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PHILIPPINE LITERATURE UNDER AMERICAN REGIME

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by Rose Eleonor Sagang on 1 June 2013

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Transcript of PHILIPPINE LITERATURE UNDER AMERICAN REGIME

FAMOUS AUTHORS DISCUSSED Spanish and Tagalog and the Vernaculars were the languages used in writing during the first years in American period, but Spanish and Tagalog were the predominated language. SALIENT FEATURES OF PHILIPPINE LITERATURE UNDER AMERICAN REGIME 1.SPANISH WRITERS FAMOUS AUTHORS Amado V. Hernandez. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2013 from
http://www.goodreads.com/author/show/796596.Amado_V_Hernandez

Cecilio Apostol. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2013 from
http://www.poemhunter.com/cecilio-apostol/

Fernando Ma. Guerrero - A Colossus in Philippine Spanish Literature. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2013 from
http://filipinoheritage.zxq.net/sikatpinoy/fernando_guerrero.htm

Manuel H. Bernabe. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2013 from
http://www.oocities.org/sinupan/BernabeM.htm

National Artist Carlos Quirino celebrates birth centennial. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2013 from
http://www.clickthecity.com/events/details.php?id=7301

Philippine Literature Full Version. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2013 from
http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/jimbol2010-1269924-philippine-literature-full-version/

The Lost Novel: Instituto Cervantes publishes Jesús Balmori's Los pájaros de fuego. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2013 from
http://www.clickthecity.com/events/details.php?id=8251 REFERENCEs:
1.Cecilio Apostol (1877 - 1938) Under American Regime
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND PHILIPPINE LITERATURE One can say that the major contribution brought to The Philippine Literature under the American regime (1898-1941) is the production of The Philippine Literature in English, which is divided into three different time frames: The Period of Re – orientation 1898 – 1910; Imitation (1910-1925), and; Self – discovery (1925-1925). The Philippine Literature in English saw its dawn with the introduction of free public instruction and the use of English as a lingua franca in all levels of education in public schools. The Filipino revolutionist won against the Spaniards who colonized Philippines for more than 300 years. The Philippine flag was hoisted on June 12, 1898 as a symbol of independence. Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo was elected the first president of the Philippine Republic, which was short – lived. Americans colonized the country. And in 1901, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo surrendered to the Americans. Filipino writers went into all forms of literature. Their writings showed their love for the country and their longing for independence.
Their resentment expressed in literature was first felt in the following newspapers: 1. EL NUEVA DIA (THE NEW DAY)

Established by Sergio Osmeña in 1900.
The American censors banned this twice and threatened Osmeña with banishment because of his nationalistic writings. 2.EL GRITO DEL PUEBLO (The Call of the Nation)
Established by Pascual Poblete in 1900. 3.EL RENACIMIENTO (The Rebirth)
Founded by Rafael Palma in 1901. In 1910, a new group started to write in English. Hence, Spanish, Tagalog, the Vernaculars and finally English, were the mediums used in literature during these times. SPANISH writers wrote about nationalism. TAGALOG writers wrote about their lamentations on the conditions of the country and their attempts to arouse love for one’s native tongue. ENGLISH writers imitated the themes and methods of the Americans. a.Cecilio Apostol

Considered as the greatest Filipino epic poet writing in Spanish.
He wrote poems dedicated to Rizal and one entitled A Rizal (To Rizal). b.Fernando Ma. Guerrero

Known as the “Prince of Filipino lyric poets” in Spanish.
Wrote a book of poems entitled Crisalidas. c.Jesus Balmori

Well – known for his pen name of Batikuling
Wrote Los pájaros de fuego (Birds of fire) d.Manuel Bernabe

A lyric poet whose fierceness of nationalistic spirit was unchanged in any topic he wrote about.
In 1913, he received an award for his poems The Hymn to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, El Zapote, and España en Filipinas. e.Adelina Gurrea

First woman poet in the Philippines who was good inSpanish
Obtained Zobel prize in her song El Nido (The Nest). 2.FILIPINO WRITERS a.Lope K. Santos

A novelist, poet, author and grammarian
The Father of National Language Grammar
Banaag at Sikat is his masterpiece. b.Jose Corazon de Jesus

Popularly known as Huseng Batute
Also called as the Poet of Love
Ang Isang Punongkahoy is believed to be his masterpiece. c.Amado V. Herdandez

Called as Makata ng mga Manggawa (Poet of the Laborers)
His poems portrays intense love for the poor worker or laborer.
His contributions to literature are Isang Dipang Langit (A Stretch of Heaven); Bayang Malaya (A Free Nation); Munting Lupa (A Small Plot), and, Ang Panday (The Blacksmith), his masterpiece. d.Valeriano Hernandez Peña

