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GLOing about History

General Land Office Timeline
by BLM Colorado on 2 January 2013

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Transcript of GLOing about History

The U.S. approved the first grant of public lands to construct a public (wagon) road in central Ohio. A great rush of newly-designated Oklahoma Lands (formerly Native American territory) occurred on April 22. Similar events occurred throughout the 1890s. The U.S. decided to reserve and lease public lands valuable for lead in the Indiana Territory. 1807 1970 The Anasazi Heritage Center opened in Dolores, Colorado. Colorado focuses its fuels reduction efforts on areas near communities known as the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI). About 68 percent of the acres treated for fuels reduction in Colorado are focused within the WUI. The remaining 32 percent of fuels work is designed to enhance and sustain healthy ecosystems.

Throughout the year the BLM helps Colorado counties complete wildfire protection plans by offering technical expertise and assistance agreements. The BLM and its cooperators have completed several hundred community-based, interagency educational workshops to support community wildfire preparedness, planning and hazard mitigation. The General Land Office was created as a bureau of the Treasury Department to oversee disposition of federal lands. Many of the dates have pictures, maps or videos to reinforce the topic. Each picture offers a zoom option for more detail. Click on the small box to the right for an example. Some of the vocabulary may be formidable and new to you. Words underlined in blue feature a definition. Click on the blue line for a definition.

You can then zoom back out using the scroll on your mouse or the navigation on the right. When you are done with that information, click the play button to resume the presentation. The BLM searches for an identity, while it's lands quickly became the ultimate example of commercial opportunity. Central Pacific and Union Pacific meet at Promontory Summit, Utah, for the driving of the golden spike on May 10. The Gadsden Purchase of 19 million acres from Mexico, provided the U.S. with additional public lands in southern Arizona and New Mexico. Click ( ) below to begin the show. This will advance you through the set of slides in a deliberate order. You can also navigate through the slides using the arrow keys. The passage of the Land Ordinance provided for the survey of public lands into townships 36 square miles in size and granted certain lands to states while reserving others for public purposes. Colorado became a territory. 1776 BLM Colorado manages


acres of public land 8.3 Million 1781 Creation of the original public domain of federal lands began with the cession of "western reserve lands" by the 13 original states. 1785 1803 The Louisiana Purchase from France doubled the U.S. public domain. 1812 1819 1846 The Oregon Treaty with England gave the U.S. domain over 183 million acres of territory, embracing much of the present day pacific day northwest. 1848 Mexico cedes 338 million acres of land to the U.S. under the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. 1853 1849 The General Land Office is transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior. The Homestead Act passed. It awarded land to every settler who could farm and live on the 160-acre tracts. The Timber Culture Act gave 160 acres to anyone willing to plant trees on land naturally devoid of timber. The Desert Land Act provided for the sale of non-timber and non-mineral lands in 11 western states. The Carey Act offered up to one million acres to states as an incentive to irrigate their lands. Public land laws, including the Homesteading Act, were extended to the Alaska Territory. The Forest Homestead Act authorized as much as 160 acres for homesteaders on suitable agriculture lands within National Forests. The Stockraising Homestead Act authorized the Secretary of the Interior to allow homesteads of 640 acres by a person or persons (family) under the homestead laws. The first railroad land grants were issued to various eastern states including Illinois, Alabama and Mississippi. The Pacific Railway Act was passed, which authorized the construction of the first transcontinental railroad. Congress approved the Oregon and California Railroad Land Grant, creating a tie from California to Portland, Oregon. 1867 The U.S. purchased Alaska from Russia, adding 375 million acres. 1898 Hawaii was annexed to the U.S. President Grant signs the Yellowstone National Park Bill. The bill reserved the lands "as a public park or pleasuring ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people." It looks like this... Recreation More than 1/4 of BLM CO lands managed specifically for recreation and tourism Recreation areas include: Special Recreation Management Areas, National Landscape Conservation System units, fishable and boatable rivers, cultural heritage and natural resource attractions, off-highway vehicle areas, scenic byways, watchable wildlife areas and places to hunt and fish. The NLCS highlights some of the West's most spectacular public lands. These areas conserve, protect and restore nationally significant landscapes recognized for their cultural, ecological and scientific values. 354 recreation sites (111 developed) 7 Colorado Scenic and Historic Byways 29 Special Recreation Management Areas totaling 850,000 acres 3 Blue Ribbion Fisheries (19.6 miles) 3 Fourteeners and 30 Thirteeners NLCS units are congressionally or presidentially designated, and include national monuments, national conservation areas, national historic and scenic trails, wild and scenic rivers, wilderness areas and wilderness study areas. Colorado has 66 NLCS areas encompassing more than 1 million acres (~1/8 of BLM Colorado's land). Forestry BLM Colorado manages 5.1 million acres of forested lands containing woodlands such as pinyon pine, juniper, and/or gambel oak,as well as lodgepole pine, aspen and spruce-fir. The BLM manages these lands to restore forest health, sustain biodiversity, conduct fires and fuels management, and develop commercial forest products. Goals of the Forestry Program:
Improve the health and vitality of forests for multiple use management.
Protect human life and property.
Work with partners and neighbors.
Improve/support wood product-related markets, including biomass.
Initiate forest and fire ecology-related research. Wildland Fire Management BLM Colorado manages wildland fire through interagency efforts that include federal, state, county and local firefighting units. Since 2002, BLM Colorado has focused its fuel reduction efforts on areas near communities, known as the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI). Since 1997, BLM Colorado averaged 482 fires per year with a high in 2003 of 753 fires and a low in 2008 of 331 fires. Average annual acres burned since 1997 are 11,698, with a high in 2002 of 28,529 and a low in 1998 of 3,228. Wildlife, Threatened and Endangered Species 671 species of wildlife, and 100 special status plants and animals including 13 Federally Threatened and 16 Federally Endangered Species. Colorado hosts a broad diversity of wildlife:
473 bird species
130 mammal species
49 reptile species
69 fish species
18 amphibian species BLM Colorado's wildlife habitat management goal is to ensure the natural abundance and diversity of fish and wildlife, and special status species of both plant and animal resources on public lands by restoring, maintaining, and enhancing habitat productivity and quality. Cultural Resources Paleontological Resources Grazing Cadastral Survey Wild Horses and Burros Renewable Energy Air Quality Fluid Minerals Solid Minerals Emergency Stabilization and Burned Area Rehabilitation BLM Colorado manages four wild horse management areas: Piceance/East Douglas, Little Book Cliffs, Sandwash Basin and Spring Creek Basin. And Like This: 1903 1906 The American Antiquities Act authorized the establishment of the national monuments on federal lands for the preservation of historic and natural landmarks, and historic and prehistoric structures. The National Park Service was established in the Department of the Interior. 1920 The Mineral Leasing Act authorized the Secretary of the Interior to lease deposits of coal, phosphate, sodium oil, oil shale or gas and dispose of surface lands that were unnecessary for the lessees. 1934 Congress passed the Taylor Grazing Act, which created the Division of Grazing (renamed the Grazing Service in 1939). 1942 Extensive withdraws of public lands for military and defense uses were initiated. More than 13 million acres were withdrawn in two years. 1946 The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) was created through the merger of the GLO and the Grazing Service under the President's Reorganization Plan Number 3. 1950s The 1950s saw the BLM dealing with some of its first major resource issues. Also during the 1950s in Nevada, Velma B Johnson, later known as Wild Horse Annie, started a grassroots campaign to protect and manage wild horses and burros in the West. 1964 The Classification & Multiple Use Act directed the BLM to classify public lands, determining which could be disposed and which were suitable for retention and management by the government. BLM Colorado manages archaeological and historical sites, such as prehistoric camps, Fremont rock art, Ancestral Puebloan masonry pueblos, Ute wickiups, the Old Spanish National Historic Trail, and historic mines and ranches. The Anasazi Heritage Center, near Dolores, is one of three BLM museums. It holds about 3 million objects from around the southwest. Features:
1.79 million acres inventoried for cultural use
45,454 recorded archaeological and historic sites
434 sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places
4 National Historic Landmarks Colorado public lands have several internationally-known paleontological sites (referred to as localities):
Garden Park, near Canon City, is one of the most significant localities for dinosaurs in the world.
The Kremmling Cretaceous-Ammonite locality is one of the largest concentrations of marine fossils in North America.
Dinosaur Diamond Prehistoric Byway (Grand Junction, Little Snake, White River Field Offices).
Rabbit Valley Interpretive Area (McInnis Canyons NCA).
Dinosaur Hill Interpretive Trail (McInnis Canyons NCA).
Fruita Paleo Area Trail (McInnis Canyons NCA). On June 28, 1934, the Taylor Grazing Act was passed and signed into law. The stated purpose of the act was to “stop injury to the public grazing lands by preventing overgrazing and soil deterioration, to provide for their orderly use, improvement, and development, to stabilize the livestock industry dependent on the public range and for other purposes.” The Cadastral Survey Program is responsible for land surveys conducted throughout Colorado. Cadastral surveying services support land exchanges and disposals, identification of trespasses, identification of range allotment boundaries for fencing purposes and surveying of wilderness or other congressionally-designated area boundaries. Renewable energy projects include wind, solar, geothermal and biomass, as well as siting transmission facilities to deliver power.
Biomass: BLM Colorado produces thousands of tons of biomass annually through various forestry, fuel hazard reduction and range improvement projects.
Solar: Four Solar Energy Study Areas were identified in San Luis Valley to look at potential for commercial-scale solar projects.
Wind: Several companies are operating wind testing sites in the Northwest and Front Range District Offices for potential commercial development.
Geothermal: The first geothermal parcel lease in 30 years came during the November 2010 quarterly lease sale. Air resource management is a complex component of the BLM’s soil, water and air program. Air quality monitoring is required by the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).
The BLM uses air quality monitoring to assess current conditions and inform decision making. The BLM has the responsibility for oil and gas leasing of all onshore federal minerals. BLM Colorado holds quarterly oil and gas lease sales. Lands managed by the BLM are an important component of Colorado’s oil and gas production. Solid mineral production in Colorado involves three distinct mineral categories: locateables, leaseables and saleables.
Locateables include minerals like gold, silver, copper, molybdenum, coal, sodium and uranium.
Leases are issued for specific periods of time, and the lessee pays an annual rental fee and royalties on the minerals produced.
Saleables include common sand, gravel and other construction and landscaping materials. They are available to the public through material sales at fair market value. The Emergency Stabilization and Burned Area Rehabilitation (ES&R) program focuses on mitigating the impacts wildland fires have on ecosystems and communities.
Wildfires, regardless of size, that have the potential of significant damage to a natural or cultural resource require ES&R.
On average, BLM Colorado initiates ES&R treatments on 6 to 10 fires annually. The BLM is best described as a small agency with a big mission:
To sustain the health, productivity, and diversity of America’s public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations. And like this... How did the BLM come to manage your public lands?

