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Ancient Middle East & Egypt (3200 BC-500 BC)

W.H.H.2 Origins of Civilization from Mesopotamia through Ancient Egypt with roots of Judaism.
by Ashley Huneycutt on 20 February 2014

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Transcript of Ancient Middle East & Egypt (3200 BC-500 BC)

During Ramses II rule, they battled with the
Hittites
of Asia Minor

After years of fighting, the two sides signed a peace
treaty
- the first document of this kind to have survived history

Egypt and the Hittites "shall be at peace and in
brotherhood
forever."
"Egypt, is wholly the gift of the Nile." -
Herodotus
, ancient Greek historian
Ancient Middle East & Egypt (3200 BC-500 BC)
City-States of Ancient Sumer
What were the characteristics of the world's first civilizations?
Kingdom on the Nile
How did the Nile influence the rise of the powerful civilization of Egypt?
Egyptian Civilization
How did religion and learning play important roles in ancient Egyptian civilizations?
Roots of Judaism
How did the worship of only one God shape Judaism?
Invaders, Traders, and Empire Builders
How did various strong rulers unite the lands of the Fertile Crescent into well-organized empires?
Fertile Crescent
Mesopotamia
Sumer
The Epic of Gilgamesh
hierarchy
ziggurat
cuneiform

Vocabulary
Sargon
Hammurabi
codify
civil law
criminal law
Nebuchadnezzar
barter economy
money economy
Zoroaster
colony
alphabet
Vocabulary
cataract
delta
dynasty
pharaoh
bureaucracy
vizier
Hatshepsut
Thutmose III
Ramses II
Vocabulary
Amon-Re
Osiris
Isis
Akhenaton
mummification
hieroglyphics
papyrus
decipher
Rosetta Stone
Vocabulary
monotheistic
Torah
Abraham
covenant
Moses
David
Solomon
patriarchal
Sabbath
prophet
ethics
Diaspora
Vocabulary
INTRO
Many early civilizations arose around the
Fertile Cresecent...
a region in the Middle East known for its rich
soil
and golden wheat fields
Nomadic
herders overcame the natural barriers of the land and it became an area where people and ideas were traded among tribes.
Each new group made its contribution to the
history
of the region.
Geography
Location
Fertile Crescent curves around the
Persian
Gulf to the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
This is what the ancient Greeks named
Mesopotamia
.
means "between the
rivers
"
Rivers flow from modern day Turkey through
Iraq
into the Persian Gulf.
3300 BC - first civilization developed here...Sumer
Controlling the
Tigris
and Euphrates Rivers was key to life in Mesopotamia.
Organizing for Floods and Irrigation
Rivers often rose. This destroyed
mud brick
villages and washed away topsoil.
The Epic of
Gilgamesh
describes a great flood that destroys the world.
Major floods were common in the
ancient
days.
Villagers worked to
control
the rivers.
In the dry season, water was channeled into the
fields
.
Priests
would organize people to build walls to hold back floodwaters and irrigation systems to bring water to fields.
Few Natural
Resources
Sumerians Build Thriving Cities
Didn't have wood or stone, so built out of clay bricks
Ur
and
Uruk
were first great cities built with them
Trade was important. Merchants traveled rivers or braved
deserts
to carry goods.
May have made the first
wheeled
vehicles.
Goods from
Egypt
and India have been found in ancient Sumerian cities.
Sumerian Civilization Takes Shape
Within a few hundred years, Sumer included at least
12
city-states.
People often turned to
warrior
leaders for protection.
Rivals often for control of
land
and
water
.
Over time, the practice of rule by war leaders turned into
hereditary
rule.
Rulers were responsible for maintaining the city walls, and
irrigation
.
Complex Government Unfolds
Led armies to war, enforced laws, employed
scribes
to collect taxes and keep records.
Leader was the chief
servant
to the gods and led ceremonies to please them.
There was a distinct social
hierarchy
.
Sumerians Structure Their Society
(a system of ranking groups)
Highest class -
Ruling
family, leading officials and high priests.
Small middle class - lesser
priests
, scribes, merchants, artisans
Lowest level - the majority of people were
peasant
farmers
Many people owned
slaves
most were prisoners of war
some people sold themselves into slavery to pay off
debt
Women
Goddesses
were highly honored in religious ceremonies.
Because of this, women held a
higher
social standing than many later cultures in the region.
Never had the
legal
rights of men.
Rulers' wives had supervisory
powers
.
Some learned music and
writing
...wrote songs about husbands.
Rarely inherited
land
.
Sumerians Practice Religion
Polytheistic
, like most ancient people
Gods controlled every aspect of life, especially forces of
nature
.
Gods behaved like
regular
people: ate, drank, married, raised families
Favored truth and
justice
and were responsible for violence and suffering.
The people's main goal was to keep the gods happy for the
safety
of their city.
Each city built a
ziggurat
.
Practiced ceremonies and
rituals
on holy days.
The king would ceremoniously marry
Inanna
, the life giving goddess of love to have a prosperous year.
Believed in an
afterlife
...
After death, all people lived in grim afterlife with no
release
.
"the place where they live on
