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Soc 370 (Week 3 & 4)
Transcript of Soc 370 (Week 3 & 4)
“The political rights of citizenship, unlike the civil rights, were full of potential danger to the capitalist system” (152).
“Trade unionism has, therefore, created a secondary system of industrial citizenship…” (153).
“In feudal society status was the hallmark of class and the measure of inequality” (149).
“Citizenship is a status bestowed on those who are full members of a community” (149).
England: civil 1st, political 2nd and social 3rd
“…societies in which citizenship is a developing institution create an image of an ideal citizenship against which achievement can be measured…” (150).
World revolution: "The proletariat of each country must, of course, first of all settle matters with its own bourgeoisie."
"What the bourgeoisie therefore, produces, above all, is its own gravediggers." (pg. 75)
"In one word, for exploitation, veiled by religious and political illusions, it has substituted naked, shameless, direct, brutal exploitation.“
Early world market: "The need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the bourgeoisie over the whole surface of the globe.“
"...universal interdependence of nations." (pg. 70)
(1) rise in incomes, (2) direct taxation and (3) mass production for plebian society.
“Social rights in their modern form imply…the subordination of market price to social justice, the replacement of the free bargain by the declaration of rights” (154).
“But these blatant inequalities are not due to defects in civil rights, but to lack of social rights…” (151).
The Poor Laws, Elementary School, etc.
“Social class…is a system of inequality” (150).
How have citizenship and social class managed to coexist?
“They gave each man…the power to engage as an independent unit in the economic struggle and made it possible to deny to him social protection…” (150).
“A property right is not a right to possess property, but a right to acquire it, if you can…” (151).
Proletariat, petty bourgeoisie and bourgeoisie.
-"...the workers begin to form combinations (trade unions) against the bourgeois." (pg. 73).
-"But every class struggle is a political struggle."
-Revolution: "Finally, in times when the class struggle nears the decisive hour...a small section of the ruling class cuts itself adrift, and joins the revolutionary class, the class the holds the future in its hands." (pg. 74)
"In one word, it creates a world after its own image."
Boom/boost/conquest economy: "...the epidemic of overproduction." (pg. 71)
"But not only has the bourgeoisie forged the weapons that bring death to itself; it has also called into existence the men who are to wield those weapons -the modern working class- the proletarians.“
"Differences of age and sex have no longer any distinctive social validity for the working class." (pg. 72)
"Society as a whole is more and more slitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other:
." (pg. 68)
Colonialism and development: "The discovery of America, rounding of the Cape, open up fresh ground for the rising bourgeoisie..."
"The executive of the modern State is but a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie." (pg. 69)
Marx is a renowned, yet poorly understood figure in history.
"The history of all hitherto existing in society is the history of class struggle." (pg. 67)
"The modern bourgeois society that has sprouted form the ruins of feudal society..."
“Citizenship and Class,” by T.H. Marshall
Civil, political and social citizenship
Civil: “rights necessary for individual freedom…” (148).
Political: “right to participate in the exercise of political power…” (149).
Social: “the whole range from the right to a modicum of economic welfare and security to…educational system(s) and the social services” (149).
Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels. "Manifesto of the Communist Party", pg. 67-75. (1848)
What is going on in the world in 1848?
Inequality, Poverty and Industrialization
"A Sociology of Bubbles", by Bruce G. Carruthers
-Financial crisis of 2008.
-Bond rating, herding and elite financial circles.
-Rating (local vs. global):
Moody’s Investors Service
Standard & Poor’s
-It's a Wonderful Life
" vs "
became especially popular in the mortgage industry because it seemed to boost profits, steer more investment into housing, and increase homeownership" (1).
-"illiquid" and "liquid" assets
-"Securitization" of the mortgage industry.
-Lack of data and misplaced confidence in subprime-market.
-The Social Psychology Wall Street:
High finance is, in short, a very small world.
-Financial reform and re-regularization of the market.
“In general, those positions convey the best reward, and hence have the highest rank, which (a) have the greatest importance for the society and (b) require the greatest training or talent.“
Are there positions in society that are modestly rewarded and yet fits both these categories?
"If a position is easily filled, it need not be heavily rewarded, even though important...Functional importance is therefore a necessary but not a sufficient cause of high rank being assigned to a position." (4)
What economic theory would concur with this position?
Sweden’s Paternity Leave
Conditions of life: “…policies of taxation and redistribution that seek to reduce the level of inequality in the distribution of income and in living standards, are likely, all other things being equal, to promote greater social fluidity” (326).
Case for “American exceptionalism” is quite weak.