And what exactly does the BLM do?

The history of the United States and the history of the BLM are intimately entangled. This presentation highlights the role the BLM played while the United States was developing. What BLM Colorado Does It all started here... The continental congress declared the independence of the 13 colonies from Great Britain with the ratification of the "Declaration of Independence." John Trumbull's "Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776" Click on the white box to see how townships are laid out: Congress was convened and had the authority necessary to manage the public domain through the newly ratified constitution. 1789 As the successor agency to the original GLO, the Bureau of Land Management maintains more than nine million historic land documents:
survey plats and field notes
homestead patents
military warrants
railroad grants Many of these records can be found at:
http://www.glorecords.blm.gov/ Accession Nr: MW-0233-002 Document Type: Military Warrant State: Colorado County: Jefferson Issue Date: 12/1/1865 Cancelled: No These historic documents were among the very first land records to result from the Land Ordinance of 1785, which authorized the transfer of public lands to private individuals. Even today, these records are valuable resources for natural resource agencies, historians, title companies and genealogists. 1823 The Indian Removal Act was passed. 1830 James Marshal discovered Gold in California, causing a westward migration. 1863 The original check used to purchase Alaska $7.2 million for 586,412 square miles From 1838 to 1839, 15,000 Cherokee Indians were imprisoned in camps and forced to march west along a 1,200-mile route. First Secretary of the Interior:
Thomas Ewing Meeting of the lines of the First Transcontinental Railroad at Promontory Summit, Utah, May 10, 1869 (Museum of Chinese in America, New York, N.Y. USA). 1872 The General Mining Act of 1872 authorized and governed prospecting and mining for economic minerals such as gold, platinum and silver on federal public lands. Thomas Moran painted Tower Creek, Yellowstone, while on the Hayden Geological Survey of 1871. 1887 Through the Dawes/General Allotment Act, Native American Tribes lost 2/3 of lands deeded to them in treaties. The U.S. government began another wave of selling off Native American lands in the 1880s, which created avenues for private entities to take advantage of them. On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawaii over ʻIolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag, signifying annexation. 1890 As part of the census of 1890, the government reported the closing of the American Frontier. 1891 The General Public Lands Reform Law authorized the president to create forest reserves from the public domain. This repealed the Timber Culture Law. 1897 Congress granted the administration of forest reserves to the GLO. This new authority also gave the GLO the responsibility of controlling fires. President Roosevelt established Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge along Florida's central Atlantic Coast as the first unit of the present National Wildlife Refuge System. War in Europe broke out in 1914. By 1917, as the nation went to war, the U.S. embarked on a period of development and resource use unlike any previous point in American history. Fred W. Johnson, commissioner of the GLO, was chosen as BLM's first director by Interior Secretary Krug. Multiple-use literally meant cut the timber, graze the land, remove the minerals, and finally, if feasible, sell it off. 1970s During the 1970s, Congress passed multiple acts that impacted how the BLM did business. 1960s-1970s The BLM's recreation program was first formalized and funded through a series of congressional acts in the 1960s and 1970s. 1970 Geothermal Leasing/Steam Act 1970 Air Quality Act 1971 Wild and Free Roaming Horse and Burro Act 1972 Federal Pesticide (Insecticide, Rodenticide, and Fungicide) Act 1972 Clean Water Act 1973 Endangered Species Act 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act Environmental Acts of the 1970's 1973 Massive brown-outs, an oil embargo and other key events sent some fuel prices (especially gasoline) skyrocketing. As a result of the energy crisis, the BLM took on three programmatic environmental impact statements for the leasing of lands for coal, oil & gas, and oil shale. 1970-80s The U.S. saw a significant ramp up in renewable energy development and use, including wind, solar and geothermal. 1980 1983 Alaska National Interest Land Conservation Act set aside millions of acres of public domain in Alaska as national parks, national wildlife refuges and wild and scenic rivers. The BLM completed its first Resource Management Plan (RMP) (California Desert Conservation Area). The same year, the first Areas of Critical Environmental Concern (ACEC) were designated in Utah (Laketown Canyon) and California (75 in the California Desert Conservation Area). Congress designated the BLM's first wilderness area, Bear Trap Canyon, in southwest Montana. 1988 The BLM released Recreation 2000, which outlined the agency's dedication to increase outdoor recreation opportunities. 1970 Congress designated California's King Range National Conservation Area. 1976 Congress enacted the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA). In FLPMA, Congress recognized the value of the remaining public lands by declaring that these lands would remain in public ownership (end of homesteading). Congress also gave the BLM the term "multiple use" management, defined as "management of the public lands and their various resource values so that they are utilized in the combination that will best meet the present and future needs of the American people." When the BLM was created, there were more than 2,000 unrelated and often conflicting laws concerning public land management. The BLM had no unified legislative mandate until FLPMA. 2000 The National Landscape Conservation System was established by Interior Secretary Babbitt. Following one of the worst fire seasons on record in 2000, a decade of change began, which to many has been seen as a wildfire renaissance. 2007 Secretary Dirk Kempthorne launched the Healthy Lands Initiative. The initiative emphasized wildlife habitat management and environmentally sound development of natural resources needed for America's energy security. 2008 Interior Secretary Kempthorne signed a Secretarial Order to officially designate the 258 million acres of lands managed by the BLM as the National System of Public Lands. Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural Area was designated as part of the NLCS, truly making it a national system. 2012 BLM commemorates the General Land Office's 200th anniversary. Ratification: to confirm by expressing consent, approval, or formal sanction Cession: To yield or formally surrender to another Domain: the territory governed by a single ruler or government Convened: to come together or assemble, usually for some public purpose. The Gadsden Purchase
(shown in yellow with present-day state boundaries and cities) 1804 map of "Louisiana", edged on the west by the Rocky Mountains This landmark event, recorded in 1890, meant that it was no longer possible to distinguish a clearly defined boundary between the settled and the unsettled halves of the country. The days of the mountain man, “Indian Country” and the “Great Wilderness” had come to an end. Captains Lewis and Clark traveled from Missouri to the mouth of the Columbia River. 1832 The Erie Canal was completed, which opened up the Great Lakes region for trading and development. Between 1866 and 1867, thousands of Chinese men