Known as Tandang Anong and his pen name was Kuntil Butil (Small Grain)
He considers Nena at Neneng as his masterpiece. e. Severino Reyes

The Father of the Tagalog Drama
Author of Walang Sugat f.Pedro Bukaneg

Father of Ilocano Literature
From his name derived the word Bukanegan, which means Balagtasan (a poetic contest) in Ilocano. 3.PHILIPPINE LITERATURE IN ENGLISH Philippine Literature in English is divided into three time frames:

a.The Period of Re – orientation: 1898 – 1910
b.The Period of Imitation: 1910 – 1925
c.The period of Self – Discovery: 1925 – 1941 A.The Period of Re – orientation: 1898 – 1910

English as a literary vehicle came with the American occupation on August 13, 1898 and by 1900, English became the medium of instruction in public schools.

Writers of this period were still adjusting to the newfound freedom different from the Spanish regime where thoughts and speech were suppressed. They were also adjusting in the use of the new language and to the standards of the English literary style. Thus it is not surprising that there were not much production of literature during this period. B.The Period of Imitation: 1910 – 1925

Writers in this period made their way into imitating the American and British’s way of writing that resulted in rigid and unnatural styles that lack vitality and spontaneity. C.The period of Self – Discovery: 1925 – 1941

By this time, Filipino writers had acquired the mastery of English writing. They now confidently and competently wrote on a lot of subjects although the old – time favorites of love and youth persisted. 3.1 ENGLISH WRITERS a.Paz Marquez Benitez

Wrote the short story Dead Stars in early 1920’s that stood out as a model of perfection in character delineation, local color, plot and message. b.Salvador P. Lopez

He owned the Literature and Society, which is a collection of critical reflections and serious essays that won a prize in the Commonwealth Literary Contest in 1940. c.Camilo Osias

Published The Filipino Way of Life, which is a series of essays about Filipino way of life as depicted from history, folkways, philosophy and psychology of the Philippines. d.Carlos Quirino

The most biographer of his time
Wrote The Great Malayan that won a prized in the national contest sponsored by the Commonwealth of the Philippines. e.I.V. Mallari

Wrote The Birth of Discontent which showed the sensitive touch of a writer who, in spite of the simplicity of the language used, was able to reveal his profound thoughts and feelings. 1.Cecilio Apostol (1877 - 1938 )

Considered as the greatest Filipino epic poet writing in Spanish.
The poems of Apostol have been compiled by Professor Jaime C. de Veyra and published under the title Pentelicas (Manila, 1941). Included in this collection are: Al Heroe Nacional, Mi Raza, A La Bandera, La Siesta, Sobre El Plinto (dedicated to Mabini), Paisaie Filipino, A Emilio Jacinto, Los Martires Anonimos de la Pairia, and El Solo de la Independencia.
He wrote poems dedicated to Rizal and one entitled A Rizal (To Rizal), which is still unsurpassed in epic sweep and patriotic fire
Apostol's patriotic poem, Mi Raza, won first prize in the national literary contest sponsored by the Club International in 1902. 2.Lope K. Santos

A novelist, poet, author and grammarian
The Father of National Language Grammar
His famous works are Balarila ng Wikang Pambansa (Grammar of the National Language); Banaag at Sikat (From Early Dawn to Full Light), which is considered as the "Bible of working-class Filipinos, and; Ang Matampuhin (The Sulker). 3.Amado V. Herdandez (1903-1970)

Called as Makata ng mga Manggawa (Poet of the Laborers)
National Artist for Literature in 1973.
His poems portray intense love for the poor worker or laborer.
Some of his contributions to literature are Isang Dipang Langit (A Stretch of Heaven); Bayang Malaya (A Free Nation), and; Ibong Mandaragit (Bird of Prey), 2.Lope K. Santos(1879 – 1963) 3.Amado V. Herdandez (1903-1970) 4.Adelina Gurrea (1896 – 1971)

First woman poet in the Philippines who was good in Spanish
Obtained Zobel prize in her song El Nido (The Nest).
She also published a collection of tales called [[Cuentos de Juana]], which were based on her recollection of the favorite stories of her Visayan nanny 4.Adelina Gurrea (1896 – 1971) Under American Regime PHILIPPINE LITERATURE The End. 5.Carlos Quirino (1910 – 1999)

National Artist of the Philippines for Historical Literature
His prizewinning biography”The Great Malayan" (1940), was one of the earliest English-language biographies on Jose Rizal.
His other works include "Man of Destiny," a biography of President Manuel Quezon (1935) "Magsaysay and the Philippines" (1958); "Philippine Cartography" (1959); "Damian Domingo: First Eminent Filipino Painter" (1961), "History of the Philippine Sugar Industry" (1974), and "Filipinos at War" (1981). 5.Carlos Quirino (1910 – 1999) Rose Eleonor L. Sagang
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