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Level One Cert Food Safety 101: Personal Hygiene - Ky DoE

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by Jenny Fuller on 27 December 2013

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Transcript of Level One Cert Food Safety 101: Personal Hygiene - Ky DoE

Bacteria & Foodborne Illness
HACCP
Sanitation and Safety
Level 1 Certification, 2013

Cleaning and Sanitation
Time & Temp
Foreign Material
Cross Contamination
Prevention
Moisture
Cleaning & Sanitation
How many people are made sick each year?
325, 000 are hospitalized

And 5,000 die each year.

An ounce of PREVENTION is worth a
pound of CURE
CDC estimates that 76 million are made ill.
325,000 are hospitalized, and
5,000 die each year from food borne illness.
Let's look at ...
Who is most vulnerable to foodborne illness?
The Young - small children
The Old - elderly and infirmed
Pregnant women
And the immunocompromized.
Personal Hygiene
Put on clean clothes.
And if you are sick, call in!
vomiting
diarrhea
fever
skin lesions

Once at work,
Jewelry
No jewelry on hands or arms, except plain wedding bands.
No watches or bracelets.
Gloves
Wash hands before applying sanitary gloves.
Do not blow into gloves to put them on.
Discard in trash if torn, or soiled, or if an interruption in operation occurs.
Replace damaged gloves as needed.
Wash hands after removing gloves.
Don't alter or modify your uniform.
HAZARD
Analysis
Critical
Control
Point
History:
NASA
Pillsburry
Scientific Approach to Food Safety
Seven Principles or HACCP
1. Conduct Hazard Analysis
2. Identify the CCPs
3. Establish the critical limits
4. Develop monitoring procedures
5. Establish corrective actions
6. Perform verification procedures
7. Develop effective record maintenance
1. Conduct Hazard Analysis
Biological - Chemical - Physical
2. Identify the CCPs
Places where things can go wrong
3. Establish the critical limits
What is acceptable to our customers
4. Develop monitoring procedures
What do we monitor here for food safety?
5. Establish corrective actions
Things will go wrong - what are our corrective actions here?
6. Perform verification procedures
Checking & double checking
7. Develop effective record maintenance
If it's not documented - it didn't happen.
What cleaners and sanitizers do you use?
Make sure that you can't
contaminate food during use.
Where are they stored?
Chemical Storage
1. Safely away from food
2. Secure at all times
3. In original container
4. According to the label
House Keeping (dirty 1/2 dozen):
1. Keep cleaning equipment clean & stored properly
2. Follow the a Cleaning & Sanitation Schedule
3. Keep packaging stored in designated area - away from possible contamination.
4. Put hoses, brooms, etc. away after each use
5. Clean up spill immediately
6. Empty trash containers, and check for soundness regularly. Always wash your hands after emptying trash container.
Chemical Usage:
Don't use chemical if you haven't been properly trained
Always put food and packaging away before chemical usage
Use only approved chemicals for the task you are doing
Use only according to the manufactures label
Always make sure their is a proper label attached to the container
Know where to locate the MSDS

Kitchen Safety and Sanitation Objectives
- Utilize proper sanitation in the kitchen area
- Utilize proper cooking tempertures for cooling, thawing, reheating and holding times
- Utilize proper techniques to avoid cross contamination
Safety Objectives
- Identify safety hazards in the food service area
- Know how to respond appropriately when safety issues arise
At the end of this presentation you will be able to...
- Identify ways to maintain proper personal hygiene according to district/ department policies and procedures
- Proper attire for kitchen area
- Use proper hand-washing techniques
Raw Foods
Date Marking
Bacteria
There is bacteria all around us, carrying out functions necessary for life. However, some bacteria can cause food to spoil and make people sick. The types of bacteria are:
Beneficial Bacterial
Beneficial bacteria lives in our environment and in our bodies, helping us with digestion, vitamin production and helping to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria.
Pathogens
These are the bacteria that produce disease in the human body. These bacteria are our main concern, as they are responsible for foodborne illnesses.
Spoilage Bacteria
These are bacteria that live and grow in food that can cause damage to the flavor, appearance, texture or composition of food.
Harmful Bacteria
Campylobacter bacteria

