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Chapter 10: Motivation, Personality, and Emotion

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by Leticia Alvarado-Lopez on 8 April 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 10: Motivation, Personality, and Emotion

BY: AMBER FLETCHER
And
Leticia Alvarado-Lopez Learning Objectives Motivation: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs McGuire's Psychological Motives Consumers do not buy products - they buy motive satisfaction or problem solutions.
Firms must discover the motives that their products and brands can satisfy and develop marketing mixes around these motives
Marketers do not create needs - marketers create demand.
Demand is the willingness to buy a particular product or service.
Demand is caused by a need or motive. Define motivation and summarize the motivation sets put forth by Maslow and McGuire.
Articulate motivation's role in consumer behavior and marketing strategy.
Define personality and the various theories of personality.
Understand emotion and how to use them. Motivation is the energizing force that activates behavior & provides purpose & direction to that behavior.
Answer's the "Why?"
Reason's for behavior
A motive is a construct representing an unobservable inner force that stimulates & compels a behavioral response & provides specific direction to that response.
Why a individual does something
Need & motivation can be used interchangeably. Needs influence motivation, feelings & emotions.
When a consumer feels a gap between a desired state & their actual current state, a need is recognized & experienced as motivation. A macro theory to account for human behavior in general terms based on 4 primises:
All humans acquire a similar set of motives through genetic endowment and social interaction.
Some motives are more basic or critical than others.
The more basic motives must be satisfied to a minimum level before other motives are activated.
As the basic motives become satisfied, more advanced motives come into play Classification system that asks four questions to organizes Maslow's theories into six-teen categories.
The system helps marketers isolate motives likely to be involved in various consumption situations. Motivation Theory
& Marketing Strategy Chapter 10
Motivation, Personality,
and Emotion 5 Levels to Maslow's Need Hierarchy:
I. Physiological:
- food, water, sleep, &, to an extent, sex, are physiological motives.
II. Safety:
- seeing physical safety & security, stability, familiar surroundings, & so forth are manifestations of safety needs.
III. Belongingness:
- motives are reflected in a desire for love, friendship, affiliation, & group acceptance.
IV. Esteem:
- desires for status, superiority, self-respect, and prestige. Theses needs relate to the individual's feelings of usefulness & accomplishment.
V. Self-Actualization:
- This involves the desire for self-fulfillment, to become all that one is capable of becoming. Personality An individual's characteristic response tendencies across similar situations.
Two trait theories:
1) All individuals have internal characteristics or traits related to action tendencies
2) There are consistent and measurable differences between individuals on those characteristics. Multitrait Approach:
Five-Factor Model
Identifies five basic traits formed be genetics and early learning
Single-trait Approach:
Emphasizes one personality trait as being particularly relevant to understanding a particular set of behaviors. The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Conclusions about brand personality:
Consumers assign human characteristics to brands.
Brand personalities create expectations about key brand characteristics
Brand personalities are often the basis for a long-term relationship with the brand. Dimensions of Brand Personality
five groups
1) Sincerity
2) Excitement
3) Competence
4) Sophistication
5) Ruggedness Brand Personality:
A set of human characteristics that become associated with a brand. Emotion, Emotions and Marekting Strategy, and Advertising Specific feeling and affect to refer to the liking-disliking aspect of the specific feeling.
Three basic dimensions of emotion- pleasure, arousal, and dominance. Gratitude- the emotional appreciation for benefits received.
Gratitude-based behaviors include:
buying products based on gratitude for the relationship marketing efforts.
giving more business to the firm due to feelings of "owning" them.
buying a broader set of products from the firm as a "payback" for their prior relationship marketing efforts, and positive word of mouth. Emotional content in ads enhances their attention, attractions, and maintenance capabilities. McGUIRE'S CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
1. Is the mode of motivation cognitive or affective?
- Cognitive motives focus on the person's need for being adaptively oriented toward the environment and achieving a sense of meaning.
- Affective motives deal with the need to reach satisfying feeling states and to obtain personal goals.
2. Is the motive focused on preservation of the status quo or on growth.
- Preservation-oriented motives emphasize the individual as striving to maintain equilibrium
- Growth motives emphasize development.
3. Is this behavior actively initiated or in response to the environment?
- Distinguishes between motives that are actively or internally aroused versus those that are a more passive response to circumstances.
4. Does this behavior help the individual achieve a new internal or a new external relationship to the environment?
- Used to categorize outcomes that are internal to the individual and those focused on a relationship with the environment. McGuire's 16 Motives:

