboudnary groundwater
AMCOW GENDER STRATEGY
Interesting points on "who to feminize water management "
AMCOW buys the idea that hydraulic mission is a masculine approach , and a supply-side approach,while women can contribute to the demand-side approach
AMCOW gender strategy wants to provide every single African state with a tailor-made gender water strategy to produce and implement concrete gender-sensitive policies
Events to follow : GEnder and Water Conference in February 2014 in South Africa + African Water Week 2014
UNESCO WWAP PLANNING TO PRODUCE THE FIRST SET OF SEX-DISAGGREGATED INDICATORS ON WATER
In transboundary groundwater context (so conflict prevention and mitigation role of women and men will be analyzed)
Pilot projects in the field will test the methodology and produce a first outcome
The results will feed into the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals indicators building process
"GENDERING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE?"

...working on it !


THANK YOU
FOR YOUR ATTENTION
•1977 United Nations Water Conference at Mar del Plata,
•the International Drinking Water and Sanitation Decade (1981-90)
•the International Conference on Water and the Environment in Dub 1992)
•Agenda 21 (chapter 18, chapter 24) , 1992
•The Beijing Platform for Action in 1995
•The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation of the Agenda 21, agreed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Earth Summit 2002), paragraph 25
the International Decade for Action, 'Water for Life' (2005-2015)
•The Rio Conference on Environment &Development in 1992 ( UNEP) , principle no. 20
•the UN Millennium Summit in 2000 that promulgated Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for 2015
•Rio + 20 and the 2015 "The world we want " counsultation
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