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Effective Classroom Practice-Great 8~A High School approach

Montana High School Forum presentation. Bringing the Great 8 to high schools. The presentation will incorporate the Great 8 effective classroom practices into the high school classroom.
by Keith Hoyer on 12 February 2014

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Transcript of Effective Classroom Practice-Great 8~A High School approach

Shortly after science class started, the teacher announced,
“We have a small block of ice and the same sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would melt first.”
A few seconds later the teacher said,
“Please write down in one sentence an explanation for your answer.”
A few minutes later, the teacher told students to share with their neighbor what they had written. Shortly thereafter, the teacher called on one student to tell the class her answer. The teacher then asked to the class to raise their hand if they agreed with the answer. Then the teacher asked students to give a thumb down if anyone disagreed
Opportunities to Respond
Small group of students running down the hall.
Teacher should re-teach the appropriate behavior with the small group of students.
Re-teach the expected behavior (walk in the hallway)
Practice the skill in the hallway
Provide verbal acknowledgement and additional or more intense reinforcers when students demonstrate the appropriate behavior in the future
Behavioral Example
Specific and Contingent Praise
Praise should be…
– …contingent: occur immediately following desired behavior
– …specific: tell learner exactly what they are doing correctly and continue to do in the future “Good job” (not very specific)
“I like how you are showing me active listening by having quiet hands and feet and eyes on me” (specific)
4 to 1
Knowledge of classroom procedures tells your students what to do:
- when they
first enter
the classroom
- when they
come
to class
late
- when they have
completed
their
work
, where it goes
- where to
find
the day's
assignment
- where to find the homework assignments
- if they
forget
their materials
- if they have a
question
- when they want to participate in a class discussion
- when they hear an emergency alert (earthquake -- fire drill)
- when you
end the class
Procedures
are what you want the students to do.
Routines
are the procedures that the students do automatically.
Procedures
and
routines
are the backbone of daily classroom life, because they:
are statements of student
expectations
that allow students to
function effectively
in the school environment
allow many different activities to take place efficiently with a
minimum
of wasted time and confusion
facilitates teaching and learning and increase on task time and
reduce
classroom disruptions
tell a student how things operate in a classroom, thus
reducing
discipline problems
Effective Classroom Practices: The “Great Eight”
Expectations and rules
Procedures and routines
Continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behaviors
Continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior
Active supervision
Multiple opportunities to respond
Activity sequence and offering choice
Academic success and task difficulty
Strategies to Increase Student
Opportunity for Response
Track Students Called On
Guided Notes
Response Cards
Computer-Assisted Instruction
Classwide Peer Tutoring
Direct Instruction
Effective Classroom Practices: The “Great Eight”
Expectations and rules
Procedures and routines
Continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate Behavior
Continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior
Active supervision
Multiple opportunities to respond
Academic success and task difficulty
Activity sequence and offering choice
How? Active Supervision
Interacting Frequently
Positive contacts
Friendly, helpful, open demeanor
Proactive, non-contingent
High rate of delivery
Positive reinforcement
Immediate and contingent on behavior
Delivered at high rates and consistently
How? Active Supervision

Scanning Effectively
All students observed on a regular basis
Make eye contact with students in more distant locations of the room
Look and listen for signs of a problem

How? Active Supervision
Moving Effectively
Constant
Make presence known and obvious
Proximity to all students
More frequent proximity to noncompliant students
Randomized
Targets Problem Areas
Effective Classroom Practices:
The “Great Eight”
Expectations and rules
Procedures and routines
Continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior
Continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior
Active supervision
Multiple opportunities to respond
Activity sequence and offering choice
Academic success and task difficulty
Climate Enhancers
Always
model
respectful and polite behavior
Praise
genuinely and frequently
Set high, but reasonable and
attainable expectations
Know your students
Spend time interacting with students
Use effective listening skills
Design classroom to be appealing to students
Celebrate student success
and achievement
Use humor
Response Strategies & Error Correction
Conference Procedures:
Positive, private, using quiet voice
Describe the problem
Describe the alternative (what the student should do instead)
Tell why alternative is better
Practice (student should tell and/or show)
Provide feedback
Parallel to error analysis in academics
Determine what types of problem(s) student is having
Use this information to inform instruction
Example
Math
Student follows the correct steps to solve the problem, but is making computational errors.
Student needs to practice basic math facts (rather than relearn the problem solving steps).

Corrective Consequences
Effective Classroom Practices:
The “Great Eight”


Expectations and rules
Procedures and routines
Continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior
Continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior
Active supervision
Multiple opportunities to respond
Activity sequence and offering choice
Academic success and task difficulty
Acknowledging Appropriate Behavior
Classroom Continuum:
Level 1
= Free and Frequent
Use everyday in the classroom

Level 2 = Intermittent
Awarded occasionally

Level 3
= Strong and Long Term
Quarterly or year-long types of recognition
Acknowledging Appropriate Behavior
Effective strategies are ….
Clear and specific
Contingent on desired behavior
Applied immediately
Teacher initiated
Focus on improvement and effort
Why Acknowledge Appropriate
Classroom Behavior?
Effective acknowledgment …
Can increase
on-task behavior
correct responses, work productivity and accuracy,
attention and compliance
cooperative play
Foster intrinsic motivation to learn which comes from mastering tasks
Have vicarious effect with benefits that may be long lasting
Effective Classroom Practices:
The “Great Eight”
Expectations and rules
Procedures and routines
Continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior
Continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior
Multiple opportunities to respond
Active supervision
Academic success and task difficulty
Activity sequence and offering choice
Make a list of every task a student does in the classroom
Determine the desired outcome
Decide how students need to complete the task
Consider what errors students are likely to make
Consider problem areas or problem times…often a well-designed routine can smooth things out
Writing Procedures to
Develop Routines
A vast majority of the behavior problems in the classroom are caused by the failure of students to follow procedures and routines. The main reasons why students do not follow procedures:
the students do not know the procedures
the students have not been trained to follow the procedures
the teacher has not thought through what happens in the classroom
Procedures and Routines

