The Loop What will we consider today? ENG 111 & ENG 113
111 - Composition
113 - Literature-Based
Research The Process of Reflection The What, Why & How of Reflection & Feedback
Content of Student Reflection
Relationship between reflection/feedback & performance What does it mean to ask students to reflect? Library Instruction in ENG 113:
2 class series
1st class: searching/locating scholarly sources specific to their chose topic. Goal: leave with sources
2nd class focus: citations, plagiarism, & MLA citations. Goal? Leave with completed works cited page
Following class: writing workshop, focusing on how to incorporate their research into their writing (draft due at the end of class The Reflection Assignment Completed in class during the writing workshop
Completed after the 2 library instruction sessions, on the night their draft is due, one week before the final paper is due
Prior to 1st library instruction class, students complete a Research Habits Questionnaire
Search engine usage
Search terms and construction
Scholary vs. Popular journals
Previous library instruction Examples from Student Reflections:
"Absolutely I feel more comfortable using the library! In particular, I learned how to actually search the databases to locate the specific type of information that assignment requires.
"I know now that help is available, where to ask for assistance, and even a particular librarian to ask for help." What have we accomplished?
Library Instruction has been effective in curtailing library research/anxiety:
"At first, I did not feel comfortable using the library. I actually felt lost in this library. It's so huge that I felt like I was one of the many little books here, except I was displaced and had lost the little sticker that goes on my spine that says where I belong! Now, I know where to find resources and who to ask for help."
Only 25% of students report having attended LI previously
Relationship between reflection and grades
Summer 2009: Average of 2 point improvement
Fall 2009: Average of 1.62 point improvement
Spring 2010: Average of 2.7 point improvement
Fall 2010: Average of 2.1 point improvement
Informal feedback reflection is helpful
Students both report and demonstrate impact of LI on their research habits
85% return to using scholarly articles on 2nd research assignment
Most students retain knowledge from LI session A "cognitive and affective process or activity that:
1. requires active engagement on the part of the individual
2. is triggered by an unusual or perplexing
situation or experience
3. involves examining one's responses, beliefs, and premises in light of the situation at hand.
4. results in integration of the new understanding into one's experience
Russell Rodgers, "Reflection in Higher Education: A Concept Analysis," 2001. The Reflection Assignment consists of 6 questions:
Do you feel more comfortable using the library? If yes, tell me why. If not, why not? What's one thing you learned about the CPCC Library that you didn't know before
Many students procrastinate when writing research papers because they don't know where to start. What have you learned about how to start your research?
How to do you think your writing process has changed or improved from the first paper to your research paper?
We talked about how to incorporate research into your writing. Tell me what you learned about this.
What you learned about constructing a thesis statement?
What have you learned about citations and plagiarism? Do you feel you understand the issues? If so, why? What, if anything, is still confusing? Online resources/databases exist
How to search database shown
Particular resources for literature
Plagiarism has consequences
Citations = avoiding plagiarism "I am still confused about picking out a format for MLA Citations."
"While I learned to read (understand) citation information, I feel I need more practice to feel confident that I understand citations."
"I can locate information, but I'm not sure that what I've found is appropriate and how to use it in my paper." "If I think of research like baking a cake, I'm not sure whether to use the research as the eggs (the binder), the flour (the main ingredient), or the vanilla (the strongest flavor)." Feedback:
Providing substantial feedback on their demonstrated performance at research is hugely valuable in producing learning
"Feeding Forward: Using Feedback to Promote Student Reflection and Learning: A Teaching Model" - Sarah Quinton and Teresa Smallbone
Ask students to reflect on the feedback they receive on assignments used to assess learning:
What do I feel about this feedback?
What do I think about this feedback?
Based on this feedback, what actions could I take to improve my work for another assignment?
Appreciation of positive feedback and constructive criticism
"I was worried that I would not be good at it when I started back to school this year."
Acknowledgment of the issues addressed in the feedback
"I think the main things that were pointed out in the first review were things like, be sure to give good details in the points I make, make sure its formatted correctly, elaborate on my thesis statements a bit, and possible punctuation errors. I am really trying to take all of the information into consideration when I write. I did notice that the second essay I wrote seemed to have much better feedback, so I hope I am headed in the right direction."
Recognition of compositional and grammar issues, but only a few concrete plans for improvement
"As we write out last two essays this semester I'm going to pay a lot more attention to how they will be graded and keep checking with the rubric as I write the paper, not just at the end when I'm finished."
National Research Council
"A focus on classroom-based assessment itself as a way to continuously improve learning, rather than simply measure student learning after the fact, is increasingly being recommended...[F]ormulating assessment procedures for classroom use can spur the teacher to think more specifically about learning goals, thus leading to modification of [both] curriculum and instruction."
Ash, Clayton, and Atkinson, "Integrating Reflection and Assessment to Capture and Improve Student Learning," 2005.
"Ultimately, the intent of reflection is to integrate the understanding gained into one's experience in order to enable better choices or actions in the future as well as to enhance one's overall effectiveness.
Quinton & Smallbone:
"The transition from student to...worker requires a significant shift in thinking, including acquiring the ability to self-reflect and to evaluate one's efforts. Students need to be familiar with reflective practice before entering the world of work."
Self-reporting can lead to confusion between student satisfaction and student learning
Reflection does not have to be a written process. Rogers reports that "directed discussions...appear to be effective in enhancing students' reflective skills."
The instructor has to have rapport with the students and model reflective behaviors
The environment needs to be conducive to reflection
Dedicated in-class times indicates the importance of reflection
According to Rogers, reflection seems to work best when:
There's an appropriate balance of challenge and support
The starting point is problem-based or situational
The process is inductive (beginning with experience) rather than deductive (beginning with textbooks and theories). Guiding Reflection:
Ash, Clayton, and Atkinson suggest four guiding questions, requiring students to both describe and analyze:
1. What did I learn?
2. How, specifically, did I learn it?
3. Why does this learning matter, or why is it significant?
4. In what ways will I use this learning, or what goals shall I set in accordance with what I have learned in order to improve myself, the quality of my learning, or the quality of my future experiences
Nutefall, Jennifer. "Paper Trail: One Method of Information Literacy Assessment." Research Strategies 20.1/2: (2004): 89-98.
Created an assignment called the "Paper Trail," where students wrote a short essay about their research process and reflected on what they would do differently.
Through reviewing and grading these papers, librarians determined whether students understood the difference between the library catalog and article databases, evaluated search terms, and learned more on how the students reflected on their research process. Questions? Student Reflection on Research, Writing, and Information Literacy Jennifer Arnold
Director of Library Services
Central Piedmont Community College NC Community College System Conference
Oct. 9, 2012 ENG 113 What do the assessments reveal? How did students answer these questions? Why choose reflection? Why choose reflection? Issues to consider: Reflection and Library Instruction: Reflection and information literacySee the full transcript