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Topic 7: Human Impact on Ecosystems

Mrs. Ashkenazy, E Period.
by Ashley Lin on 23 May 2011

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Transcript of Topic 7: Human Impact on Ecosystems

- is a increase in the Earth's average surface temperature caused by an increase in greenhouse gases. Global Warming Greenhouse gases Trap and absorbs the infrared radiation that bounces off the Earth's warmed surface.
In recent years, the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased.
Causes:
burning fuel Finding and using energy sources that do not add Carbon Dioxide to the atmosphere is one way to prevent further global warming.
Do your part to reduce waste by choosing reusable products instead of disposables.
Use Less Heat and Air Conditioning
Use the "Off" Switch
Encourage Others to Conserve Ways to prevent Global Warming is another worldwide problem like global warming.
The main cause of ozone depletion is the release of gases called chlorofluorocarbons or CFGs.
CFGs have been used as coolants in refrigerators and air conditioners, as propellants in aerosol cans, and in the manufacture of plastic foam. Ozone Depletion The release of certain industrial gases into the atmosphere has led to destruction of much of the Ozone Shield.

The Ozone Shield is a layer of ozone gas in the upper atmosphere that protects Earth from some of the sun's radiation. Ozone Shield The "hole" in the ozone shield allows normal amounts of ultraviolet radiation from the sun to reach the Earth's surface. A non-renewable resource is something that is not being replaced as we consume it.

fossil fuels ( gas,coal)
aluminum
oil

Using too many nonrenewable resources will cause their depletion within a relatively short time. Non- Renewable Resources Decisions we make today and tomorrow will determine whether or not we increase our comsuption of Earth's limited resources.
Making the right decisions about theses issues will affect you as well as the future generations of all the organisms that share the biosphere. is the development of an economy in which machines produce many of the products people use.
Theses products may add to the quality of life, but their manufacture can harm the environment.
It increases the demand for:
energy
water
fossil fuels
nuclear fuels. Industrialization Problems with increased industrialization is that most factories use a lot of water.
In some cases, withdrawing large quantities of water cause the ground to collapse, forming sinkholes. which of the resources is renewable? (1) wood
(2) oil
(3) iron
(4) coal Humans are responsible for some of the negative changes that occur in nature because they... (1) have controlled the use of many pesticides and other environmentally damaging chemicals
(2) have passed laws to preserve the environment
(3) are able to preserve scarce resources
(4) are able to modify their physical environment to provide for human needs Plants help maintain the quality of the atmosphere by.. (1) storing carbon dioxide
(2) opening holes in the ozone shield
(3) causing global warming
(4) storing oxygen State one way humans contributed to the change in the Atlantic salmon population in Lake Ontario. Carbon, like many elements, is maintained in ecosystems through a natural cycle. Human activities have been disrupting the carbon cycle. state one reason why the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased in the last 100 years

Identify one effect this increase in carbon dioxide could have on the environment. Pollution: is the harmful change in the chemical makeup of the soil, water, or air. There are many types of pollution such as noise pollution
water Pollution:
is the harmful change in
the chemical makeup of
the soil, water, or air. There are many types of pollution.

Water Pollution --> toxic wastes, thermal pollution, etc.
Air Pollution --> burning fossil fuels, acid precipitation,
smog, etc. Smog is a kind of air pollutant that results when
certain pollutants react with the sunlight. Renewable Resources: Earth's resources, such as our food supply and solar energy, which, given time, can be replaced. To preserve the biosphere for future generations, humans must (1) make use of technology to develop new pesticides
(2) put all wild animals in game preserves
(3) explore ways to drain and fill wetlands along the seacoast
(4) understand how living things interact with their environment Explain why water shortages occur frequently in parts of NewYork State even though the water supply is nearly constant. Carrying Capacity The carrying capacity of an environment is the amount of population that an environment can sustain, providing them with food, habitats and all the necessities that the organisms need to survive. Due to pollution, environmental changes, and human impact on the environment, the carrying capacity in environments goes up.