dust
, their food is mud...and they see no light, living in blackness on the door and door bolt, deeply settled dust." - The Epic of Gilgamesh
Sumerians Invent Writing
3200 BC, Sumerians invented the earliest known
writing
.
Cuneiform, from the Latin cuneus meaning "
wedge"
, because scribes wrote by making wedge marks in clay tablets.
Developed out of a system of
pictographs
used to record goods bought at temple storehouses.
As writing evolved, Sumerians used it to record myths, poems, laws,
prayers
, and business contracts
To learn cuneiform...
It took years of
difficult
schooling to learn cuneiform.
Untidy copying or
talking
in class was punished by caning.
Those who did well might learn about religion,
literature
and mathematics.
Lasting Legacy of Sumer
About 2500 BC - Conquering armies moved across Mesopotamia and
overtook
the Sumerians.
1900
BC - The civilization had been taken over by others.
Newcomers adopted many ideas and innovations from the Sumerians. Akkadians, Babylonians and Assyrians adapted cuneiform to their language.
Studied skies and recorded movement of
planets
and stars.
Sumerians developed
astronomy
and mathematics.
Developed number system based on 6.
divided the hour into
60
minutes and the circle into
360
degrees.
Babylonians built on their math to develop basic algebra and geometry, create accurate
calendars
, and predict eclipse of the sun and moon.
Their oral
stories
were written down.
This is why we have The Epic of Gilgamesh...one of the oldest pieces of literature in the world.
Their knowledge passed on to the
Greeks
and
Romans
who in turn had a powerful impact on the Western world.
City-States of Ancient Sumer Assessment
Copy the question and answer with correct grammar!
1. What were the characteristics of the world's first civilization?
2. (Sumerians faced significant geographic challenges, such as floods.) How do you think facing these challenges played a role in the formation of a strong government?
3. How might the invention of cuneiform have strengthen Sumerian government and religious practices?
4. Describe how later people built on Sumerian learning. Would this have been possible without the invention of writing?
5. What advances did Sumerians make in mathematics and astronomy?
First Empires Arise in Mesopotamia
Many simply looted and burned; some stayed to take over.
Over and over, nomadic people and warriors descended on the Fertile Crescent and its rich cities.
Powerful leaders were able to create large, well organized empires that brought about peace and prosperity.
Sargon
2300 BC - Sargon (ruler of Akkad) invaded and conquered the city-states around Sumer.
Expanded his territory until he had the first empire in history.
Appointed rulers to local areas who acted as kings.
Empire did not last after his death.
Invaders swept through the valley and the empire fell to ruins.
Hammurabi Brings Babylon to Power
Over time, the city states regained their individual power and began to struggle once more over supremacy.
Conquerors came and attempted to control the city-states in the Fertile Crescent.
1700 BC - Hammurabi (king of Babylon) brought much of the area under control of his empire.
His most ambitious and lasting impact was a set of rule.
Hammurabi's Code
Most of the rules had been around since Sumerian time, but he wanted to make sure people knew the principles his government would follow.
Artisans carved almost 300 laws on a stone pillar for all to see.
This was the first major attempt of a ruler to codify the laws that governed a state.
Defining Crime and Punishment
Also addressed criminal law...
Other traditions allowed victims and their families to take the law into their own hands
Specific punishments for specific crimes discouraged personal vengeance and established order.
Today we would consider his punishments cruel.
offenses against others
robbery, murder, assault
Establishing Civil Law
Deals with private matters and rights.
Business contracts, property inheritances, taxes, marriage, divorce
Much of Hammurabi's code was designed to protect women and the poor.
Women could own their own property and pass to their children.
If a woman was blameless for the problems in her marriage, she could divorce.
If she was guilty, she was thrown into the river.
A husband had the legal authority over his wife, and the legal duty support her and almost unlimited authority over his children.
An orderly household was necessary for a stable empire.
Other Accomplishments made by Hammurabi
Improved system of irrigation
created well trained military
ordered temples to be repaired
promoted the Babylon chief god, Marduk, over older Sumerian gods in order to promote rel.
Marduk eventually became the chief god of Babylonian worship
Conquests Bring New Empires and New Ideas
Hittites Learn the Secret of Iron Making
· 1400 BC – Hittites pushed out of Asia Minor into Mesopotamia
§ Brought with them knowledge of how to extract iron from ore
§ Weapons and tools made out of iron are harder and sharper than tools made from bronze or copper
§ There was a lot of iron, so Hittites could arm more for less money
§ They kept this a secret until their decline in 1200 BC. Hittite iron smiths took their knowledge to the next paying customer