were imported to work on Central Pacific Railroad.
Experts estimate that fewer than 2,000 buffalo remained of the more than 20 million that once roamed the Western plains. 1893 Settled areas in RED 1820 1890 1850 1830 The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) oversees more than 245 million acres of public land, which is far more than any other federal agency. Most of this land is located in the 12 Western states, including Alaska. The BLM also manages 700 million acres of sub-surface mineral estate throughout the nation. But what exactly does 8.3 million acres look like? The BLM is also responsible for managing priceless cultural artifacts like this... 1804-1806 Disposition: arrangement or placing, as of troops or land The Maumee Road is the dark line in northwest Ohio between the western edge of the Firelands and the Maumee River How this works: Prezi is an interactive software - you have some say in what you learn and how it is presented. 1850s 1862 First and last pages of the original manuscript of the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 (12 Stat. 489) July 1, 1862 (National Archives and Records Administration ) 1866 1869 1873 1877 1889 1894 1916 Colorado formidable: requiring great effort More BLM videos can be found at: http://www.youtube.com/user/BLMNational Arkansas Headwaters Recreation Area McInnis Canyon NCA Gunnison Gorge NCA Field Office Explore BLM Colorado through pictures and videos Douglas-Piceance Pregather Video Canon City Paleopods 1 2 Introduction 3 4 5 Visit with Respect Kremmling Field Office Alpine Loop Penitente Canyon Fruita Paleo Area Shelf Road Recreation Area Rife Arch The following maps show the spread of settlement (in red) in the United States of America from 1820 to 1890. Blanca Wetlands Dolores Creek The BLM's mission is unique among federal land management agencies and provides the best opportunity to meet the many and varied demands of the changing West. In 1976, few anticipated the West’s rapid growth and its associated demographic and economic changes, all of which have placed increased demands on the public lands. But because of the insight and vision of the people who crafted it, FLPMA provides the BLM with the tools they need to cooperatively and creatively manage the public lands, and in the process, dispel the notion that a variety of uses and resources cannot co-exist. During the GLO's existence, more than one billion acres of land were transferred from federal to state and private ownership under federal land laws, including the various homesteading and settlement laws and statehood acts. By the 1870s the first moves toward public land retention were enacted by Congress. There was a growing sense that many lands, because of either their great public value or their remoteness and apparent lack of value, should be held in the public trust. This shift in attitude was based on the notion that there was a legitimate national interest in the remaining unsettled lands, and that this interest would be best served by Federal ownership. The reservation of Yellowstone National Park in 1872, and the 1891 General Land Reform Act that created the forest reserves, formally marked this change in public and Congressional thinking. The next four decades saw reservation (by various means, from Acts of Congress to Presidential Orders) from private ownership of essentially all of the Federal lands now in existence in the lower 48 states. The Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 can be viewed as a shift in attitude toward land retention and scientific conservation. On the conservation side, the Grazing Act clearly emerged from a sense that the western public domain had been degraded by grazing and drought, and needed a more regulated management framework. 1976 FLPMA "The national interest will be best realized if the public lands and their resources are periodically and systematically inventoried and their present and future use is projected through a land use planning process coordinated with other Federal and State planning efforts" FLPMA also specified that the United States receive fair market value for the use of the public lands and their resources unless otherwise provided for by statute, and that:

"The public lands be managed in a manner that will protect the quality of scientific, scenic, historical, ecological, environmental, air and atmospheric, water resource, and archeological values; that, where appropriate, will preserve and protect certain public lands in their natural condition; that will provide food and habitat for fish and wildlife and domestic animals; and that will provide for outdoor recreation and human occupancy and use." Wildland Urban Interface BLM: Looking Towards the Future Wild Horses and Burros Public Involvement Multiple Use Mandate While adhering to the FLPMA multiple-use mandate, the BLM has to keep pace with new laws, court decisions and changing public demands.

