Knowing the content that is written in the textbooks is the most important foundation to be a teacher, however it is not enough to be an effective teacher. Three Levels of Teaching
Level 1: Teachers can tell students important basic ideas of mathematics such as facts, concepts, and procedures.
Level 2: Teachers can explain the meanings and reasons of the important basic ideas of mathematics in order for students to understand them.
Level 3: Teachers can provide students opportunities to understand these basic ideas, and support their learning so that the students become independent learners. Two major types of professional development
Phase 1 professional development
Phase 1 professional development focuses on developing the knowledge for teaching mathematics, which includes: content knowledge of mathematics, pedagogical content knowledge for teaching mathematics, curricular knowledge for designing lessons, and pedagogical knowledge
This type of professional development usually provides teachers opportunities to learn through reading books and resources, listening to lectures, and watching visual resources such and video and demonstration lessons.
Phase 2 professional development
Phase 2 professional development, on the other hand, focuses on developing expertise for teaching mathematics, including: skill for developing lessons for particular students, questioning techniques, designing and implementing formative assessments, anticipating students responses to the questions, and purposeful observation of students during class.
Teachers should plan the lesson carefully, teach the lesson based on the lesson plan, and reflect upon the teaching and learning based on the careful observation. Japanese teachers and educators usually go through this process using Lesson Study. Listening to experts during special professional development days does not translate into improved teaching. Effective teacher learning
must be built into teachers’ daily and weekly schedules.
Schools must become the places where teachers, not just students, learn.
(Closing the Teaching Gap, 2009) In order to improve the teaching of mathematics, we need to engage students in exploring mathematical relationships and wrestling with key mathematical ideas. Unfortunately, it’s not possible to achieve this goal simply by identifying best practices.
(Closing the Teaching Gap, 2009) Lesson Study: nice-to-have, or must-have?
Akihiko Takahashi Observing a research lesson Protocol Cell phone off.
Stay out of the way.
Do not interact with the students.
No side conversations. Collecting data The quality of the post-lesson discussion depends on your data! You decide what to collect!
Transcribe one student (or pair)
Focus on teacher-student interaction (e.g. 2-column)
Use "points of evaluation" as a guide.
Keep track of time Tools
Clipboard with clock
Write on lesson plan
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