Assyrian Warriors Expand Ancient Knowledge
· 1350 BC – establish an empire in upper Tigris region
· 1100 BC – began expanding across Mesopotamia
· Had reputation of being most feared warriors in history
§ Warfare was central to their culture
§ Unsure to keep others from attacking or to please god, Assur.
§ On conquering Babylon, one king said, “The city and its houses, from top to bottom, I destroyed and burned with fire.”

Assyrian Warriors Expand Ancient Knowledge
· Had a well ordered society
· Took spoils of war to pay for palaces and trade
· Nineveh – King Assurbanipal founded one of the world’s first libraries
§ Kept the cuneiform tablets that he ordered scribes to collect from all over the Fertile Crescent
· Given modern scholars a wealth of knowledge about the time

Nebuchadnezzar Revives Babylon
· 612 BC – after Assurbanipal’s death, neighboring people joined forces to defeat the Assyrians
· Babylon (was reestablished in 625 BC) revived under the aggressive and ruthless leadership of Nebuchadnezzar
§ Stretched from Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea
§ He oversaw rebuilding of canals, temples, walls, and palaces in Babylon
§ Became one of the largest and most highly regarded in the history of ancient Mesopotamia
§ He enlarged and rebuilt the ziggurat in the center of the city dedicated to Marduk.

