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Juvenile Crime and the Juvenile Justice System

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by Reva Resstack on 8 May 2013

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Transcript of Juvenile Crime and the Juvenile Justice System

Other risk factors which may be evident during childhood and adolescence include:
aggressive or troublesome behavior
language delays or impairments
lack of emotional control (learning to control one's anger)
cruelty to animals Adult Court vs. Juvenile Court Rehabilitation,community protection, and treatment Basic Statistics http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/crime/qa05103.asp?qaDate=2010&text= What is juvenile crime? Opportunity for Rehabilitation The United States has reduced the number of juveniles in incarceration facilities by 50 percent to focus on rehabilitation. Because the cost to lock up a kid is about 88,000 which is twice the amount of a private college tuition.
Based on a survey conducted study show that focusing on prevention and rehabilitation will reduce tax fare.
Also statistic show that incarcerating kids fails to be effective by reducing the number of offender

Levin, Marc A., and Bart Lubow. "Juvenile Rehabilitation Versus Incarceration." Corrections Today. Jun/Jul 2012: 10+. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 30 Apr 2013. Case Studies Racial Profiling Racial profiling is a big issues in juvenile court. Mainly latino and african are being punish severely, compare to the white offenders.
Study show that white offender have receive mercy in court compare to black offenders.

"From 2001 to 2008, Bush issued decisions in 1,918 pardon cases sent to him by the Justice Department, most involving nonviolent drug or financial crimes. He pardoned 189 people--all but 13 of whom were white. Seven pardons went to blacks, four to Hispanics, one to an Asian and one to a Native American."