However, the evironment always seems to bring the number of species back down to where all the organisms can live comfortably in that environment. An example of a renewable resource is fishing.
Even though many fishes are captured, the population will reproduce over time.
Unfortunately, now a days, modern commercial fishing remove fishes so quickly, making it impossible for them to reproduce fast enough.
If this keeps happening, fish will no longer become renewable resources. Technology is all of the practical scientific knowledge that
has been used to meet human needs It increases the quantity of resources that people use. It can lead to the changes of the ecosystem, including the way it functions. However, humans affect the ecosystem in many other ways. Deforestation Deforestation is the removal of trees and forests for commercial use as timber, fuel, and other uses.
Farming is another cause for deforestation. A great example of deforestation is the Brazilian part of the Amazon rainforest Trade-off is an exchange or agreement made to reach a compromise. In the last 40 years, 20 percent of the Amazon rainforest has been cut down Although technology has led to some improvements, other technologies have led harmful effects on the environment Larger crop yields mean a greater supply of food. Deforestation negatively affects the ecosystem because as large parts of the forest are cut down, this depletes the amount of oxygen being released into the environment and leaving more carbon dioxide to ruin our atmosphere. Direct Harvesting This is the direct removal of an organism for its environment.

-Direct harvesting can harm ecosystems because by removing an organism it can disrupt the food web of that ecosystem leaving a specific organism to grow and reproduce unchecked Energy Flow Energy Flow is the flow of energy through a food chain.
As the energy flows from the Auto trophs to the primary consumer and the secondary consumers, the energy starts to diminish. Technology such as pesticides and or fertilizers can cause pollution
and have other harmful effects on the environment People will need to help take difficult steps to help save the environment if technology can't solve all our problems. Already, people have tried to reduce the air and water pollution caused by factories, power-generating plants, automobiles, etc. But, some solutions are expensive, and will make products we buy cost more. Fossil fuels are non renewable resources since they take millions of years to form.
Alternate forms of fuel could be:
-Water power
-Wind power
-Geothermal power
-Solar power Many people are unwilling when it comes to giving up their air-conditioned comfort. Many people know how to conserve energy, but many of us are unwilling to give up the option to turn off our computers, television, radio, etc. when they aren't in use. Us humans need to determine a trade-off, which is similar to a compromise in which it is acceptable to help save the welfare of the future generations by not destroying wildlife, the ecosystem, etc. The water cycle is the prcoess by which water continuously moves from the Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back. Water is continuously evaporating from the surface of the land and water and from the leaves of plants. The water vapor rises into the atmosphere and collects as clouds that move long distances. The vapor will eventually condense as precipitation. The water then collects as runoff or underground or evaporates. This process is then repeated over and over again. Today's lifestyles have led to increased demands for disposable products.
The packaging of these products have caused environmental problems most
directly associated with
1. foob wed contamination
2. atmospheric depletion
3. solid waste disposal
4. the use of nuclear fuels. Some modern agriculture methods have created serious insect
problems, primarily because these methods
1. increase soil loss
2. provide concentrated areas of food for insects
3. aid in the absorption of water
4. grow crops in areas where formerly only insects
could live. The decline and extinction of many predatory
animal species is most probably the result of
1. an overabundance of prey species
2. the introduction of a new species of animal
into an area
3. the disruption of natural food chains
4. the decreased use of chemical pesticides Modern methods of agriculture have contributed to the problem
of soil depletion because many of these methods
1. require smaller amounts of mineral and fertilizer application
2. interfere with the natural cycling of elements
3. use many varieties of cloned plants
4. depend on the practice of planting and harvesting Regents review questions: Multiple Choice Which action that humans have taken in attempting to solve
an ecological problem has had the most negative effect?
1.seeking better means of birth control in the human population
2. applying scientific farming techniques to oceans
3. producing stronger and more efficient pesticides
4. developing new techniques for the disposal of sewage and the industrial and chemical wastes. Japanese beetles, a major insectpest in the United States, do relatively little damage in Japan because they:
1. are kept in check by natural enemies
2. are kept in check by effective pesticide sprays
3. hibernate during the winter months
4. have gradually adapted to the environment All of Earth's water, land, and atmosphere within which life exists is known as
1. A population
2. A Community
3. A Biome
4. The Biosphere The answer is choice number 3. solid waste disposal. The answer is choice number 2. provide concentrated areas of food for insects The answer is choice number 3. the disruption of natural food chains The answer is choice number 2. interfere with the natural cycling of elements The answer is choice number 3. producing stronger and more effective pesticides The answer is choice numner 1. are kept in check by natural enemies Regents review questions: Short Answers The correct answer is number 4.