Nebuchadnezzar Revives Babylon
§ To protect the city, Nebuchadnezzar built a moat around the city and a brick wall that was 85 feet thick.
· Nine gates dedicated to important gods allowed people entrance into the city.
· The most famous was the Ishtar Gate made of bricked glazed in blue covered in lions representing the goddess Ishtar, dragons representing the god Marduk, and bulls representing the god Hadad.
§ The “Hanging Gardens of Babylon” have never been discovered, but were lavish gardens of trees and flowering plants on the steps of a huge ziggurat meant to please a homesick wife who longed for her homeland.
· One of the “seven wonders of the world.
Nebuchadnezzar Revives Babylon
The Persians Establish A Huge Empire
Babylon Falls
o The walls around Babylon failed to hold back the Persian army commanded by Cyrus the Great, who overtook the city in 539 BC.
o Cyrus and his successors went on to build the largest empire to date – the Persian Empire
· Territory reached from Asia Minor to India
§ Turkey, Iran, Egypt, Afghanistan, Pakistan
· Had a tolerance for the customs of the people they conquered.
Darius United Many People
· Emperor Darius I succeeded in uniting the Persian empire (533 to 486 BC).
· Created a government that became the model for later rulers
· The empire was divided into provinces (satrapy) led by a governor (satrap).
§ Each satrapy had to pay taxes based on its resources and wealth.
§ Officials visited the satraps to check on their effectiveness
Adopted laws from the peoples he conquered and created a single code of laws for the empire (Like Hammurabi)
Built or repaired hundreds of miles of roads to encourage unity
Made it easier to communicate with different parts of the empire and share ideas
Darius kept moving from one royal capital to another and celebrated important festivals of the people and was seen frequently
Darius United Many People
Improving Economic Life
· Darius created a common set of weights and measures
· Encouraged the use of coins
§ First introduced by the Lydians of Asia Minor
· Most people continued in a barter economy
§ Exchanged one set of goods/services for another
· Coins created an early form of money economy
§ Goods and services were paid for through the exchange of some token of an agreed value (coins and bills)
· Created an economic link between his wide empire

Improving Economic Life
A New Religion Takes Hold
· Religious beliefs created by Zoroaster (600 BC) helped to unite the empire
§ Rejected the Persian gods and taught of the single wise god, Ahura Mazda, who was in a constant battle with Ahriman, the prince of lies and evil.
· Each person would chose which side to support.
· Zoroaster taught that Ahura Mazda would win in the end.

Christianity and Judaism, which also emerged in the Middle East, also teach of ideas of heaven, hell, and a final judgment day.
Contributions of Phoenician Traders
Phoenicians
Smaller states also influenced the people

Phoenicians gained fame as sailors and traders.

Had cities along the eastern Mediterranean Sea in present day Lebanon and Syria
Expanding Manufacturing and Trade
The land along the coast was fertile and supported farming, but they made their name in manufacturing goods.

Made glass from coastal sand

Produced purple dye from a sea snail; “Tyrian purple” after the city of Tyre
Expanding Manufacturing and Trade
Traded with people all around the Mediterranean.

Set up colonies in North Africa, Sicily, Spain
A territory settled and ruled by people from another land

Some sailed as far as Britain
Exchanged goods for tin
Establishing the Alphabet
Phoenicians are called the “carriers of civilization”
Spread Middle Eastern civilization around the Mediterranean
A major contribution was their alphabet
A writing system in which each symbol represents a single basic sound, like a consonant or vowel
Developed 22 symbols that stood for consonant sounds
Greek Alphabet
The Greeks adopted this and added symbols for vowel sounds

From this came the letters you are reading right now.
Invaders, Traders and Empire Builders (2.2)
1. How did various strong rulers unite the lands of the Fertile Crescent into well-organized empires? (Focus on Assyrians and Persians)
2. What do you think was the most significant achievement of Sargon? Of Hammurabi? Why?
3. How do you think the Persian policy of tolerance helped the empire grow so large?
4. (One effect of warfare and conquest was that knowledge and beliefs spread among different peoples.) How else did people of the ancient Middle East spread their ideas?
5. How has the Phoenician development of an alphabet been a lasting contribution to civilization?
Ancient Egypt
· The fertile lands of the Nile attracted Neolithic farmers.
People migrated here from the Mediterranean, from dry land around the
Nile
, and other parts of Africa.
A powerful civilization arose dependent on the control of
river
waters.
Geography Helps Shape Egypt
Without the Nile Egypt would have been a
barren
desert.

The desert protected people from invasion but limited where the people could
settle
.
Geography
Farms dotted the region around the Nile usually no more than
10
miles wide. (Black Region)

To grow
flax
and wheat

The great
Sahara
Desert (Red Region) lay beyond this area watered by the Nile.
Yearly Floods Bring Benefits
The Nile begins in the highlands of
Ethiopia
and the lakes of central Africa.