Americans increasingly value the public lands for their environmental resources, the recreational opportunities they offer, their cultural resources, and, in an increasingly urban world, their vast open spaces. FLPMA's multiple-use mandate requires the BLM to balance the public's newer demand for more recreation with more traditional uses -- including commodity extraction and grazing. The Bureau of Land Management estimates that approximately 38,500 wild horses and burros (about 33,000 horses and 5,500 burros) are roaming on BLM-managed rangelands in 10 Western states based on the latest data available (February 28, 2011). Wild horses and burros have virtually no natural predators and their herd sizes can double about every four years. As a result, the agency must remove thousands of animals from the range each year to control herd sizes. The Bureau of Land Management formed 24 Resource Advisory Councils (RACs) in the western states to provide advice on the management of public lands and resources. These citizen-based groups provide an opportunity for individuals from all backgrounds and interests to have a voice in the management of these lands and to help improve their health and productivity. RAC recommendations address all public land issues, including land use planning, recreation, noxious weeds and wild horse and burro herd management areas. BLM Director Bob Abbey discusses RACs Vermillion Basin Zapata Falls Gold Belt Scenic Byway Domiguez Canyon Wilderness Area, Colorado Records for many of these transactions still exist. The following video discusses how these records are preserved and how you can look them up online. This 1872 painting by John Gast is entitled American Progress. It was inspired by the phrase "manifest destiny," meaning the divine sanction for territorial expansion of the United States. North Sand Hills Preservation Timeline Preservation Timeline
1832 - Frontier artist George Catlin suggests that the government create a preserve to protect "the wild freshness of nature."
1854 - Philosopher Henry David Thoreau, author of Walden, writes that wilderness sanctuaries are the "need of civilized man."
1872 - Artist Thomas Moran exhibits paintings of Yellowstone, helping to promote establishment of the first national park.
1890 - Yosemite National Park Bill is passed by Congress and signed into law by President Benjamin Harrison.
1892 - Conservationist John Muir organizes the Sierra Club to enlist public and governmental support for preservation of wilderness.
1903 - President Theodore Roosevelt sets aside vast acres of federal land and creates the first national wildlife refuge at Florida's Pelican Island.
1913 - A landmark conservation battle is lost when legislation is passed to allow development of a dam at Yosemite's Hetch Hetchy Valley.
1920 - Landscape architect Arthur Carhart proposes the first designation of an undeveloped and roadless area at Trapper's Lake in Colorado.
1924 - Ecologist Aldo Leopold achieves designation of the first official wilderness area, the Gila Wilderness in New Mexico.
1935 - Forester Robert Marshall becomes the principle founder of the Wilderness Society.
1962 - Scientist Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring, stirring public consciousness about pesticides and the environment.
1964 - Authored by Howard Zahniser of the Wilderness Society, the Wilderness Act creates the National Wilderness Preservation System.
1970 - Senator Gaylord Nelson founds Earth Day, focusing national attention on the environment.
1970 - Petrified Forest N.P. and Crates of the Moon N.M. become the first NPS sites to include designated wilderness areas.
1980 - President Jimmy Carter passes the Alaska Lands Act establishing 10 new NPS sites, 9 wildlife refuges, and additional BLM conservation units.
1999 - President William Clinton proposes a Lands Legacy Initiative including permanent protection to over 5 million acres of NPS wilderness. "If future generations are to remember us with gratitude rather than contempt, we must leave them more than the miracles of technology. We must leave them a glimpse of the world as it was in the beginning, not just after we got through with it."
-President Lyndon B. Johnson President Lyndon Johnson signs the Wilderness Act of 1964 in the White House Rose Garden. Also pictured are Interior Secretary Stewart Udall, Senator Frank Church, Mardy Murie, Alice Zahniser, and Representative Wayne Aspinall, among others. Heros of the Wilderness These five visionary leaders played a pivotal roles in raising awareness and understanding for the need to preserve our great wildlands and wilderness legacy. They were the philosophers, activists, environmentalists, and preservationists of their time. Each contributed significantly in the story that has resulted in the creation of our National Wilderness Preservation System. Muir's insights were landmarks in the history of the environmental conservation. The words and deeds of John Muir led to the establishment of the National Park System. He was the founding president of the Sierra Club. He was not always successful, however, and some say he died of a broken heart when his beloved Hetch Hetchy Valley, within Yosemite National Park, was lost to a dam and a reservoir for a San Francisco water supply. John Muir - farmer, inventor, sheepherder, naturalist, explorer, writer, and conservationist - was born in 1838 in Dunbar, Scotland. He has been called "the father of our national parks," and "protector if the wilds." But John Muir saw himself as an ordinary citizen of the universe, and in fact wrote his mailing address as "John Muir, Earth-Planet, Universe." John Muir saw nature as not just a storehouse of raw materials for man's economic needs, but as a spiritual resources as well. John Muir's radicalism manifested itself in the non-anthropocentric view of nature which saw man as part of the world, rather than the center of it. He noted: "when we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe." He recognized that all living things were part of a whole, and that if we lose that whole we lose part of ourselves. He advocated preservation of natural areas for reasons of mental health: "Come to the woods, for here is rest. There is no repose like that that of the green deep woods." John Muir's life and voice remain a continuing inspiration to people today all over the world who are striving to protect the last fragments of living wilderness. "Like most other things apparently not useful to man, wilderness has few friends, and the blind question 'Why was it made?' goes on and on, with never a guess that first of all it might have been made for itself."
-John Muir John Muir 1838-1914 Aldo Leopold 1887-1948 Aldo Leopold is considered the father of wildlife ecology. It is for his book, A Sand County Almanac, that Leopold is best known by millions of people around the globe. The Almanac is often acclaimed as the century's literary landmark in conservation. The roots of Leopold's concept is of a "land ethic" can be traced to his birthplace on the bluffs of the Mississippi River near Burlington, Iowa. As a youngster he developed a zealous appreciation and interest in the natural world, spending countless hours on adventures in the woods, prairies, and river backwaters of a then relatively wild Iowa. After Yale, Leopold joined the U.S. Forest Service and was assigned to the Arizona Territories. Leopold's cornerstone book Game Management (1933) defined the fundamental skills and techniques for managing and restoring wildlife populations. Leopold's unique gift for communicating scientific concepts was only equal to his fervor for putting theories into practice. In 1935, the Leopold family purchased a worn-out farm near Baraboo, in an area known as the sand counties. It is here that Leopold put into action his beliefs that the same tools people use to disrupt the landscape could also be used to rebuild it. An old chicken coop, fondly known as the Shack, served as a haven and land laboratory for the Leopold family, friends, graduate students. And it was here Leopold visualized many of the essays of what was to become his most influential work, A Sand County Almanac. "The richest value of wilderness lie not in the days of Daniel Boone, nor even in the present but rather in the future."
-Aldo Leopold Arthur Carhart 1892-1978 Born in 1892 in Mapleton, Iowa, Carhart graduated from Iowa State College in 1916 with a degree in landscape architecture. In 1919, the U.S. Forest Service hired Carhart as its first full-time landscape architect, even though his official title was "recreation engineer." One of Carhart's first assignments was to survey a road around Trappers Lake in the White River National Forest in Colorado. Carhart completed the assignment, but recommended to his supervisor that no development be permitted on the shore. Instead, he strongly urged the best use of the area was for wilderness recreation. This was a bold suggestion for such a young employee and Carhart was quite surprised when his recommendations were endorsed. In 1920, Trappers Lake was designated as an area to be kept roadless and undeveloped. That designation marked the first application of the wilderness preservation concept in Forest Service history. Before leaving the Forest Service, he toured Quetico-Superior region in Minnesota and recommended these areas of superlative wild scenery be managed for their value as wilderness. Carhart's efforts eventually led to development of what is now the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. During his long life Carhart continued to write about and work for the idea of wilderness. "I sometimes wonder how I had the nerve as a young punk to get my supervisors turned around on some of these things. I feel real good about how it all turned out."
-Arthur Carhart Bob Marshall 1901-1939 A visionary in the truest sense of the world, Marshall set an unprecedented course for wilderness preservation in the United States few have surpassed. Born into a prominent New York family in 1901, Marshall gave up a wealthy lifestyle to become involved in saving America's wild lands. He was the principal founder of The Wilderness Society, was among the first to suggest that large tracts of Alaska be preserved, and shaped the U.S. Forest Service's policy on wilderness designation and management. He was not an armchair explorer but a man of limitless energy. Although he had a weak heart, he climbed all 46 peaks in the Adirondack Mountains that were over 4,000 feet (1,219 meters) high. He regularly made 30-40 mile (and longer) day hikes, and preferred hiking in high top tennis shoes rather than heavy hiking boots. On July 15, 1932, Marshall set a record by climbing 14 Adirondack peaks within 19 hours, a feat that required a total ascent of 13,600 feet. He spoke for his contemporaries when he wrote, "To us the enjoyment of solitude, complete independence, and the beauty of undefiled panoramas is absolutely essential to happiness." A strong socialist, Marshall believed that private interests would certainly destroy American's forests. Militant in his politics, he was uncompromising in his quest for an organization that would fight for wilderness preservation. Marshall and others formally founded the Wilderness Society in 1935. Marshall died of heart failure in November 1939. Independently wealthy, Marshall left one-quarter of his $1.5 million estate to The Wilderness Society, assuring its existence and commitment to wilderness preservation. "There is just one hope for repulsing the tyrannical ambition of civilization to conquer every niche of the whole earth. That hope is the organization of spirited people who will fight for the freedom of the wilderness."
-Bob Marshall Uniquely
BLM Backcountry Lands User Fees Adventure Cultural Resources Vast and varied, BLM public lands comprise America's largest acreage available for recreation, and offer outdoor enthusiasts unparalleled leisure opportunities to suit almost any taste, often within a short drive from home. From the Front Range of the Rockies to the majestic vistas of the Gunnison Gorge and Black Ridge Canyons on the western slope, BLM Colorado offers a multitude of recreation opportunities. Each BLM field office offers recreation adventures including hunting, hiking, mountain biking, off‐highway-vehicle use, camping, backpacking, fishing, nature study, photography, and picnicking. These adventures can take place within very accessible lands, with facilities or in remote lands with no facilities. Excerpt from BLM Colorado trail description: “The adventurous nature of this trail requires users to be cautious, personally responsible, and self-sufficient and have a working knowledge of backcountry survival. The use of topographic maps, a compass and/or GPS unit is strongly recommended. Carry plenty of drinking water as it is not readily available along the trail.” BLM Colorado's cultural resources program is diverse and encompasses prehistoric sites dating from 12,000 years ago. There are more than 50,000 recorded prehistoric sites on Colorado's public lands. In addition, there are numerous nationally significant historic sites that represent mining, transportation and western settlement. BLM lands are unique among federal lands because of their primitive nature. Most BLM-managed lands have no amenities such as running water, bathrooms or developed campgrounds. The sites that are developed are typically in high-use areas where the facilities are designed to reduce resource damage. As such, most BLM lands are free for you to explore and the sites that do charge have lower fees than other recreation sites. We only ask that you Leave No Trace and Tread Lightly. Wilderness: America's Inspiration The Uniquely American Resource In pressing our civilization across wild land, our ancestors became pioneers, conquering most of the continents wild places. In that very process, our encounter with wilderness shaped in us as a people hardy pioneer characteristics we think as fundamental to our Americanism: self-reliance, fortitude, hard work, a fierce independence, an innate love of the land. In renowned conservationist Aldo Leopold's words, wilderness is "the very stuff America is made of"--and American's, too. Yet, by the earliest 20th century, the frontier was gone. The momentum of pioneering had carried us across the continent, up every mountain valley and down every canyon, threatening to wipe out all wilderness. Wilderness, as Bob Marshall wrote in 1937, "is melting away like some last snow bank on some south-facing mountainside during a hot afternoon in June." In reaction to the loss of wilderness was born a uniquely American idea: to deliberately preserve scenic wonders and expanses of wild nature as wilderness, with a motive of not losing the imprint of frontier wilderness so formative and fundamental to American values. We share an instinctive, insistent duty to pass some of that original American earth on, unmodified and untrammeled, so that those who follow may experience living wilderness. Wilderness Benefits Water & Air - Americans value wilderness most because these areas are sources of clean water and air. While the benefits of wilderness transcend its boundaries, they are threatened by forces outside wilderness. Pollution decreases water and air quality that people, plants and animals rely on. Preserving wilderness preserves clean air and water. Wildlife - Americans value the wildlife that is protected in wilderness, from grizzly bears to wildflowers. Wilderness protects natural processes, including natural disturbances like fire, which give rise to rich biodiversity. Wildlife is threatened by non-native species, pollutants, and the suppression of natural processes. Preserving wilderness preserves wildlife. Legacy - Americans from all walks of life value the wilderness legacy. This legacy is passed ion from generation to generation by many who will never visit wilderness, yet value it's undisturbed quality. Failure to preserve the untrammeled and natural conditions of these areas threatens this legacy. Preserving wilderness character preserves our wilderness legacy. Recreation - Wilderness was created for the use and enjoyment of the American people. Yearly, over 12 million people visit wilderness to hike, ride horses, hunt, fish, ski, float, take pictures and stargaze, to name a few. Many people who visit wilderness are inspired and humbled by the feeling of being part of something larger than oneself. Wilderness is a haven for self discovery and rejuvenation. Visitors must be aware that high use of sensitive areas threatens untrammeled quality of wilderness. Preserving the integrity of wilderness preserves its unique recreational values. Economics - Wilderness areas have a positive impact on local and regional economies. Counties with wilderness generally have higher income and employment growth rates. From sales to service, the economic benefits of wilderness influences every avenue of business that relies on this resource. Diminishing the wilderness character threatens far-reaching economic benefits of wilderness. Preserving wilderness helps preserve a healthy economy. "Wilderness is the raw material out of which man has hammered the artifact called civilization." "Thousands of tired, nerve-shaken, over-civilized people are beginning to find out that going to the mountains is going home: that wilderness is a necessity..." "The wilderness holds answers to questions man has not yet learned to ask." "The wilderness and the idea of wilderness is one of the permanent homes of the human spirit" "I hope the United States of America is not so rich that she can afford to let these wildernesses pass by, or so poor she cannot afford to keep them." Learn about some of America's "Wilderness Heroes" below. Howard Zahniser Howard Zahniser is considered by many to be the father of the Wilderness Act.

