Prezi

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in the manual

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Copy of pharmaceutical care importance & cha

No description
by Ahmed Aladdin on 21 October 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Copy of pharmaceutical care importance & cha

Depression
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings and sense of well-being.
Epilepsy
is a common and diverse set of chronic neurological disorders characterized by seizures.
schizophrenia
pharmaceutical care importance & challenge in
psychiatric diseases

Medical treatments :-
Certain medications are known to cause depressed mood in a significant number of patients. These include (
hepatitis C drug therapy and some drugs used to treat high blood pressure, such as beta-blockers or reserpine
)
.
Non-psychiatric illnesses:-

Depressed mood can be the result of a number of infectious diseases, neurological conditions and physiological problems including hypoandrogenism (in men), Addison's disease, Lyme disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, stroke,diabetes, cancer,sleep apnea, and disturbed circadian rhythm. It is often one of the early symptoms of hypothyroidism (reduced activity of the thyroid gland)
causes
Life events

(childbirth, menopause, job problems, relationship troubles, separation, bereavement and catastrophic injury)
Acupuncture or counselling, provided alongside usual care, could benefit patients with depression, according to a study by researchers at the University of York.The study, conducted by a team led by Dr Hugh MacPherson, of the Department of Health Sciences at York, found that in a primary care setting, combining acupuncture or counselling with usual care had some benefits after three months for patients with recurring depression.
Published this week in PLOS Medicine, the study, which also involved researchers from the Centre for Health Economics at York and Hull York Medical School, was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Programme Grants for Applied Research Programme.



Latest Development
(Acupuncture or Counselling Plus Usual Care May Improve Depression Symptoms).
Many patients with depression are interested in receiving non-drug therapies, however, there is limited evidence to support the use of acupuncture or counselling for depression in a primary care setting. In this pragmatic randomised controlled trial conducted in the North of England, the research team randomised patients with depression to receive 12 weekly sessions of acupuncture plus usual care (302 patients), or 12 weekly sessions of counselling plus usual care (302 patients), or usual care alone (151 patients).Compared with usual care alone, there was a significant reduction in average depression scores at three months for both the acupuncture and counselling interventions, but there was no significant difference in depression scores between the acupuncture and counselling groups. At nine months and 12 months, because of improvements in the depression scores in the usual care group, acupuncture and counselling were no longer better than usual care.
Dr MacPherson says: "Although these findings are encouraging, our study does not identify which aspects of acupuncture and counselling are likely to be most beneficial to patients, nor does it provide information about the effectiveness of acupuncture or counselling, compared with usual care, for patients with mild depression.
To our knowledge, our study is the first to rigorously evaluate the clinical and economic impact of acupuncture and counselling for patients in primary care who are representative of those who continue to experience depression in primary care."
He adds: "We have provided evidence that acupuncture versus usual care and counselling versus usual care are both associated with a significant reduction in symptoms of depression in the short to medium term, and are not associated with serious adverse events. "


Many patients with depression are interested in receiving non-drug therapies, however, there is limited evidence to support the use of acupuncture or counseling for depression in a primary care setting. In this pragmatic randomized controlled trial conducted in the North of England, the research team randomized patients with depression to receive 12 weekly sessions of acupuncture Compared with usual care alone, there was a significant reduction in average depression scores at three months for both the acupuncture and counseling interventions, but there was no significant difference in depression scores between the acupuncture and counseling groups. At nine months and 12 months, because of improvements in the depression scores in the usual care group, acupuncture and counseling were no longer better than usual care.
Dr McPherson says: "Although these findings are encouraging, our study does not identify which aspects of acupuncture and counseling are likely to be most beneficial to patients, nor does it provide information about the effectiveness of acupuncture or counseling, compared with usual care, for patients with mild depression.
plus usual care (302 patients), or 12 weekly sessions of counseling plus usual care (302 patients), or usual care alone (151 patients)."To our knowledge, our study is the first to rigorously evaluate the clinical and economic impact of acupuncture and counselling for patients in primary care who are representative of those who continue to experience depression in primary care."
He adds: "We have provided evidence that acupuncture versus usual care and counselling versus usual care are both associated with a significant reduction in symptoms of depression in the short to medium term, and are not associated with serious adverse events. "