Every spring, the rains of this area send water down the stream the feed the Nile

Yearly Floods Bring Benefits
Ancient Egyptians eagerly awaited this flood that brought
water
and a rich layer of silt

Controlling the flood was
important
to early people.

Gov't built dikes, reservoirs, and irrigation ditches to channel and store water
Uniting Two Regions
Upper
Egypt
To the South
From the Nile's first cataract (waterfall) to within 100 miles of the Mediterranean Sea
Uniting Two Regions
Lower
Egypt
To the North
Covered the
delta
region where the Nile empties in the Mediterranean
Triangular area of marshland formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of some rivers
Menes Unifies The Two
3100 BC -
Menes
, king of Upper Egypt, united the two regions
Founded the capital of Memphis near where the Nile empties in delta
He and successors used Nile as a
highway
to link North and South
Could send
armies
up and down the river

Allowed Egypt to be one of the world's first
unified
states
River was a Trade Route

Merchants
traveled up and down the Nile in sailboats and barges, exchanging products of Africa, Middle East, and the Mediterranean region
Scholars divide the history of Egypt into
three
main periods...
Old
Kingdom (2575 BC - 2130 BC)
Middle
Kingdom (1938 BC - 1630 BC)
New
Kingdom (1539 BC - 1075 BC)
Old Kingdom
Pharaohs
Power passed from one
dynasty
to another, but land remained the same

A Strong Government Takes Hold

Pharaohs
organized strong centralized states
Pharaohs
Pharaohs were key in government and religion. They were gods.
Absolute power
Owned
and ruled all the land in the kingdom
Also seen as human - expected to act morally and judged by deeds
Did so by a
bureaucracy
- system of government that includes different job functions and levels of authority

A
vizier
- chief minister - supervised the business of government
Took Pride in Keeping Order and Peace
Under the vizier, certain departments looked after other departments.

1000s of
scribes
carried out instructions of vizier
A Strong Government Takes Hold
The Great Pyramids Are Built
During the Old Kingdom, many pharaohs built cemeteries with
pyramids
in the area around Memphis

Best known are The Great Pyramids in
Giza

Tombs within the pyramids were
homes
for the pharaohs would live for eternity.
The Great Pyramids are Built
Egyptians believed in an
afterlife
, so they preserved the bodies of dead rulers and included everything they would need to spend eternity in the pyramid

Building the pyramids took so long that a pharaoh would often start building when they
first
came to power.
The Turbulent Middle Kingdom
Middle Kingdom
Collapse of the Old Kingdom --> power struggles, crop failures, cost of building the pyramids

After a century of craziness and disunity, new pharaohs
reunited
the land and brought about the Middle Kingdom

It was a difficult time
The
Nile
did not rise as regularly as before

Corruption
and rebellion were common

Ruler did construct a large drainage project to create new areas of usable farm land and occupied the gold rich area of
Kush
(Nubia)

Made contacts with the Mediterranean and
Crete
Hyksos
1700 BC - invaders called the
Hyksos
occupied the Nile delta region

Took over the government but had little conflict with the Egyptians

Hyksos had superior military techniques - horse drawn war chariots and admired the Egyptian way of life and eventually
adopted
it.
After more than 100 years, the Egyptians
overthrew
the Hyksos and the New Kingdom began.
The New Kingdom
A Time of
Conquest

At its height (1450 BC), the empire reached as far north as Syria and the Euphrates

Came in contact with peoples from Asia and other parts of Africa
Powerful Rulers Control Egypt
Hatshepsut
- first female ruler

(1472-1458 BC)

Encouraged trade with eastern

Mediterranean lands and along the Red Sea coast of Africa
Thutmose
III - her stepson - was a great military leader and pharaoh

Stretched Egypt's borders to their greatest extent ever
Ramses
II (1279-1213 BC) - pushed control north to Syria

Possibly best known because he boasted of conquests on monuments and temples
Egypt Battles With Its Neighbors
Nubia
Nubia
- to the south - for centuries Egypt either traded with or fought them