Salmonella
Staphylococcus aureus

Bacillus cereus

E. coli O157:H7

Listeria monocytogenes

Clostridium botulinum
In five hours, a population of bacteria living on food can increase from 1,000 to over 1,000,000!
This is more than enough bacteria to make someone very sick.
Potentially Hazardous Foods
Bacteria grows rapidly in environments that are:
1. Moist;
2. Low acid; or
3. Meat, dairy, eggs, cooked vegetables, rice and pasta
Don't Forget Produce!
Remember that bacteria and viruses can grown on the outside of fresh produce. In past years there has been an increase in foodborne illnesses caused by microbial contamination of fresh produce.

Since we eat a lot of our fresh produce raw, it is important to wash all fruits and vegetables thoroughly to prevent contamination that can lead to illness.
Viruses
A virus is much smaller than a bacteria and must live inside a living cell in order to survive and reproduce. It takes very few cells infected with a virus to make a person very sick.

Personal hygiene, especially washing your hands frequently, are important in preventing foodborne illnesses caused by viruses.
There are two viruses that are of major concern in food service:
Norovirus
This virus causes nausea, stomach aches, vomiting and diarrhea. It is thought to cause more foodborne illness than all other causes of foodborne illnesses combined! In order to prevent the spread of norovirus, you should not come to work while sick, wash your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom and avoid eating raw shellfish.
Hepatitis A
This virus can cause a serious infection of the liver. Once again, handwashing is the most significant way you can prevent the spread of this foodborne illness.
How Does Food Become Unsafe?
Raw Food Storage
Cross contamination is the transfer of harmful bacteria from one food via means of utensils, equipment or human hands to another food. It also can occur when a raw food touches or drips onto a cooked or ready-to-eat food.


Example 1:
A cook has prepared raw chicken and now he is preparing vegetables for a salad bar He uses the same knife and cutting board to cut the vegetables as he used to cut the chicken without cleaning his equipment first. He has cross-contaminated his vegetables.
Example 2:
A cook has prepares corn beef for sandwiched. He places the beef in the cooler, on the bottom shelf. Another cook has taken some chicken out of the freezer to thaw, and places it on the middle shelf of the cooler. As the chicken thaws, it drips down on the beef. The beef has been cross contaminated.
Preventing Cross-Contamination
- Wash, rinse and sanitize cutting boards, knives, utensils and countertops after contact with raw meat

- Store raw meat below and away from all ready-to-eat foods.

- Wash, rinse and sanitize food-contact equipment (slicers, knives, cutting boards) at least every 4 hours

- Wash hands before handling food and after touching raw meat
Foreign Materials
Foreign materials are any objects in food that are not foods themselves. Foreign material contamination can cause the person who eats the contaminated food to become sick, poisoned, choke or cause damage to their digestive track.
Harmful Foreign Materials
Cleaning Chemicals
Metal Shavings
Insects and Other Pests
Broken Equipment or Utensil Parts
Discarded Gloves
Used Band-Aids
Lost Jewelery
Fingernails and Hair
Pieces of Plastic Wrap
Cleaning cloth or sponges
Broken glass
Preventing Foreign Material Contamination
Vigilance is the only way to prevent foreign material contamination. Make sure you are always paying attention!

- Store chemicals away from food items
- Frequently inspect utensils and equipment for damage
- Discard foods that you believe to be contaminated

Before you come to work
Store your personal items such as wallets, purses and jewelry.
And wash your hands!
Hand Washing Procedure
1. Lather hands and exposed parts of arms.
2. Vigorously robs hands together for at least 20 seconds.
Pay particular attention to area underneath fingernails and
between fingers.
3. Rinse with clean water.
4. Dry thoroughly with a single use paper towel or hand
drying device.
When to Wash Hands
Before beginning work.