Expectations and rules
Procedures and routines
Continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior
Continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior
Active supervision
Multiple opportunities to respond
Activity sequence and offering choice
Academic success and task difficulty

Effective Classroom Practices:
The “Great Eight”
Other Considerations…
Students play a role in formulating rules
Rules displayed prominently; easily seen
Teacher models and reinforces consistently
Rules that are easily monitored

High School Rules
What are Expectations and Rules?

Expectations are outcomes
Rules are the specific criteria for meeting expectation outcomes
Rules identify and define concepts of acceptable behavior
Use of expectations and rules provides a guideline for students to monitor their own behavior and they remind and motivate students to meet certain standards
Effective Classroom Practices:
The “Great Eight”
Expectations and rules
Procedures and routines
Continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior
Continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior
Active supervision
Multiple opportunities to respond
Activity sequence and offering choice
Academic success and task difficulty
You’ll find “Classroom Discipline in Three Easy Lessons” in fiction.
Why MBI?
EFFECTIVE CLASSROOM PRACTICES:
THE “GREAT 8”
High School Version

Teacher talk should be no more than 40-50% of instructional time.
New material–a minimum of 4-6 responses per minute with 80% accuracy.
Review of previously learned material–8-12 responses per minute with 90% accuracy.

Guidelines for Response Rates

Climate Killers

Sharp or excessive
criticism
Sarcasm
or humor at student’s expense
Reinforcers that are
not meaningful
to students
Lecturing
students about behavior
Being inconsistent in rule enforcement and reinforcement (
My Voice
)
Having no
social interaction
with students
Showing little interest in
students’ lives
Teaching lessons with no attention to student affect or stress levels during instruction
Warning an angry student to “calm down” without providing supports to achieve that goal.
Providing effective error corrections
A continuum of response strategies
Consider the SW continuum of response
Enhancing classroom climate
Classroom Response Strategies &
Error Correction
Effective strategies ….
Provided frequently during acquisition
Fade as skill develops
Avoid comparison/competition across children
Sincere and appropriate for student’s age
Includes hierarchy of alternatives
Acknowledging Appropriate Behavior
Why Provide Multiple
Opportunities to Respond?
Behavioral Outcomes:
Increases student engagement with instruction
Allows for high rates of positive, specific feedback
Limits student time for engaging in inappropriate behavior
Is an efficient use of instructional time
Example
What’s Next
Remember the basics…
We can’t “make” students learn or behave

We can create environments to increase
the likelihood students learn and behave

How Do We Scaffold Instruction?
First, the teacher models how to perform a new or difficult task
Second, the teacher and students work together to perform the task
Third, students work with a partner or a small cooperative group to complete the task
Fourth, the student independently completes the task

(Ellis & Larkin, 1998)
Strategies for Modifying Task Difficulty
Change Amount of Work
Change Amount of Time
Change Student Output
Reduce Reading/Writing Demand
Peer Support
Scaffolding

(Simmons Vaughn, Duchnowski, Sheffield, & Kutash, 2005)
Offering Choice
Remember . . .
Every lesson does not have to include all of the choices on your list, but if each lesson you teach provides at least one opportunity for choice, students are likely to benefit.
Why Provide Choice?
Teach students to become self-determined individuals
Enables them to better control their environment
Can lead to more predictable student-teacher interactions
Allows opportunity for more frequent positive attention and feedback from teachers
May foster improvements in student–teacher relationships

(Jolivette, Wehby, Canale Kern and State, 2009, p. 10)
(Kern and State, 2009, p. 3)

Modifying instruction or providing accommodations to ensure the student experiences higher levels of academic success.


(Kern & Clemens, 2007)
What is Modifying Task Difficulty?

Expectations and rules
Procedures and routines
Continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behaviors
Continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior
Active supervision
Multiple opportunities to respond
Activity sequence and offering choice
Academic success and task difficulty
Effective Classroom Practices:
The “Great Eight”
Effective Classroom Practice
Activity Sequence
task interspersal
behavioral momentum
Offering Choice
type, order, materials
who, place and choice of time
Why Provide Choice?
“Providing opportunities for students to make choices has been demonstrated to be an effective intervention in preventing problem behavior and increasing engagement”

(Kern and Clemens, 2007, p. 70)
Research for Activity Sequencing
Task Interspersal
Interspersing difficult tasks with easier problems
Cates and Skinner (2000) examined assignment perception among remedial math students in grades 9-12.
Students perceived the interspersed assignments as
taking less time to complete,
being less difficult, and
requiring less effort.
Jim Grant - seperating books into chapters
Why Consider Activity Sequence?
Increases task performance
Decreases disruptive behavior
Improves student perception of and preference for assignments they consider difficult

(Kern & Clemens, 2007)
Steps for Using Choice in the Classroom

Create a menu of choices you would be willing to provide to students.
Look through your choice menu before planning each lesson.
Decide what types of choice are appropriate for the lesson and where they fit best in the lesson.
Provide choices as planned while teaching the lesson.
Solicit student feedback and input.

(Kern and State, 2009, p. 5)
Resources To Go…

http://opi.mt.gov/Programs/SchoolPrograms/MBI/index.html
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