Gained ivory,
cattle
and slaves from these people

They joined the military and
fought

Egyptian art of the time shows Nubian soldiers, musicians and prisoners
Egypt Declines
After 1100 BC, Egyptian power slowly
declines
.
Persians conquered

332 BC - last Egyptian dynasty ended when
Greeks
took control

30 BC -
Romans
displaced the Greeks

Many were eager to conquer the fertile Nile River valley
2.3 Kingdom on the Nile
1. How did the Nile influence the rise of the powerful civilization of Egypt?
2. How did the Nile play a crucial role in uniting Egypt?
3. What knowledge did the Egyptians gain from their conquerors the Hyksos? How do you think this helped them later on?
4. How did the yearly floods of the Nile influence life in ancient Egypt?
5. How was Egyptian government structured during the Old Kingdom?
6. In what ways was the Middle Kingdom turbulent?
7. What role did Egyptian conquest of others play during Egypt’s New Kingdom?
Intro
• Religious beliefs about gods and the afterlife shaped daily lives in Ancient Egypt.
• Scribes used one of the ancient forms of writing to record information as scholars made advances in art and mathematics.
Religion Shapes Ancient Egypt
Religion
Much of what we know of their religion comes from inscriptions on monuments and paintings in tombs.
Egypt was a sun drenched desert, therefore the sun god held a high place in their life.
Old Kingdom worshiped Ra
Middle Kingdom combined Ra with Amon to create the lord of the gods - Amon-Re
Pharaohs got their power directly from Amon-Re
Chief Gods and Goddesses
Isis and Osiris
Osiris ruled Egypt until his jealous brother, Set (Seth), killed him. Set cut Osiris into pieces and spread his body throughout Egypt.
Osiris' wife, Isis, gathered the pieces, reassembled his body and brought him back to life.
He had to rule over the dead instead of the living. He became the god who judged souls seeking admission into the afterlife.
Osiris also God of the Nile and controlled the annual flood.
Isis taught women to grind corn, spin flax, and care for children. She was faithful in death to those who served her in life.
How Egyptians Viewed the Afterlife
Proving Oneself to Osiris
Each soul had to pass a test to enter the afterlife.

The dead soul would be ferried across the lake of fire to the hall of Osiris.
Osiris Judging Hearts
A dead person's heart was weighed against the feather of truth.
Those whose heart was good were admitted into the Happy Field of Food where they would live forever in happiness.
Those whose heart weighed more than the feather were fed to the crocodile shaped Eater of the Dead.
Egyptians relied on the Book of the Dead, which included spells, charms and formulas for the dead to use in the afterlife.
Preparing for the Afterlife
Believed the afterlife was much like life on Earth




The body was often mummified in order for the person to have use of the body in the afterlife.
Buried the dead with what they would need
Preparing for the Afterlife
At first, mummification was reserved for the rulers and nobles.

Eventually, others began to mummify their dead…including their pets.
Pharaohs during the New Kingdom were buried in the Valley of the Kings
They were buried with riches that became a temptation to robbers.
Most royal tombs were emptied years ago.
1922: Howard Carter found the tomb of King Tut, that remained untouched for nearly 3,000 years
His body was placed in a solid gold tomb nested in several other coffins.
The objects found in his tomb fill several rooms at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo
Chariots, weapons, furniture, jewelry, toys, games
Evidence Found in King Tut's Tomb
Egyptians Organize Their Society
Social Class
The pharaoh was on top of the social classes
The government officials
Small class of merchants, scribes and artisans
Peasants (the largest group)
Most people were farmers...
Most were peasant farmers. Many were slaves.
Spent their days working the land and repairing the walls holding back water.
In the off-season, peasant men were expected to serve the pharaoh building palaces, tombs, and temples.
Women spent time in the fields, raising children, collecting water, and preparing food.
New Kingdom - trade offered more opportunities for the merchant class
Money from conquests gave artisans more options (furniture, jewelry)
Egyptian Women
Women had a higher position and more freedom than others during the ancient civilizations
Ramses II said, "The foot of an Egyptian woman may walk where it pleases her and no one may deny her."
Could inherit property, enter business deals, buy and sell goods, and get a divorce
Work not confined to the home - could make goods (perfume, textiles), manage farms, be doctors
Egyptian Women
Could enter priesthood, especially to serve a goddess.