He was born in 1906 and grew up in the Allegheny River region of northwestern Pennsylvania. It was here that he developed a life-long interest in nature and a love for literature. In 1945, Zahniser left the Forest Service to become the Executive Secretary of the Wilderness Society in Washington D.C. In the 1910s and 20s, there were several proponents of wilderness. Three men are considered pivotal in these early years: Aldo Leopold, Arthur Carhart, and Bob Marshall. Their efforts were successful at the local level in creating administratively designated wilderness protection for several areas across the country beginning in 1924 with the designation of the Gila Wilderness in New Mexico. At the national level, there was a series of policy decisions that made wilderness and primitive area designation relatively easy, but what was lacking was a common standard of management across the country for these areas. Also, since these wilderness and primitive areas were administratively designated, the next chief or regional forester could "undesignate" any of the areas with the stroke of a pen. Ed Zahniser became the primary leader in a movement to have Congress designate wilderness areas, rather than federal agencies. By 1949, Zahniser had a detailed idea for federal wilderness legislation in which Congress would establish a national wilderness system. In 1955, Zahniser began an effort to convince skeptics and Congress to support a bill. Zahniser wrote the first draft of the Wilderness Act in 1956. After years of debate, and 65 drafts, President Lyndon Johnson signed the bill into law on September 3, 1964. The act designated 9.1 million acres of wilderness in the new National Wilderness Preservation System. Ironically, Howard Zahniser, who authored and pushed so hard for the act, died on May 5, 1964, just a few months before the bill became the law of the land. 1906 - 1964 President Lyndon Johnson signs the Wilderness Act of 1964 in the White House Rose Garden. Also pictured are Interior Secretary Stewart Udall, Senator Frank Church, Mardy Murie, Alice Zahniser, and Representative Wayne Aspinall, among others. Heroes of the Wilderness These five visionary leaders played a pivotal roles in raising awareness and understanding of the need to preserve our great wilderness legacy. They were the philosophers, activists, environmentalists and preservationists of their time. Each contributed significantly in the story that resulted in the creation of our National Wilderness Preservation System. Muir's insights were landmarks in the history of the environmental conservation. The words and deeds of John Muir led to the establishment of the National Park System. He was the founding president of the Sierra Club. He was not always successful and some say he died of a broken heart when his beloved Hetch Hetchy Valley, within Yosemite National Park, was lost to a dam and a reservoir for a San Francisco water supply. John Muir - farmer, inventor, sheepherder, naturalist, explorer, writer and conservationist - was born in 1838 in Dunbar, Scotland. He has been called "the father of our national parks," and "protector if the wilds." But John Muir saw himself as an ordinary citizen of the universe, writing his mailing address as "John Muir, Earth-Planet, Universe." John Muir saw nature as not just a storehouse of raw materials for man's economic needs, but as a spiritual resource as well. John Muir's radicalism manifested itself in the non-anthropocentric view of nature, which saw man as part of the world, rather than the center of it. He noted: "when we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the Universe." He recognized that all living things were part of a whole, and that if we lose that whole we lose part of ourselves. He advocated preservation of natural areas for reasons of mental health. "Come to the woods, for here is rest. There is no repose like that that of the green deep woods." Today, John Muir's life and voice remain a continuing inspiration to people all over the world who are striving to protect the last fragments of living wilderness. "Like most other things apparently not useful to man, wilderness has few friends, and the blind question 'Why was it made?' goes on and on, with never a guess that first of all it might have been made for itself."
-John Muir John Muir 1838-1914 Aldo Leopold 1887-1948 Aldo Leopold is considered the father of wildlife ecology. Leopold is best known around the globe for his book, "A Sand County Almanac." The Almanac is often acclaimed as the century's literary landmark in conservation. The root of Leopold's concept of a "land ethic" can be traced to his birthplace on the bluffs of the Mississippi River near Burlington, Iowa. As a youngster, he developed a zealous appreciation and interest in the natural world, spending countless hours on adventures in the woods, prairies and river backwaters of a then relatively wild Iowa. After Yale, Leopold joined the U.S. Forest Service and was assigned to the Arizona Territories. Leopold's cornerstone book "Game Management" (1933) defined the fundamental skills and techniques for managing and restoring wildlife populations. Leopold's unique gift for communicating scientific concepts was only equal to his fervor for putting theories into practice. In 1935, the Leopold family purchased a worn-out farm near Baraboo, in an area known as the sand counties. It is here that Leopold put into action his beliefs that the same tools people use to disrupt the landscape could also be used to rebuild it. An old chicken coop, fondly known as the Shack, served as a haven and land laboratory for the Leopold family, friends and graduate students. And it was here that Leopold visualized many of the essays of what was to become his most influential work, "A Sand County Almanac." "The richest value of wilderness lie not in the days of Daniel Boone, nor even in the present but rather in the future."