And Stendhal said: “All the geniuses who are born women are lost to the public good.” To tell the truth, one is not born a genius: one becomes a genius; and the feminine situation has up to the present rendered this becoming practically impossible” (133).
“Consider for example the lot of peasant women” (134).
What critiques can be made of Davis and Moore?
State of cultural dev.
Situation with respect to other societies
“Free trade…strengthens the hand of the trader at the expense of the warrior and priest” (147).
Size of society
Difference= functional importance + scarcity of personnel
Wealth, Property and Labor
"Inevitably, then, a society must have, first, some kind of rewards that it can use as inducements, and, second, some way of distributing these rewards differently according to positions." (2)
"If the rights and perquisites of different positions in a society must be unequal, then the society must be stratified, because that is precisely what stratification means.” (3)
Social inequality is thus an unconsciously evolved device by which societies insure that the most important positions are conscientiously filled by the most qualified persons." (3)
Social mobility analysis is focused on men, including women wouldn’t change results...(today?)
“…the single largest ‘cause’ of mobility flows during the last 100 years has been the contraction in the number of positions available in agriculture.” (330)
American Dream in context.
” vs “
Look at Table 6
In Poland and Ireland in 1972, 92% of working class remain working class!
“The so-called Featherman-Jones-Hauser (FJH) hypothesis argues that a basic similarity will be found in social fluidity in all industrial societies ‘with a market economy and a nuclear family system’ (1975).
Does how the state distributes resources matter?
Agriculture, industry, post-industrial economy, etc
“The reason that different origins confer different chances of mobility is because they provide people with different
resources for mobility
…the chances of people born into a given class staying in that class would be no better than the chances of people born outside that class entering it.” (320)
“If the odds ratio is more than one, this reflects greater advantages to the origin class whose odds form the numerator of the ratio…” (318).
Class consciousness: “…the greater the ‘closure’ of mobility chances –both intergenerationally and within the career of the individual- the more this facilitates the formation of identifiable classes” (Giddens 1973: 107).
Breen, Richard and David Rottman. "Social Mobility", pg. 313-332.
“The extent and the way in which families move through the class structure –between positions in it, in other words- is the subject matter of the study of social mobility.” (313)
(1) How much change
(2) Consequences of change on class structure
Open class vs. closed class
Inter-generational mobility (most studied)
Most frequently, studies of men
In groups, discuss Beauvoir’s assessment. To what degree does her appraisal of male-female relations still apply to our current society? (Think of examples.)
“Men and women alike hate to be under the orders of a women…” (135).
“Everything still encourages the young girl to expect fortune and happiness from some Prince Charming rather than to attempt by herself their difficult and uncertain conquest” (136).
“…it was the social regime founded on private property that entailed the guardianship of the married woman, and it is the technological evolution accomplished by men that has emancipated the women of today” (130).
“The classes in which women enjoyed some economic independence and took part in production were the oppressed classes, and as women workers they were enslaved even more than the male workers” (130).
“The Second Sex,” Simone De Beauvoir.
“…the extravagant fertility of woman prevented her from active participation in the increase of these resources while she created new needs to an indefinite extent” (127).
“The worst curse that was laid upon woman was that she should be excluded from these warlike forays” (128).
“The support of life became for man an activity and a project through the invention of the tool; but in maternity woman remained closely bound to her body, like an animal” (129).
"Some Principles of Stratification", by Kingsley Davis and Wilbert E. Moore. pg. 137-147.
-"...the discussion relates to the system of positions, not the individuals occupying those positions." (1)
To understand this statement is to understand the empirical lens of sociological work.
Gender and the Functions of Inequalities
“This has always been a man’s world…” (127).
Groups: How might social programs such as this one ameliorate social inequalities that we have discussed in this class?
T.H. Marshall’s article “Citizenship and Social Class” discusses the role of economic mobility in the development of three specific types of rights: civil, political and social.
In groups, draw a concept map that demonstrates how this process has evolved historically.
In your map, be sure to reference the authors that we have discussed thus far in the course.
Be sure to be able to describe how these rights -civil, political and social- interact.
Also, cite examples in your map.
Activity: Concept Map
“…in any society with a division of labour linked to unequal rewards the question of how people and families are distributed over these positions will be of central significance for an understanding of the way in which life chances are allocated.”
Social Mobility and Division of Labour
(1) Limited discovery of talents.
(2) Limited talent, limited exploitation of resources.
(3) Stratification leads to maintenance of status quo.
(4)Self-images distributed unequally throughout society.
"Critical Review of Some Principles of Stratification" by Melvin Turmin.
(5) Social stratification encourages hostility among groups.
(6) Sense of significant membership in society distributed unequally.