Few learned to read and write. Those that did were not allowed to be scribes or work for the government.
Which social class grew in size as a result of trade and warfare?
Merchants and Artisans
Egyptians Make Advances in Learning
Egyptians Develop Art and Literature
2.4 Egyptian Civilization
1. Which details about the Egyptian gods show the importance of agriculture to Egyptian society?
2. How did mummification reflect Egyptian beliefs about the afterlife?
3. Which social class grew in size as a result of trade and warfare?
4. Describe three advances in learning made by the ancient Egyptians?
5. What art forms were common in ancient Egypt?
Egyptian Art
Statures, wall painting in tombs, carvings on temples
Some are everyday scenes of farming, trade, family life or religious ceremonies. Other show victories in battle
Techniques remained the same for thousands of years
Gods and goddesses were larger than humans.
People with their heads and limbs in profile, but eyes and shoulders facing viewer
Statues are stiff
Human figures with animal parts to show importance or quality of the animal
Egyptian Literature
Oldest includes hymns and prayers for gods, proverbs, battle victories and love poems

The Tale of Sinuhe: folk tale; tells of the wandering of Sinuhe (Egyptian official) who was forced to flee to present day Syria to fought his way to fame among the desert people (considered uncivilized to Egyptians). In old age, he longs to return home and end with the pharaoh welcoming him back to court.
Scribes
Scribes were important to the civilization
Kept record of ceremonies, taxes, gifts to the pharaoh, served government officials or the pharaoh, learned skills in math, medicine and engineering.
A scribe from a poor family could become rich and powerful.
Hieroglyphics
Developed multiple writing systems
Hieroglyphics
The first system that used symbols or pictures to represent objects, concepts, or sounds
Used to record important information
Often carved in stone in temple and monuments to record culture that will endure thousands of years.
Like calligraphy
Hieratic
Simpler writing for everyday use
A cursive form of writing that used simplified shapes of hieroglyphs
Later replaced with demotic
Papyrus
Learned to make writing material out of papyrus that grew along the Nile
Paper not invented until 100 AD in China
Writing with reed pens and ink on smooth papyrus was easier than chiseling onto stone

Official records continued to be in hieroglyphics
Rosetta Stone
The Rosetta Stone was found in the early 1800s by Jean Champollion.
By this point, the meaning of hieroglyphics was lost.
Champollion compared the hieroglyphics, demotic script and Greek to decipher that the three languages were the same and could understand what the hieroglyphics meant.
Scholars were able to read thousands of hieroglyphics around Egypt on tombs, temples, and records.
Furthering Math and Science
Medicine
Gathered a wealth of knowledge in medicine, astronomy and math.
Doctors believed in the power of magic in healing, but learned a great deal about the human body through their knowledge of mummification.
Observed symptoms and learned how to diagnose and treat illnesses.
Performed complex surgeries (described on papyrus scrolls) and prescribed plants as medicine - many still used today
Astronomy
Mapped constellations, charted movements of planets and developed a calendar.
12 months, 30 days each, 5 days at the end of the year

Became the basis for our calendar
Mathematics
Developed geometry in order to survey the land

Calculate exact size and location of blocks used in pyramids and temples - required great knowledge in engineering and mathematics
Describe three advances in learning made by the ancient Egyptians.
Hieroglyphics and cursive writing, knowledge of the human body, surgery, mathematics, a calendar, geometry
The Ancient Israelites Shape a Unique Belief System
4,000 years ago...
Ancient Israelites developed the religion of Judaism that shaped their culture and others around the world, and became one of the major religions in the world.
Israelites were Monotheistic
Believing there is only one God.

At the time, no other religion felt this way.