The biosphere is the largest organizational grouping in ecology, it includes everyplace life is found on Earth. Certain insects are kept under control by sterilizing the males with x rays so that the sperm production stops. Explain how this technique reduces the survival of this insect species. Most autotrophs store energy in what form
1. starches
2. carbon dioxide
3. water
4. nucleic acids The correct answer is mumber: 1

Starch is a polysaccharide consisting of chains of glucoses, which is what releases energy. If sperm production stops, then eggs cannot be fertilized. The use of ionizing radiation in an attempt to control the screw-worm fly is a form of a pest control method referred to as biological control. The use of ladybugs to control aphids, milky spore disease to reduce Japanese beetle populations, and sex attractants to lure pest insects into traps are also examples of biological control strategies used against insect pests. State one reason why the use of biological control methods is often better than the use of chemical pesticides. Biological controls are for a specific pest only. They do not rely on the use of toxic chemicals that can harm other species when spread through an environment. It reduces genetic variation by limiting the number of males that can produce offspring Without reproduction, no species can survive. The survival of most plants and animals have been aided most by
1. increasing the height of industrial smoke stacks to spread air pollutants away from the immediate vicinity of combustion
2. reduction in the number of restrictive pollution control laws
3. Heavy use of pesticides to kill all of the insect pests that compete with humans for food sources.
4. The development of reasearching towards the preservation of endangered species. The correct answer is number 4

Without the aid of humans to protect endangered species the pollution would kill a lot of them off A desired outcome derived from an understanding of the principles of ecology would be
1. The elimination of most predatory species
2. An increase in the world human population
3. A decrease in disruption of existing wildlife habitats
4. An increase in the amount of industrialization The correct answer is number 3

With an understanding of the principles of ecology, people would know the harm that they could be causing so they could stop disrupting wildlife habitats. Crops being harvested provide insects a perfect place to feed When a food chain is disrupted, it affects every animal, and depending on which part of the food chain is disrupted some animals may become extinct. Since agriculture and products are in such high demand the soil does not have time to regain all its nutrients before it is used again. This has had a negative effect because the pesticides are poison to all other organisms in the ecosystem so an leak or drainage to the environment can affect all the other organisms. In Japan they have natural predators, while in the U.S. they don't DDT is an insecticide that accumulates in the fatty tissue of animals and is
transferred through food chains. It concentration increases at each link of
a food chain. Which organism in a good chain is most likely to accumulate the highest concentration of DDT?
1. rabbit (a herbivore)
2. corn (a producer)
3. field mouse (a consumer)
4. owl (a predator) The correct answer is number 4

Since the pesticide concetration increases with each link of the food web the owl would get the worst since it is a predator and the last link in the food web. Which human activity has probably contributed most to lake acidification
in the Adirondack region of New York State?
1. passage of environmental protection laws
2. reforestation projects in lumbered areas
3. production of chemical air pollutants by industry
4. use of biological insect controls to eliminate pests The correct answer is number 3