-Aldo Leopold Arthur Carhart 1892-1978 Born in 1892 in Mapleton, Iowa, Carhart graduated from Iowa State College in 1916 with a degree in landscape architecture. In 1919, the U.S. Forest Service hired Carhart as its first full-time landscape architect, even though his official title was "recreation engineer." One of Carhart's first assignments was to survey a road around Trappers Lake in the White River National Forest in Colorado. Carhart completed the assignment, but recommended to his supervisor that no development be permitted on the shore. Instead, he strongly urged the best use of the area was for wilderness recreation. This was a bold suggestion for such a young employee and Carhart was quite surprised when his recommendations were endorsed. In 1920, Trappers Lake was designated as an area to be kept roadless and undeveloped. That designation marked the first application of the wilderness preservation concept in Forest Service history. Before leaving the Forest Service, he toured Quetico-Superior region in Minnesota and recommended these areas of superlative wild scenery be managed for their value as wilderness. Carhart's efforts eventually led to development of what is now the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. During his long life, Carhart continued to write about and work for the idea of wilderness. "I sometimes wonder how I had the nerve as a young punk to get my supervisors turned around on some of these things. I feel real good about how it all turned out."

-Arthur Carhart Bob Marshall 1901-1939 A visionary in the truest sense of the world, Marshall set an unprecedented course for wilderness preservation in the United States few have surpassed. Born into a prominent New York family in 1901, Marshall gave up a wealthy lifestyle to become involved in saving America's wild lands. He was the principal founder of The Wilderness Society, was among the first to suggest that large tracts of Alaska be preserved and shaped the U.S. Forest Service's policy on wilderness designation and management. He was not an armchair explorer, but a man of limitless energy. Although he had a weak heart, he climbed all 46 peaks in the Adirondack Mountains that were over 4,000 feet (1,219 meters) high. He regularly made 30-40 mile (and longer) day hikes, and preferred hiking in high top tennis shoes rather than heavy hiking boots. On July 15, 1932, Marshall set a record by climbing 14 Adirondack peaks within 19 hours, a feat that required a total ascent of 13,600 feet. He spoke for his contemporaries when he wrote "to us the enjoyment of solitude, complete independence, and the beauty of undefiled panoramas is absolutely essential to happiness." A strong socialist, Marshall believed that private interests would certainly destroy America's forests. Militant in his politics, he was uncompromising in his quest for an organization that would fight for wilderness preservation. Marshall and others formally founded the Wilderness Society in 1935. Marshall died of heart failure in November 1939. Independently wealthy, Marshall left one-quarter of his $1.5 million estate to The Wilderness Society, assuring its existence and commitment to wilderness preservation. "There is just one hope for repulsing the tyrannical ambition of civilization to conquer every niche of the whole earth. That hope is the organization of spirited people who will fight for the freedom of the wilderness."

-Bob Marshall Howard Zahniser Howard Zahniser is considered by many to be the father of the Wilderness Act.

He was born in 1906 and grew up in the Allegheny River region of northwestern Pennsylvania. It was here that he developed a life-long interest in nature and a love for literature. In 1945, Zahniser left the Forest Service to become the Executive Secretary of the Wilderness Society in Washington D.C. Three wilderness proponents were considered pivotal in the early 1900s: Aldo Leopold, Arthur Carhart and Bob Marshall. Their efforts were successful at the local level in creating administratively designated wilderness protection for several areas across the country beginning in 1924 with the designation of the Gila Wilderness in New Mexico. At the national level, a series of policy decisions made wilderness and primitive area designation relatively easy, but the managing agencies were lacking a common standard of management across the country. Also, since these wilderness and primitive areas were administratively designated, the next chief or regional forester could "undesignate" any of the areas with the stroke of a pen. Ed Zahniser became the primary leader in a movement to have Congress designate wilderness areas, rather than federal agencies. By 1949, Zahniser had a detailed idea for federal wilderness legislation in which Congress would establish a national wilderness system. In 1955, Zahniser began an effort to convince skeptics and Congress to support a bill. Zahniser wrote the first draft of the Wilderness Act in 1956. After years of debate, and 65 drafts, President Lyndon Johnson signed the bill into law on September 3, 1964. The act designated 9.1 million acres of wilderness in the new National Wilderness Preservation System. Ironically, Howard Zahniser, who authored and pushed so hard for the act, died on May 5, 1964, just a few months before the bill was passed. 1906 - 1964 President Lyndon Johnson signs the Wilderness Act of 1964 in the White House Rose Garden. Also pictured are Interior Secretary Stewart Udall, Senator Frank Church, Mardy Murie, Alice Zahniser and Representative Wayne Aspinall, among others. Currently BLM Colorado focuses its efforts on the following areas: Still unsure about the value of your public lands?

Keep following along to learn what makes the BLM unique among federal land management agencies. Economic Impact of BLM Colorado Jobs Minerals
Direct: 8,258
Total: 22,912 Timber
Direct: 68
Total: 148 Grazing
Direct: 194
Total: 336 Recreation
Direct: 3,264
Total: 4,864 Total
Direct: 11,785
Total: 28,260 Taxpayer investment in the BLM yields employment opportunities. Recreation 6,447,666 Visitors $304.4 million direct impact $532.0 million total impact Energy Oil and Gas
Direct: 2,930.9
Total: 4,856.1 Coal
Direct: 782.7
Total: 1,263.2 Non-Energy Minerals
Direct: 17.6
Total: 26.7 Total
Direct: 3,731.1
Total: 6,146.0 values reflect ($) millions Grazing $28.3 million direct impact $53.5 million total impact Source: www.blm.gov/4q5c The BLM: A Sound Investment for America BLM lands welcomed 58 million visitors. BLM's management of activities on public lands supported 507,750 jobs. $40 billion yielded from the National System of Public Lands creating a $103 billion dollar boost to the American economy. BLM lands yielded $337 million worth of timber and created $814 million in timber-related economic activity. Grazing introduced $310 million worth of feed and fiber into the market and created $540 million worth of grazing-related economic activity. data from 2010 The BLM strives to balance economic benefits to our Nation with the conservation of precious natural resources. Source: www.blm.gov/4q5c $46.6 million total impact $13.7 million direct impact Timber http://www.blm.gov/co/st/en/BLM_Programs/energy/renewable_energy.html http://www.blm.gov/co/st/en/BLM_Programs/oilandgas.html http://www.blm.gov/co/st/en/BLM_Programs/geographical_sciences/cadastral.html http://www.blm.gov/co/st/en/BLM_Programs/cultural_resources.html http://www.blm.gov/co/st/en/BLM_Programs/fire.html http://www.blm.gov/co/st/en/BLM_Programs/forestry.html http://www.blm.gov/co/st/en/BLM_Programs/grazing.html http://www.blm.gov/co/st/en/BLM_Programs/minerals.html http://www.blm.gov/co/st/en/BLM_Programs/national_landscape.html http://www.blm.gov/co/st/en/BLM_Programs/recreation.html http://www.blm.gov/co/st/en/BLM_Programs/wild_horse_and_burro.html National Environmental Policy Act NEPA's most significant effect was to set up procedural requirements for all federal government agencies to prepare Environmental Assessments (EAs) and Environmental Impact Statements (EISs). The essential purpose of NEPA is to ensure that environmental factors are weighted equally when compared to other factors in the decision making process undertaken by federal agencies. NEPA established the national environmental policy, including a multidisciplinary approach to considering environmental effects in federal government agency decision
making. The effectiveness of NEPA originates in its requirement of federal agencies to prepare an environmental statement to accompany reports
and recommendations for
funding from Congress.
This document is called
an Environmental
Impact Statement
(EIS) NEPA contains three important sections:

The declaration of national environmental policies and goals.
The establishment of action-forcing provisions for federal agencies to enforce those policies and goals.
The establishment of a Council
on Environmental Quality
(CEQ) in the Executive
Office of the President. The act requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop and enforce regulations to protect the general public from exposure to airborne contaminants that are known to be hazardous to human health. The law established four new regulatory programs:

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
State Implementation Plans (SIPs)
New Source Performance Standards (NSPS); and
National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). The 1972 act introduced the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), which is a permit system for regulating point sources of pollution. Point sources include:

Industrial facilities (including manufacturing, mining, oil and gas extraction, and service industries)
Municipal governments and other government facilities (such as military bases)
Some agricultural facilities, such as animal feedlots The Clean Water Act is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution. Commonly abbreviated as the CWA, the act established the goals of eliminating releases of high amounts of toxic substances into water, eliminating additional water pollution by 1985 and ensuring that surface waters would meet standards necessary for human sports and recreation by 1983. The principal body of law currently in effect is based on the Federal Water Pollution Control Amendments of 1972 and was significantly expanded from the Federal Water Pollution Control Amendments of 1948. Major amendments were enacted in the Clean Water Act of 1977 and the Water Quality Act of 1987. The Clean Water Act does not directly address groundwater contamination. Groundwater protection provisions are included in the Safe Drinking Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Superfund act. photo by Kyle Sullivan Dominguez Canyon Wilderness Area, Colorado National Landscape Conservation System NEPA
1970 NEPA's most significant effect was setting up procedural requirements for all federal government agencies to
prepare Environmental Assessments (EAs) and Environmental
Impact Statements (EISs). The essential purpose of NEPA is to ensure that environmental factors are weighted equally when compared to other factors in the decision-making process undertaken by
federal agencies. The effectiveness of NEPA originates in its requirement of federal agencies to prepare an environmental statement to accompany reports and recommendations for funding from Congress. NEPA contains three important sections:
1. The declaration of national environmental policies and goals.
2. The establishment of action-forcing
provisions for federal agencies to
enforce those policies and goals.
3. The establishment ofCEQ in the Executive Office of
the President. The NEPA process consists of an evaluation of relevant environmental effects of a federal project or action, including a series of pertinent alternatives. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is a United States environmental law that established a national policy promoting the enhancement of the environment and also established the President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). In 1776, following the Declaration of Independence, the Continental Congress offered land bounties to deserters from the British Force as well as to soldiers who served throughout the war. Both English and Hessian deserters were promised 50 acres of public land plus citizenship. The Hessians were 18-century German regiments hired through their rulers by the British Empire In the first days of freedom for the Republic, members of the Continental Congress put down the first foundations for future expansion. The two greatest concerns of the new nation were the restlessness of the people and rejuvenation the depleted National Treasury. The 237 million acres ceded from the 13 original states became collectively known as the "original public domain." After the creation of the original public domain in 1781 the Continental Congress resolved that lands ceded to the U.S. should be used for the common benefit of all states. In 1785, the Office of the Geographer was established in the Treasury Department to direct surveys. This became the precursor to the General Land Office. The main organization of this office consisted of the board of treasury, geographer, surveyors and the commissioners of the loan office. In 1812, Congress charged the GLO to “perform all action and things touching or respecting the public lands of the U.S." Several land laws were enacted between 1800 and the 1840s, which dictated the way public domain lands could be sold. As each law was enacted, the GLO had to redefine how it advertised, sold and investigated the use of public domain lands throughout the U.S. The GLO was charged to "superintend, execute, and perform all such acts respecting the public lands..." Prior to the establishment of the GLO, the public domain workload was handled by the Treasury Department, but many recognized that a more focused land management agency was needed. Edward Tiffin of Ohio
was appointed the first commissioner of the
GLO. Tiffin's contributions to land
surveying were significant in consolidating and organizing
land and survey records. Later, as Surveyor General, he played a leading role in the design of a plan of correction lines to solve the troublesome problem of conforming a rectangular
survey pattern to a round earth. The life of a surveyor was hard. Many oral and written accounts by surveyors tell the story of discovery, hardship, excitement, misery and financial loss. One 1852 field note record of an Iowa survey reads, "one of my men was accidently shot yesterday and died almost instantly." The field notes continue with bearings and distances to the grave of deceased surveyor Ivy Johnson. Watch this video to learn more about surveying. Throughout U.S. history, the treatment of native populations tells a sad and shameful story. From the onset of British Colonization in the 1600s, Native Tribes were viewed as barriers and hazards to a modern race’s need to expand and develop. Starting with the early Indian Wars of the late 1600s, European policy was to command and conquer or annihilate. By the early to mid-1800’s the U.S. developed a more “humane” policy, using treaties to establish territories and eventually reservations where Native People could live at peace and be out of the way of expansion. However, as the need for land increased and expansion went from wagon to rail territories and reservations were reduced in size and chopped up. In the end millions of native people were murdered, abused, and/or forced off their native lands into degradation. Many under the sword of the U.S. military. These types of injustices would become common place over the next century as the U.S. attempted to deal with its “Indian Problem”. Impacts of
Gold Westward
Migration Increase in Immigration Cross-country routes The Gold rush was the impetus for massive numbers of Americans to head west looking for a quick fortune. This was especially true for Asian immigrants like the Chinese who came to California in the hundreds. The gold rush further established cross-country routes thus creating both the justification and need for a more technologically advanced form of transcontinental transportation. The Department of the Interior was created as a cabinet-level department concerned with the domestic needs and internal affairs of the Nation. Before the railroad, a trip to San Francisco from the east cost more than $1,000 and took months to complete. Following the completing of the transcontinental rail system, the same trip took about a week and cost between $70 and $150. The Homestead Act was seen as a way of undermining the slave-based farm model of the South by opening up free land and farms to individuals. The Desert Land Act provided for the sale of non-timber and non-mineral in eleven western states. The land had to be considered unfit for cultivation without irrigation. Settlers who purchased the land had to show proof of irrigation within three years after filing. In 1888, at the urging of John Wesley Powell, Congress provided for a survey of the public lands suitable for irrigation and directed that all lands selected as sites for reservoirs, canals and ditches be removed from sale. It also included the removal of lands available from sale that could be irrigated by these new water sources. In 1890, based upon a review of the actions of Powell, which were considered “going too far”, Congress repealed the 1888 act and changed it to only include Reservoirs. This final act cut in half the lands made available under the original Desert Land Act. The federal government officially opened an unsettled region of Indian Territory inhabited by Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickeasaws, Creeks and Seminoles, who had been marched along the “Trail of Tears” some years earlier. On April 22nd, the fire of guns signaled the official opening and hundreds of settlers swarmed across the border to stake homestead claims. In 1893 the biggest land rush of all occurred with the opening of the Cherokee Outlet (Territory). The act created grazing districts for the purposes of classification, improvement, and conservation of rangeland resources. It was instigated largely by the ranching community in the west, who were trying to bring some order to use of the public lands. In many ways this act formally established a need for range management and range science as an academic curriculum. 1962 Public Works and Acceleration Act 1964 Land and Water Conservation Fund Act The act gave the Bureau its first major recreation funding, mainly for campgrounds and picnic sites. The act authorized funds for the BLM to acquire recreation areas. In 1965, the BLM received its first annual recreation appropriation. 1968 Congress provided direct appropriations from outer continental shelf revenues to the Land & Water conservation fund. 1968 Wild and Scenic Rivers Act 1968 National Trails System Act 1978 National Parks and Recreation All of these acts and amendments gave the BLM further authority to develop a recreation program and also increased its annual budget. This Prezi is based off of a PowerPoint by Jeff Kitchens. Andy Senti, Amy Galperin, Sally Wisely, Dave Hunsaker, Helen Hankins, Leon Thomas, Lynn Rust, Matt McColm, Meagan Conry, Ed Shepard, Mike Bechdolt, Dave Roche, Jon Menten, Larry Ames, Bill Hensley, Mat Millenbach, Jeanne Proctor, Bob Janssen, Lisa Stone, Fran Ackley, Dave Sjaastad, Don Bruns, Steve Anderson, Cheryl Oakes, Tim Bottomley, Rick Tholen, Leigh Espy, Denise Adamic, Ken Kerr, John Beck, Dave Taylor, Robin Sell, Angela Glenn, Megg Heath, Britta Nelson, Gregg Hill, Scott Lieurance, Shayne Banks, Crystal Talavera, Carl Barna and all the other folks who provided a variety of pieces of history to make this presentation possible. Before we finish, there are a few people who were vital to the development of this Prezi who deserve recognition. Various BLM offices and programs
BLM Library
BLM Colorado Office of Communications A special thank you to: So far you’ve learned about the history of the United States, the background of the BLM and how the BLM manages the land for multiple uses. The final stop on this tour is a map featuring some of BLM Colorado’s resources. Now, all you need to do is get out and explore all that your public lands have to offer. source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Statecessions.png http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Declaration_independence.jpg Photo by: Kyle Sullivan Kyle Sullivan
Environmental Education Intern
Bureau of Land Management Colorado as part of the Corps to Career Internship Program Learn about youth employment opportunities: Want to:
gain job readiness skills
earn a scholarship for college
or pay off student loans,
all while working on public lands? Look into joining a youth corps in Colorado! http://www.americorps.gov/ http://cyca.org/ This presentation was created by http://youthgo.gov/ From the 1967 BLM video, "The Last Frontier." Click Here
to Start: Learn More Here: Last Stop Before the Tour Wait... that's a map! What does the land really look like? 2011 The BLM is using a landscape-scale management approach to better understand environmental challenges and support balanced stewardship of the diverse natural resources of the public lands. The BLM is engaged in several exciting initiatives 2011
Initiatives Cooperative Landscape Conservation America's Great Outdoors Initiative Landscapes are large, connected geographical regions that have similar environmental characteristics, such as the Sonoran Desert and the Colorado Plateau. These landscapes span administrative boundaries and can encompass all or portions of several BLM field offices. A landscape approach examines such large areas to more fully recognize natural resource conditions and trends; natural and human influences; and opportunities for resource conservation, restoration and development. The approach seeks to identify important ecological values and patterns of environmental change that may not be evident when managing smaller, local land areas. Learn more at: http://www.blm.gov/wo/st/en/prog/more/climatechange/landscapeapproach.html This initiative seeks to reinvigorate our approach to conservation and reconnect Americans, especially young people, with the lands and waters that are used for farming, ranching, hunting and fishing, while families spend quality time together. New Energy Frontier Youth in the Great Outdoors Climate Change The Bureau of Land Management continues its work on environmentally responsible development of utility-scale renewable energy projects on public lands as part of the Administration's efforts to diversify the Nation's energy portfolio. "The America’s Great Outdoors Initiative is born out of a conversation with the American people about what matters most to them about the places where they live, work, and play," Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar said. "It’s about practical, common-sense ideas from the American people on how our natural, cultural, and historic resources can help us be a more competitive, stronger, and healthier nation. Together, we are adapting our conservation strategies to meet the challenges of today and empowering communities to protect and preserve our working lands and natural landscapes for generations to come." Learn more about surveying here General Land Office Grazing Service To handle the rapidly growing public land business, Congress created the GLO in 1812. The GLO handled all public land issues, including sales, patents and land entries. Surveyors were sent out with tools of the trade to record in their notebooks all mines, salt licks, salt springs, mill sites, water courses and the quality of the lands. This information helped purchasers and homesteaders make informed decisions about the lands offered. With westward expansion came increases in livestock grazing and deteriorating rangelands. Between 1870 and 1900, the number of beef cows tripled, and the number of sheep quadrupled. The sheer numbers of livestock, combined with drought in the early 1930s, set the stage for the development of a new government agency. With the passage of the Taylor Grazing Act in 1934, Congress established the Grazing Service to manage public land grazing. Bureau of Land Management On July 16, 1946, the GLO and the Grazing Service merged and became the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) within the Department of Interior. Eventually, the era of homesteaders and land sales passed. Today, the BLM manages land under the principle of “multiple use” to allow all citizens the opportunity to use and enjoy public lands.