All knowing, powerful God who is omnipresent.
Each event reflected God's plan for the people of Israel.
History and Faith were interconnected.
Events and laws were recorded in the Torah - the most sacred text.
The first five books of the Hebrew Bible
Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy
Total of 24 books in the Hebrew Bible
Later writings make up the Talmud
How did the beliefs of the Ancient Israelites differ from those of other nearby people?
The Israelites worshiped only one God. Other cultures worshiped many Gods.
The Ancient Israelites
Abraham
He and his family migrated with their herd to Canaan.
Abraham is considered the father of the Israelites.
God Makes A Covenant with Israelites
"You shall be the father of a multitude of nations...I will make nations of you, and kings shall come forth from you. And you will establish my covenant between me and you and your descendants after you throughout their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be God to you and to your descendants after you. And I will give you, and to your descendants after you, the land of your sojourning, all the land of Canaan..."
Genesis 17:4-8
Two Key Beliefs of Judaism From God's Covenant
Chosen People: God established a special relationship with the Israelites, promising to be their God and the God of their descendants.
Promised Land: God promised to give the land of Canaan to the Israelites and their descendants.
Moses
Famine forced many Israelites to move to Egypt where they eventually became slaves.
In Exodus, Moses tells people to return to God with faithful obedience. In return, God will lead them out of bondage to the promised land.
Moses led the people out of Egypt and into the promised land, Canaan, after 40 years of wandering in the desert.
David
1000 BC: The kingdom had been established in Israel
The twelve tribes had been united by David who was the king chosen by God.
Solomon
Solomon finished building the temple that David, his father, had started and undertook many other building projects.
He was known for his knowledge and wisdom.
Worked with Egypt and Mesopotamia to establish relationships.
Division and Conquest
Revolts occurred over high taxes after Solomon's death - 922 BC
The kingdom split into Israel to the north and Judea to the south.
Division and Conquest Timeline
722 BC
585 BC
539 BC
722 BC - Assyrians Conquered Israel
586 BC - Babylonians captured Judah
Nebchadnezzar destroyed the temple and forced those in Jerusalem into Exile to Babylon

Babylon captivity lasted 50 years
539 BC - Persia conquers Babylon
Persian ruler, Cyrus the Great, conquered Babylon and freed the Israelites.

Most returned to their homelands.

Rebuilt the temple.
According to the Torah, where did the Israelites go after they left Egypt? What was special to them about this place?
They left Egypt to wander through the desert for 40 years, and eventually settled in Canaan. This is the land that was promised to them through the covenant between Abraham and God.
Jerusalem Teaches about Law and Morality
Law
Law was central to Israelites.

The Torah was known as the Books of the Law.

Everyday stuff like cleanliness and food preparation to punishments for crimes was included.
Social Class
Society was patriarchal - men were in charge

A family's oldest male relative was head of the household and arranged marriages of women.

However, few women were outstanding in their lives. Deborah, the judge, held great honor.
The Ten Commandments
The heart of the laws. Israelites believed God gave them to Moses on Mt. Sinai.

First four stress religious duties to God.

Others address conflict toward others.
Teaching an Ethical Worldview
Spiritual leaders emerged to interpret God's will - prophets.

Isaiah and Jeremiah warned that failure to follow God's word would lead to their disaster.

Told of the captivity for years beforehand.
Urged personal morality and social justice.

Rich and powerful should protect weak and poor.

All people are equal before God.

The rulers were seen as human (not god-like) and bound to obey God's law.
Prophets taught a strict code of ethics - moral standards
Jews Maintain Their Beliefs
Beginning with the Babylonian Captivity and lasting for over 500 years, Israelites began to move throughout the world.

Took their culture, religion, and communities with them.

Became a way to cope and survive centuries of persecution.
The spreading out of Jewish people - Diaspora.
Moved because of captivity, from empires that controlled the land, or discontent with political rulers.
Today...
Judaism is considered a major world religion.

Unique contribution to religious though.
Influence
Influenced Christianity and Islam.

Both arose in the Middle East.

All three honor Abraham, Moses and the prophets and teach an ethical worldview.
2.5 Roots of Judaism Assessment
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Standard
Honors
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