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Biology Chapter 13 Section 2 Manipulating DNA and Genetic Engineering

Miller Levine Dragonfly Book
by Mark Meredith on 19 November 2012

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Transcript of Biology Chapter 13 Section 2 Manipulating DNA and Genetic Engineering

DNA Manipulation
and
Genetic Engineering GM Crops DNA Extraction
DNA can be extracted from most cells by a simple chemical procedure.

The cells are opened and the DNA is separated from the other cell parts. The Tools of Molecular Biology GM Crops GM Crops The Tools of Molecular Biology How do scientists make changes to DNA? A particular restriction enzyme is used to
cut up DNA in random locations.
cut DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence.
extract DNA from cells.
separate negatively charged DNA molecules. The DNA polymerase enzyme found in bacteria living in the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park illustrates
genetic engineering.
the importance of biodiversity to biotechnology.
the polymerase chain reaction.
selective breeding. During gel electrophoresis, the smaller the DNA fragment is, the
more slowly it moves.
heavier it is.
more quickly it moves.
darker it stains. Restriction enzymes are used to
extract DNA.
cut DNA.
separate DNA.
replicate DNA. Separating DNA  
In gel electrophoresis, DNA fragments are placed at one end of a porous gel, and an electric voltage is applied to the gel. The Tools of Molecular Biology Cutting DNA 
Most DNA molecules are too large to be analyzed, so biologists cut them into smaller fragments using restriction enzymes. The Tools of Molecular Biology Scientists use different techniques to:
extract DNA from cells
cut DNA into smaller pieces
identify the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule
make unlimited copies of DNA The Tools of Molecular Biology During gel electrophoresis, DNA fragments become separated because
multiple copies of DNA are made.
recombinant DNA is formed.
DNA molecules are negatively charged.
smaller DNA molecules move faster than larger fragments. Making Copies of DNA

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that allows biologists to make copies of genes.

Small amounts of DNA can be multiplied making it easier to analyze. Using the DNA Sequence Transformation of Bacteria
In genetic engineering, biologists make changes in the DNA code of a living organism. The Tools of Molecular Biology Manipulating DNA / Genetic Engineering Each restriction enzyme cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides. The Tools of Molecular Biology Gel Electrophoresis The Tools of Molecular Biology Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Using the DNA Sequence KFC Research Facility*

*not really Can you think of
uses for each method? E. coli For what reasons might
you need to get the DNA
out of cells? Which type of molecule
is an enzyme?
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