Production of chemical air pollutants affects the acidity because the chemicals come down as acid rain. The use of technology often alters the quuilibrium in ecosystems. With which of the following statements would most scientists agree?
1. Humans should use their knowledge of ecology to consider the needs of future generations of humans and other species.
2. Humans should develop new technology to expand the influence of humans in natural communities.
3. Humans should learn how to control every aspect of the environment so that damage due to technology will be spread evenly.
4. Humans should develop the uninhabited parts of Earth for human population expansion. The number of industries along New York State's rivers is increasing.
What is the most likely consequence of increased industrialization?
1. a decrease in the amount of water needed by industry
2. a decrease in the aount of water pollution
3. an increase in the destruction of natural ecosystems
4. an increase in the amount of water available for recreational use The correct answer is number 3

Industries along the river would most likely pollute the river with chemicals, destroying the natural ecosystem The correct answer is number 1 Topic 7: Human Impact on Ecosystems By: Ashley Lin, Donna Park, & Angel Torres
E Period http://www.teachersdomain.org/asset/rr10_vid_ecosys/ Some ecologists are concerned that the human population has outgrown the capacity of many
of Earth's ecosystems. The natural limiting factor that will most likely prevent furthur human population growth in many parts of the world is
1. habitat destruction
2. political intervention
3. food supply
4. s0cial intervention Which of these human activities is quite often responsible
for the other three human activities?
1. increasing demand on limited food production
2. rapid increase of loss of farmland due to soil erosion
3. rapid increase of human population
4. increasing levels of air pollution The best way to ensure that there will be enough
aluminum for all future needs is to
1. dig more mines and process more aluminum ore
2. buy more aluminum from other countries and save our own
3. recycle and reuse aluminum
4. increase space exploration and search for new sources of aluminum Which human activity has probably contributed most to lake acidification
in the Adirondack region of New York State?
1. passage of environmental protection laws
2. reforestation projects in lumbered areas
3. production of chemical air pollutants by industry
4. use of biological insect controls to eliminate pests The correct answer is number 3. food supply Without food, humans can no longer
function or reproduce which will prevent
further human population growth. The correct answer is 3. rapid increase of human population The rapid increase of human population will
lead to the demand on limited food production,
the rapid increase of loss of farmland due to soil
erosion, and the increased levels of air pollution. The correct answer is 3. recycle and reuse aluminum By recycling and reusing aluminum, it will stop
us from digging up mines to process more aluminum
ore, buy aluminum from other countries, etc. The correct answer is choice 3. production of chemical air pollutants by industry The passage of environmental protection laws and reforestation projects in lumbered areas are used to help us, and not to harm the lake acidification. The use of biological insect controls eliminate pests is not as terrible as the production of chemical air pollutants. Identify one part of the water cycle that the burning of fossil fuels,
such as coal and oil, directly affects. Support your answer. Explain how the runoff waters from farm land and golf
courses might be dangerous to organisms living in ponds,
rivers, or streams. Many people place bat boxes on their property to provide housing that attracts insect-eating bats. Explain how this activity has a positive effect on the environment. When land is cleared for agriculture or home construction, small isolated sections of the original habitat may remain. Explain how this reduction in habitat size and the isolation of small sections of habitat might lead to species endangerment. Burning fossil fuels affects the precipitation part of the water cycle. As rain falls through gases produced by burning coal, oil, and other fuels, the gases dissolve in it and form acid rain, which causes damage to organisms in many ways. T0xic chemicals used to control weeds and insect pests may be in the runoff water, and when they enter bodies of water, they may harm the organisms living there. It controls insect populations without
the use of toxic chemicals. With less room to find food and live, many would die. Also, isolating groups in small areas leads to smaller breeding populations with less genetic diversity. The planning board of a community held a public hearing in response to complaints by residents concerning a waste-recycling plant. These residents claim that the waste-hauling trucks were polluting air, land, and water and that the garbage has brought an increase in rats, mice, and pathogenic bacteria to the area. The residents were insistent that the waste-recycling plants be closed permanently. State one cause of a health problem that can be associated with the presence of the waste recycling plant. State one ecological benefit of recycling wastes. Particles in the air, or presence of bateria, or viruses on trucks, or carcinogens, or chemicals in air or water. Conservation of natural resources or energy conservation or reduction in pollution.
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