-Cognitive Preservation Motives:
1. Need for Consistency (active, internal)
2. Need for Attribution (active, external)
3. Need to Categorize (passive, internal)
4. Need for Objectification (passive, external)
-Cognitive Growth Motives:
5. Need for Autonomy (active, internal)
6. Need for Stimulation (active, external)
7. Teleological Need (passive, internal)
8. Utilitarian Need (passive, external)
-Affective Preservation Motives:
9. Need for Tension Reduction (active, internal)
10. Need for Expression (active, external)
11. Need for Ego Defense (passive, internal)
12. Need for Reinforcement (passive, external)
-Affective Growth Motives:
13. Need for Assertion (active, internal)
14. Need for Affiliation (active, external)
15. Need for identification (passive, internal)
16. Need for Modeling (passive, external) Discovering Purchase Motives:

- Manifest motives:
motives that are freely known by the consumer & admitted to the researcher.
- Latent motives:
motives unknown to consumer or were such as reluctant to admit them. Motivation & Consumer Involement

- Involvement is a motivational state caused by consumer perceptions that a product, brand, or advertisement is relevant or interesting.
- Involvement is important to marketers because it affects numerous consumer behaviors.
- Involvement increases attention, analytical processing, information search, and word of mouth.
- High-involvement consumers tend to be product experts and are more persuaded by ads that include detail product information.
- Low-involvement consumers lack product experience and are more persuaded by images, emotion, and message source. Motivation & consumer Involvement

-Involvement is a motivational state caused by consumer perceptions that a product, brand, or advertisement is relevant or interesting.
- Important to markets because it affects numerous consumer behaviors.
- Increases attention, analytical processing, information search, and word of mouth.
- High-involvement consumers tend to be product experts and are more persuaded by ads that include detail product information.
- Low-involvement consumers lack product experience and are more persuaded by images, emotion, and message source. Cognitive Preservation Motives:
1. Need for Consistency (active, internal)
- A basic desire is to have all facets of
oneself consistent with one another. These faucets include attitudes, behaviors, opinions, self-images, and views of others.
2. Need for Attribution (active, external)
- This set of motives deals with our need to determine who or what causes the things that happen to us.
3. Need to Categorize (passive, internal)
- People have a need to categorize and o
organize the information and experiences they encounter in a meaningful yet manageable way.
4. Need for Objectification (passive, external)
- These motives reflect needs for observable cues or symbols that enable people to infer what they feel and know. Cognitive Growth Motives

5. Need for Autonomy (active, internal)
- The need for independence and individuality. Owning or using products and services that are unique is one way consumers express their autonomy.
6. Need for Stimulation (active, external)
- Seeing variety and difference. Prime reasons
for brand switching and some so-called impulse purchasing.
7. Teleological Need (passive, internal)
- Movement towards a desired end state.
8. Utilitarian Need (passive, external)
- Consumer approaches situations as opportunities to acquire useful information or new skills. Affective Preservation Motives:

9. Need for Tension Reduction (active, internal)
- Motivation to seek ways to reduce stress.
10. Need for Expression (active, external)
- Need to express one's identity to others.
11. Need for Ego Defense (passive, internal)
- Need to defend one's identity or ego.
12. Need for Reinforcement (passive, external)
- People are often motivated to act in certain ways because they were rewarded for behaving that way in similar situations in the past, Affective Growth Motives:

13. Need for Assertion (active, internal)
- Competitive achievers who seek success,
admiration, and dominance.
14. Need for Affiliation (active, external)
- The need to develop mutually helpful and
satisfying relationships with others. Relates to seeking acceptance.
15. Need for identification (passive, internal)
- Results from consumer's playing various
roles. One gains pleasure from adding new, satisfying roles by increasing the significance of roles already adopted.
16. Need for Modeling (passive, external)
- Tendency to base behavior on that of others. That's the end of our presentation!
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