In addition, the BLM now has the National Landscape Conservation System- whose mission is to conserve, protect and restore nationally significant landscapes, which include many of the great American western landscapes. Original land surveys and settlement records, still managed by the BLM, help tell the rich history of the American West. Looking to the future, the BLM’s youth initiatives feature a variety of programs that engage, educate and inspire. Focusing on youth from early childhood through young adulthood, BLM youth programs build on the spark of childhood wonder about the natural world, sustain interest through hands-on education and volunteer experiences during the school-age years, and develop into long-term engagement and stewardship, including the pursuit of natural resource careers. Climate change is affecting public lands in ways that could impact on Americans’ quality of life. The BLM is responding with two interconnected initiatives: a proposed landscape approach to land management and Rapid Ecoregional Assessments, which will improve the agency’s understanding of public land conditions to inform future management decisions. The U.S. purchased Florida from Spain through the Adams-Onis Treaty, adding more than 46 million acres to the U.S. public domain. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Adams_onis_map.png In 1823, a precedent-setting event occurred when the U.S. approved a grant to construct a public (wagon) road on public domain land. Between 1823 and 1869, the U.S. approved various other grants for public roads. These grants established the precedent for setting aside public lands for transportation purposes. Many of the roads that were approved as far back as the mid-1800s are modern paved roads today. Homestead Act The first homestead claims came on January 1, 1863. Daniel Freeman and 417 others filed claims the first day. Application 1. For the next 5 years, the homesteaders had to live on the land and improve it by building a 12-by-14 dwelling and growing crops. 2. Improvement 3. After 5 years, the homesteader could file for his patent (or deed of title) by submitting proof of residency and the required improvements to a local land office. Patent Physical conditions on the frontier presented great challenges. Wind, blizzards and plagues of insects threatened crops. Open plains meant few trees for building, forcing many to build homes out of sod. By 1934, over 1.6 million homestead applications were processed and more than 270 million acres—10 percent of all U.S. lands—passed into the hands of individuals. Any U.S. citizen, or intended citizen, who had never borne arms against the U.S. Government could file an application and lay claim to 160 acres of surveyed Government land. On January 1, 1863, Daniel Freeman, a Union Army scout, was scheduled to leave Gage County, Nebraska Territory, to report for duty in St. Louis. At a New Year's Eve party the night before, Freeman met some local Land Office officials and convinced a clerk to open the office shortly after midnight in order to file a land claim. In doing so, Freeman became one of the first to take advantage of the opportunities provided by the Homestead Act, a law signed by President Abraham Lincoln on May 20, 1862.
Freeman's homestead claim, proof of improvements and patent are used as examples to the right. Some land speculators took advantage of a legislative loophole caused when those drafting the law's language failed to specify whether the 12-by-14 dwelling was to be built in feet or inches. Others hired phony claimants or bought abandoned land. http://www.nps.gov/home/historyculture/Freeman-Family-Scrapbook-Gallery.htm
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