When changing tasks.

When soiled or contaminated.

Before putting on gloves.

When switching between raw & ready-to-eat food prep.

After handling soiled equipment or utensils.

After using the restroom.

After touching bare body parts (except clean hands and arms).

After caring for or handling service animals or aquatic animals.

After coughing, sneezing, using a tissue, using tobacco products, eating or drinking.

After engaging in other activities that could contaminate the hands.
Where to Wash Hands
Use handwashing sink only!
These sinks will be provided with hand cleansers
and hand drying supplies.

Do NOT wash your hands in food prep sinks, utensil sinks, service sinks or mop sink.
Fingernails
Keep fingernails trimmed, filed and well maintained so edges and surfaces are clean and smooth.
No fingernail polish*.
No artificial nails*.
Hair Restraints
Always wear effective an hair restraint while in the food prep area (hats, hair covering or net, beard restraints, clothing that covers body hair, etc.).
Eating, Drinking and Tobacco Products
Only in designated areas.
Wash hands before returning to work.
Exception - closed beverage containers with a lid and straw are allowable if handled so to prevent contamination of employee's hands, exposed food, equipment, utensils, linens and single service articles.
Before we even start to prepare the food there is risk for contamination. It is important that we store our raw foods in the correct way and at the correct temperatures.
Storage:
Separate raw meats, poultry, seafood and eggs from other foods. These foods should be stored on lower shelves, while cooked and ready-to-eat foods should be stored on higher shelves. This is so there is no opportunity for juices from raw foods to drip and contaminate prepared foods.
Recommended Temperatures:
Produce: 45F of below
Dairy & Meat: 40F or below
Seafood: 30F or below
For soft-skinned fruits and vegetables:
rinse under running tap water or with a fresh produce rinse product.
For firm-skinned fruits and vegetables:
rub under running tap water or with a fresh produce rinse product with your hands, or scrub with a clean vegetable brush.
What about fruits and vegetable with skins or rinds that we do not eat?
Wash Them!
Even though we do not eat the skin, when we slice into these fruits and vegetables, the knife can carry contaminants from the outer skin into the flesh of the fruit or vegetable that we will be eating.
Remember!
Any time you touch raw animal products,
Wash Your Hands!
Time and Temperature Abuse
Time and temperature abuse is one of the most common ways food becomes infested with bacteria. The longer a food spends (time) in the Danger Zone (temperature) the higher the risk of foodborne illness.
What is the Danger Zone?
41 - 135 F
The Danger Zone is
The Danger Zone is the range of temperature at which bacteria reproduces the fastest. By limiting time spent in the Danger Zone, we limit bacterial growth.

This is why it is important to store raw foods, thaw frozen foods, cook foods, hold foods for service, cool cooked foods, and reheat leftovers to specific temperatures. These temperatures are know to minimise bacteria growth and slow spoilage.
How Do I...
... Store Raw Foods?
Produce: 45F or below
Dairy & Meat: 40F or below
Seafood: 30F or below
...Thaw Frozen Foods?
Frozen foods should be thawed in one of the following ways:
1. In the refrigerator, on a tray
2. Under cool running water
3. During the cooking process
4. In a microwave oven (if food is to be cooked immediately after thawing)
Food should never be left at room temperature, such as on a counter,
to thaw.
This is in the Danger Zone!
...Know If Its Done?
We use high temperatures to kill bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms found on and in raw meat, poultry, eggs and seafood.

Different foods require different cook times to different temperatures.

It is important to measure the temperatures of the following foods with a calibrated food thermometer.
...Hold for Service?
Cold foods should be held below 40F. Examples of cold service foods include salad and yogurt bars.

Hot foods should be held above 140F. Examples of hot foods include cooked rice, vegetables or meats.