(7) As a result of the former, loyalty suffers.
(8) Participation in society is unequal due to apathy.
In groups, discuss which argument you think has more value. Cite examples to clarify your arguments.
"The odds ratio is the conventional measure of inequality in access to particular class destinations from difference class origins" (318).
"It is only when there is genuinely equal access to recruitment and training for all potentially talented persons that differenctial rewards can conceivably be justified as functional" (2).
Freedman's Bureau: promise of "forty acres and a mule".
Old Age Insurance.
Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC).
Federal Housing Authority (FHA).
In groups, discuss the factors that contribute to the gender pay gap.
Which factors best help us understand the present pay gap?
If you were a policy maker, how would you address the gender gap?
The double shift
: "...at least some of the remaining pay gap is surely tied to the gender division of labor in the home."
Immigrant Workers Cleaning and Caring in the Shadows of Affluence by Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo
Poverty: pre-tax, cash income
What might this measure lead to?
“Income measures ignore homeownership and other assets that than be important sources of consumption” (297).
Gender, Race and the Lives of the Poor in the U.S.
"...U.S. census data to demonstrate that levels of residential segregation have increased in the period since the 1960s." (274)
"Little research has addressed the role of segregation as it affects the economic well-being of individual black family units." (275)
"In the suburb-shaping years between 1930 and 1960...fewer than one percent of all mortgages in the nation were issued to African Americans (Kirp, Dwyer and Rosenthal)." (272)
"Property has the quality of picking up the social value conferred upon an object or idea." (273)
"White housing is worth more precisely because it is not black housing" (273).
"The answer has important theoretical and policy implications. If it is the socioeconomic disadvantage of the parents of the current African American generation that matters, then the answer may lie in inheritance and property tax policy.”
“But if the lion's share of the black-white wealth gap remains after parental socioeconomic status (including net worth) is taken into consideration, then an aggressive race-based policy in the housing and credit markets may be in order." (268)
"Forty Acres and a Mule” by Dalton Conley, pg. 261-276.
"...by 1990, a full 135 years after the abolition of slavery, black Americans owned only a meager 1 percent of total wealth." (261)
"...writes Jennifer Hochschild, 'these paradoxes produce the surprising result that poor blacks now believe more in the American dream than rich blacks do, which is a reversal from the 1960s.'" (262)
Gender Pay Gaps by Group
"...if discrimination lowers women's wages relative to men's, it could influence the decisions couples make as to who will drop out of the labor force to care for children, whose career will determine the location of the family, etc." (243)
Individual Level Measures
In groups of 3-4 discuss Tables 5-8. Specifically, consider the most evident differences between the non-poor and poor.
What effects might these differences have?
How might these disparities affect the ability of the poor to access social mobility?
Do these social facts lead you to question equal access to the American Dream?
$55,394 (non-poor) vs. $8,501 (poor families)
Non-poor: 85.1% of income from wages, salaries and self-employment earnings
Poor: 20% of income from public assistance (52% wages).
Tax credits, welfare, food stamps
Unit of analysis (family): Income sources, spending patterns, housing, consumer durables
Unit of analysis (individual): utilities, crime and neighborhood, health and nutrition, and education.
Blau, Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn. "The Gender Pay Gap"
"This raises some important questions: What role does gender discrimination play in determining today's wage gap? What other factors contribute...?" (239)
"...in 1998, the wage gap, controlling for human capital and race, was only slightly less than the raw gap; in other words, the traditional human capital measures explained almost none of the raw wage gap." (241)
Genetic Effects of Deprivation?
Poor and non-poor have durable goods
Washer (71.7%) and dryer (50.2%)
Nonpayment on bills (credit history)
Own automobile (76.8% of poor)
77.6% (non-poor) vs. 40.8% (poor)
Crowding: over 19% live more than one person per room (poor)
One would like to move (26.6% of poor)
Did not pay full amount of rent/mortgage (25.9%)
$36,926 vs. $11,596 (income, $8,501)
Poor spend more on food (29.8%), shelter (22.3%), utilities (14%) and apparel (5.1%)
Non-poor spend more on transportation (20.1%), health care (5.4%), entertainment (5.4%) and personal insurance and pensions (10.9%).
Federman, Maya and et al. "What Does It Mean to Be Poor in America?", pg. 296-309.
“…having cash income below the official poverty line for a given family size” (296).
Family Decisions and the Gender Pay Gap
"blind auditions" adopted in some areas
"...the screen substantially increased the probability that a woman would advance out of preliminary rounds and be the winner in the final round" (243)
Symphony Orchestra Auditions
*The Latino "Paradox"
*Genes or Environment? Diabetes among the Pima