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Intermediate Geography: Rivers
Transcript of Intermediate Geography: Rivers
This process involves the force of water against the bed and banks.
This is the process by which the bed and banks are worn down by the river’s load. The river throws these particles against the bed and banks, sometimes at high velocity.
Material (the load) carried by the river bump into each other and so are smoothed and broken down into smaller particles.
This is the chemical action of river water. The acids in the water slowly dissolve the bed and the banks. Processes of river erosion Upper course Characteristics: -
Steep Sided Valleys
Narrow river channel
River wynds between interlocking spurs
High energy so lots of transportation and little deposition
Load of the river is large and angular (jagged) River Features Interlocking spurs In the Upper Course, the river in it's V-shaped valley may be forced to wind around areas of hard rock. This results in spurs of land which interlock down the valley. Waterfalls middle course Characteristics: -
More lateral erosion than vertical erosion.
Rivers become wider and deeper
More energy so more transportation
Reduced velocity can mean more deposition
River less straight
Hydraulic erosion and corrasion increasingly important (especially in meander formation) Meanders Oxbow lakes lower course Characteristics:-
River is at its widest and deepest.
It flows on a very gentle slope.
It has a wide valley floor and a large flood plain.
It has a large amount of load and cannot transport all of it.
Therefore, most landforms are caused by deposition. Floodplain Floodplains and leveés are formed by deposition in times of river flood. When a river floods it deposits the heaviest of these particles first. The larger particles, often pebble-sized, form the leveés. The rest of the lighter material is then laid down to create very fertile farmland. Every time the river floods deposition builds up the floodplain. deltas 1. The River is carrying large amounts of material.
2. The River slows down as it reaches the sea.
3. The material is deposited into the sea.
4. Over time this material builds up to form new land.
(Deltas only form when the sea has weak tides so it cannot erode away the material) The Mississippi Delta