Temperatures for both hot and cold foods should be checked at scheduled intervals and recorded. If the food being held is in the Danger Zone, it should be discarded.
...Cool Food For Storage?
Cooked foods should be rapidly chilled so they spend as little time as possible in the Danger Zone.

The Kentucky Food Code requires that potentially hazardous foods are chilled to at least 45F within 4 hours.

Ideally, hot foods should be cooled from 135+ to 70F within 2 hours and cooled from 70F to 40F or less within 4 hours.

Room temperature foods also be cooled to 40F or less within 4 hours
Acceptable Cooling Methods
Separate into smaller portions
Place food in shallow pans
Use containers that facilitate heat transfer
Stir food in contain that has been placed in an
ice-water bath
Arrange a refrigerator for maximum heat transfer
Use rapid cooling equipment
Add ice as an ingredient
... Reheat Foods?
Foods should be reheated quickly to 165F before serving. Reheating to 165F will kill bacteria which may have multiplied while food was being cooled.

For that is reheated in the microwave should be allowed to stand for 2 minutes after heating to 165F to ensure the food is heated throughout.
Keep a Record!
In order to ensure foods do not stay in the Danger Zone for too long, it is important to keep records.

Mark containers with a maximum 4 hour time period in the Danger Zone at the time they are removed from a controlled temperature environment so the food can be discarded if it spends too much time in the Danger Zone.
Date Marking
Date marking ensures that food is either used or discarded before it spoils.

It is an important step in reducing risk of foodborne illnesses.
Refrigerated, ready-to-eat, and potentially hazardous foods shall be marked with "Consume By Date":

at time of preparation, if prepared on the premises and held for over 24 hours

OR

at time container is opened, if obtained from a commercial vendor
If additional ingredients or portions of food are added to food that has a date marked with a 'Consume By Date', continue to use the original date when the food was first prepared or opened.


If subsequently frozen:

When the food is thawed, mark that it shall be consumed within 24 hours
Mark at the time of freezing how many days it has already been held at refrigeration. Upon thawing, subtract these days from the new 'Consume By Date"
Discard food if:
the 'Consume By Date" has expired
food is not consumed within 24 hours of thawing
food is not date marked
food is not date marked appropriately

Exceptions to Date Marking:
1. Individual portions repackaged from bulk containers to fill a consumers request
2. Hard cheeses, such as cheddar and semi-soft cheeses such as gouda
3. Cultured dairy products such as sour cream and yogurt
4. Deli salads processed in an approved food processing plant
5. Preserved fish products
6. Shelf stable, dry fermented sausages (not labeled "Keep Refrigerated")
7. Shelf stable salt cured products (not labeled "Keep Refrigerated")
Wiping Clothes
Clothes used for wiping food spills should be used for no other purposes.

Clothes used for wiping food spills shall be:
dry and used on tableware and carry-out containers
wet and clean, stored in a chemical sanitizer, and used on food and nonfood-contact equipment.

Keep dry or wet cloths used with raw animal products separate, including having a separate sanitizing solution.

Dry and wet cloths used with fresh sanitizing solution shall be free of food debris and visible soil.
What is the Difference between Cleaning and Sanitizing?
Cleaning removes the visible soil and food particles from a surface.
Sanitizing reduces the number of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, etc.)
Just because something looks clean does not mean it is sanitary. Billions of microorganisms may be present even though they are not visible to the naked eye. Both cleaning and sanitizing are essential in preventing foodborne illness.
Remove visible waste from dishes
Wash in hot water, at least 95F, with detergent
Rinse off soap residue using clear, warm water
Sanitize in warm water, at least 75F, with:
50ppm chlorine, immersed for 1 minute
or
12.5ppm iodine, immersed for 1 minute
or
200ppm QAC, immersed for 1 minute
It is important to monitor the sanitizing solution to ensure the correct amount is added to the water;
too much sanitizer is toxic and too little is unsanitary.