EPSF / ZPSSA
is a mental disorder characterized by a breakdown of thought processes and by a deficit of typical emotional responses.Common symptoms are delusions including paranoia and auditory hallucinations, and disorganized thinking including speech. It is accompanied by significant social or vocational dysfunction.
Latest Development
Newly identified genetic variations may help explain the cause of schizophrenia and aid in the detection of individuals at high risk of developing the disorder.
causes
genetic.
environment
( include the living environment, drug use and prenatal stressors.Other factors that play an important role include social isolation and immigration related to social adversity, racial discrimination, family dysfunction, unemployment, and poor housing conditions
drug use
(
Amphetamine
,
cocaine
, and to a lesser extent
alcohol
, can result in psychosis that presents very similarly to schizophrenia.Although it is not generally believed to be a cause of the illness, people with schizophrenia use nicotine at much greater rates than the general population About half of those with schizophrenia use drugs or alcohol excessively.Evidence supports a link between earlier onset of psychotic illness and
cannabis use
; alcohol use is not associated with an earlier onset of psychosis..There is evidence that alcohol abuse via a kindling mechanism can occasionally cause the development of a chronic substance induced psychotic disorder, i.e. schizophrenia.
Combined results identified 22 different locations in the human genome (13 of which are considered to be newly discovered and 1 previously implicated in bipolar disorder) that are associated with schizophrenia development. They also identified 2 distinct gene pathways to the disorder: a calcium channel and the micro-RNA 137 transcript.

They found significant associations with schizophrenia in 22 genomic regions, 13 of which are considered "new."
causes
Different causes of epilepsy are common in certain age groups.

During the neonatal period and early infancy the most common causes include hypoxic schematic encephalopathy, central nervous system (CNS) infections, trauma, congenital CNS abnormalities, and metabolic disorders.
During late infancy and early childhood, febrile seizures are fairly common. These may be caused by many different things, some thought to be things such as CNS infections and trauma.
During childhood, well-defined epilepsy syndromes are generally seen.
During adolescence and adulthood, the causes are more likely to be secondary to any CNS lesion. Further, idiopathic epilepsy is less common. Other causes associated with these age groups are stress, trauma, CNS infections, brain tumors, illicit drug use and alcohol withdrawal.
In older adults, cardiovascular disease is a very common cause. Other causes are CNS tumors, head trauma, and other degenerative diseases that are common in the older age group, such as dementia
New trials
Progress in the Prediction of Epilepsy Surgery .
According to this research, developed by researchers of the UPM, CSIC and the Princesa Hospital, personality style, intelligence quotient and hemisphere of seizure origin are factors that would help to predict successfully these surgeries, what would be helpful for surgeons. Researchers reached these conclusions by using predictive models based on machine learning techniques.

Epilepsy surgery is effective in reducing both number and frequency of seizures, particularly in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, a significant proportion of these patients continues suffering seizures after surgery.
In order to have information about the results before surgery, researchers from the Computational Intelligence Group of the Schools of Computing UPM assessed the influence of a battery of medical and psychological factors using predictive models developed from machine learning approaches.

They have identified three "very relevant" elements: the hemisphere of seizure origin, intelligence quotient and personality style (applying the Rorschach test). Researchers have obtained a success rate of 90% in terms of predicting the outcome after surgery by using advanced mathematical models for its combination.
From the researcher's point of view,
this study opens the door for integration of complex mathematical models in previous assessment of surgeries. The team of medical assessor will have numerical results about the success of the surgery which are known as decision support tools.

See the full transcript