Use test trips to monitor the pH of your sanitizer solution.
Chlorine strips
QAC strips
Iodine strips
Air dry all equipment and utensils before stacking to eliminate the growth of microbes.
When Should I Clean and Sanitize...
... Surfaces and Equipment that Contacts Food?
Each time there is a change from working with raw foods to working with ready-to-eat foods.
Between uses with raw fruits and vegetables and with potenially hazardous foods.
Before using or storing food temperature measuring devices (each use).
Any time contamination may have occurred.
Before each use with different types of raw animal food, except in contact with a succession of different raw animal foods, in which the second food requires a higher cooking temperature than the first food.
...Surfaces and Equipment that Contacts Potentially Hazardous Foods?
At least every 4 hours
Exceptions:
Storage containers of potentially hazardous foods should be cleaned when emptied.
At least every 24 hours for containers in serving situations such as salad bars.
At least every 24 hours, or as visibly soiled for in-use utensils intermittently stored in a container of hot water, at least 135F.
... Surfaces and Equipment that Contacts Non-Potentially Hazardous Foods?
Any time contamination may occur.
At least every 24 hours for iced tea dispensers and consumer self-service items.
Before restocking consumer self-service equipment and utensils such as condiment dispensers
In enclosed components of equipment such as ice bins, ice makers, beverage nozzles & syrup dispenser tubes, cooking oil storage tanks & distribution lines, coffee bean grinders, and water vending equipment, as specified by the manufacturer OR as necessary to preclude accumulation of soil or mold.
Pre-Scrape
Wash
Rinse
Sanitize
Dry
Dish Machine Washing and Sanitizing
There are two kinds of commercial dish machines: chemical sanitizing machines and hot-water sanitizing machines.
Chemical Sanitizing
These machines use chlorine-based chemicals dispensed during the final rinse to sanitize equipment. The chemical level should be 50ppm in the final rinse water. As with manual dish washing, sanitizer strength should be monitored using test-strips.
Hot-Water Sanitizing
These machines use very hot water during the final rinse to sanitize equipment. This water should be 180F to effectively sanitize.
Dish machines should be monitored for:
sanitizer strength (chemical sanitizing only)
wash and final rinse temperatures
proper soap amount dispensed during wash cycle
food debris and grease residue
Safety
The four leading categories of kitchen injuries are:
Slips, trips and falls
Strains and sprains
Cuts and lacerations
Burns
An accident is always waiting to happen.
It only needs an opportunity.
Consider school cafeterias and kitchens - slippery floors, sharp knives, hot surfaces, heavy equipment congested workspace - and children!

There are plenty of opportunities for accidents!
How to Identify Kitchen Work Area Hazards?
Slips, Trips and Falls
• Wet floors near sinks, steam tables, dishwashers
on in the cooler or fridge
• Cords on the floor that are not covered or are
too short to reach the floor
• Grease and/or food on the floor in food
preparation or serving areas
• Boxes, cases or pallets left in the aisles of
storage rooms, shipping/receiving areas, or in
the cooler or freezer

Strains and Sprains
• Bending from the waist, rather than the knees, to lift
cases/boxes, trash bags or large kitchen equipment
• Lifting more than 50lb without asking for assistance
• Reaching above chest height to retrieve cases/boxes or
equipment
• Removing heavy pans of food from the oven or steamers
• Twisting without moving feet to retrieve an item behind
you
• Pushing heavily loaded hot holding equipment or transport
carts to serving or loading areas without requesting help

Cuts and Lacerations
• Using dull knives for food preparation
• Cleaning slicer or food processor blades
• Using scissors to portion grapes or open boxes
• Improper placement and/or use of foil or film
wrap boxes

Burns
• Removing pans from oven or steam
• Lifting film wrap or foil towards you
when removing foods from steamers,
ovens or microwaves

Chemical Exposure
• Using chemicals that you have not been adequately
trained to use.
• Using cleaning products from another department
or bringing them from home
• Using more than the recommended amounts of
sanitizers such as bleach
• Cleaning products that are not stored in their
original containers/are not labeled.

How can I help to prevent accidents in the workplace?
Preventing or Minimizing...
...Slips, Trips and Falls
Keep the floors clean:
Establish a floor cleaning schedule
Choose cleaning products for their grease removal and slip resistant properties
Immediately pick up any item that is dropped on the floor

Keep the floor dry:
Immediately clean up spills as soon as they occur and place a cautionary sign around the area until the spot is dry
Use ice scoops to minimize spills from ice machines
Conduct daily inspections to identify and correct that:
Staff are wearing closed-toed, skid resistant shoes and their shoelaces remain tied
Staff’s uniform pant legs are hemmed and do not drag on the ground
Boxes, crates, pallets and electrical cords aren’t cluttering the aisles or work areas
Ladders and step stools are used properly
Staff carries loads without blocking their view

Lift with legs, bending at the knees, not at the waist, to protect your back
Change direction when changing tasks or reaching for objects by moving feet rather than twisting from the waist
Store heavy loads at waist height
Ask for assistance when lifting/moving anything more than 50lbs
... Sprains and Strains
... Cuts and Lacerations
Keep knife blades sharp
Store knives with the blade covered
When walking through the kitchen with a sharp object, announce that you are carrying a sharp object: : “Sharp Behind”
Never leave a sharp knife unattended into dish water
Always use safety guard on manual slicing equipment
Electric slicers and food processors should only be run by trained staff with all machine guards in place
...Burns
Potholders are kept within easy reach of hot items such as pots, steam tables and sheet pans
Only use potholders to move hot objects – never use rags that may be damp
Never leave dish rags, aprons, and other cloth items near any hot surface
Never force a three-prong plugs into two-prong outlet or extension cord
Never use electrical equipment with a frayed cord or bent prongs
When walking through the kitchen with a hot object, announce that you are carrying a hot object: : “Hot Behind”
...Chemical Exposure
Store chemicals in their original containers with tight lids
Store chemicals in a separate and secure area away from food or heat sources
Only use chemicals in a well-ventilated area, not in closed spaces
Wash hands after using or touching any chemicals or equipment used with chemicals
Make sure Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are available for each chemical used in the work place and all staff members know where to find this information

If you are going to eat the skin
- wrap the fruit in plastic for self-service situations.
Hand Sanitizer is NOT an appropriate substitute for hand washing!
Food Safety 101:
Foodborne Illness
Awareness and Prevention
Food Safety 101:
Personal Hygiene
Food Safety 101:
Cleaning, Sanitation,
Equipment Use and Care
Food Safety 101:
Safety and First Aid
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination against its customers, employees, and applicants for employment on the bases of race, color, national origin, age, disability, sex, gender identity, religion, reprisal, and where applicable, political beliefs, marital status, familial or parental status, sexual orientation, or if all or part of an individual's income is derived from any public assistance program, or protected genetic information in employment or in any program or activity conducted or funded by the Department. (Not all prohibited bases will apply to all programs and/or employment activities.)

If you wish to file a Civil Rights program complaint of discrimination, complete the USDA Program Discrimination Complaint Form, found online at http://www.ascr.usda.gov/complaint_filing_cust.html, or at any USDA office, or call (866) 632-9992 to request the form. You may also write a letter containing all of the information requested in the form. Send your completed complaint form or letter to us by mail at U.S. Department of Agriculture, Director, Office of Adjudication, 1400 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20250-9410, by fax (202) 690-7442 or email at program.intake@usda.gov.

Individuals who are deaf, hard of hearing or have speech disabilities may contact USDA through the Federal Relay Service at (800) 877-8339; or (800) 845-6136 (in Spanish).

USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.


Created September 2013
KDE School and Community Nutrition
KSU Food Safety Network - When and How to Wash Your Hands
*2010 Kentucky Food Code
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