Linzer, Dafna, and Jennifer LaFleur. "A Racial Gap for Criminals Seeking Mercy." Washington Post. 04 Dec 2011: A.1. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 30 Apr 2013. by Harold and Reva Pd. 4 Juvenile Crime
and the Juvenile Justice System Risk Factors for Juvenile Delinquency Depending on the type and severity of the offense committed, it is possible for persons under 18 to be charged and tried as adults. Juvenile delinquency, or youth crime, is participation in illegal behavior by minors (individuals younger than the statutory age of majority). Most legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centers, and courts. A juvenile delinquent is a person who is typically under the age of 18 and commits an act that otherwise would have been charged as a crime if they were an adult. Primary Goals: Deterrence is seen as a successful outcome of punishment Judgment Process: The juvenile offender faces a hearing, which incorporates his social history as well as legal factors Defendants in the criminal justice system are put on trial, which is based largely on legal facts Sentencing: A juvenile offender is judged "delinquent" rather than "guilty." Sentencing varies and may cover a wide range of community-based and residential options. A defendant is found "innocent" or "guilty." The offender is sentenced to a specified period of time which is determined by the severity of the offense, as well as the defendant's criminal history. Parole: Parole combines surveillance with activities to reintegrate the juvenile into the community. Parole is primarily based on surveillance and monitoring of illicit behavior. Bibliography State United state
Alaska
Arizona
Florida
Georgia Violent Crime Index Property Index Drug Abuse Weapons 233 1,133 511 92 248 1,329 391 35 182 1,426 798 49 343 589 67 192 1,200 368 104 Individual Risk Factors Familial and Peer Influence Individual risk factors that may make offending more likely include:
low intelligence
impulsiveness or the inability to delay gratification
aggression
apathy
restlessness Children with low intelligence are more likely to do badly in school, which then may increase the chances of committing an offense because a low attachment to school and low educational aspirations are all risk factors for offending, in themselves. Children who don't do well in school are also more likely to be truant, and the status of truancy (itself being an offense) is linked to further offending. Impulsiveness is seen by some as the key aspect of a child's personality that predicts delinquency. However, it is not clear whether these aspects of personality are a result of “deficits in the executive functions of the brain” or a result of parental influences or other social factors. In any event, studies of adolescent development show that teenagers are more prone to risk-taking, which may explain the high disproportional rate of committing offenses among juveniles. Family factors that may have an influence on offending include:
the level of parental supervision
the quality of the parent-child relationship
the way parents discipline a child, particularly harsh punishment
parental conflict or separation
criminal parents or siblings
parental abuse or neglect Children brought up by lone parents are more likely to start offending than those who live with two natural parents. It is also more likely that children of single parents may live in poverty, which is strongly associated with juvenile delinquency. However once the attachment a child feels towards their parent(s) and the level of parental supervision are taken into account, children in single parent families are no more likely to offend than others. Conflict between a child's parents is also much more closely linked to offending than being raised by a lone parent. A lack of supervision is also connected to poor relationships between children and parents. Children who are often in conflict with their parents may be less willing to discuss their activities with them. Many studies have found a strong correlation between a lack of supervision and offending, and it appears to be the most important family influence on offending. When parents commonly do not know where their children are, what their activities are, or who their friends are, children are more likely to be truant from school and have delinquent friends, each of which are linked to committing an offense. Adolescents with criminal siblings are only more likely to be influenced by their siblings, and also become delinquent, especially if the sibling is older or of the same sex/gender. Peer rejection in childhood is also a large predictor of juvenile delinquency. Although children are rejected by peers for many reasons, it is often the case that they are rejected due to violent or aggressive behavior. This rejection affects the child's ability to be socialized correctly, and often leads them to gravitate towards anti-social peer groups. This association often leads to the promotion of violent, aggressive and deviant behavior. Aggressive adolescents who have been rejected by peers are also more likely to have a "hostile attribution bias" which leads people to interpret the actions of others (whether they are genuinely hostile or not) as purposefully hostile and aggressive towards them. This often leads to an impulsive and aggressive reaction. Hostile attribution bias however, can appear at any age during development and often lasts throughout a person's life. Jose In 1998, José and his friends were drunk and got into a fight in an alleyway.
One of the boys got his skull crushed in, and José, along with two others, was charged with murder.
Prosecutor David Soares said, "We looked at what was the level of participation in the assault, how criminal was he, how culpable was he. And in José's case . . . we saw that his involvement wasn't that high."
He was moved to adult court and plead guilty, but to a lesser charge of involuntary manslaughter.
After his plea, José was sent for a psychological evaluation at the California Youth Authority. He received a favorable evaluation in which the psychologist found that he was not likely to be a threat to public safety as long as he was sober.
José was only sentenced to 208 days in Juvenile Hall.
José now has an adult record.
As conditions of his probation, he had to cut all ties with his gang life, submit to drug tests, and either find a job or go to school full time. He now has a job.
José represents how juveniles can change, when given the chance. Manny In 1999, Manny and two other gang members attacked a family in his neighborhood.
Four men were assaulted, two of them stabbed.
One of the victims was six months pregnant. The prosecution says she was hit repeatedly in the stomach with a baseball bat.
Manny was arrested and brought to court on four counts of attempted murder.
When he was 14, he had pled guilty to rape in juvenile court. Given this history, the District Attorney petitioned the court to try him as an adult.
In 2000, Manny pled guilty to seven counts of assault with a deadly weapon.
He is not hopeful about his chances of remaining out of prison for life. He says, "It might as well be a done deal. Two strikes. . . . I am only 18 years old. I plan to live until I am 50, I'm not perfect. I don't know, I don't think I'm going to make it, you know? I don't think I'm going to stay out for good."
On January 22, 2001, Manny was sentenced to nine years at state prison. Marquese Marquese was charged with auto theft and residential burglary.
He had seven previous juvenile felony convictions, all of them being theft-related.
Prosecutors sought to have Marquese tried in adult court for his latest offenses. At his fitness hearing, one of his probation officers described him as a "career criminal," who despite receiving multiple rehabilitative services over the years continues to break the law as soon as he is released from detention.
Defense Attorney Gilda Valeros disagreed, citing that he is exactly the sort of kid that the juvenile system could help, primarily because of his personality.
He is very bright, and has does well when he is in an institutional setting: he does not cause trouble, does his school work, and does not participate in gang activities. He reoffends when he is released, Valeros believes, because he is not given adequate support and supervision.
Judge Hoffman ruled that he was still viable for treatment within the juvenile system. Marquese was returned to the California Youth Authority. Shawn In 1998, Shawn attacked his father while he was sleeping, stabbing him repeatedly in the arms, neck, and head with a knife.
Shawn was charged with attempted murder. Prosecutors filed fitness papers to try Shawn in adult criminal court rather than in the juvenile system.
Judge Thomas Edwards postponed his sentencing, and sent him for a 90-day evaluation at the California Youth Authority.
During his first week at the CYA, Shawn says he was pressured by a white gang member to force his cellmate to perform oral sex. He says he didn't want to do it, but complied because he was frightened for his own safety.
Judge Edwards ruled that Shawn remain in the Santa Clara County's Juvenile Hall until he turns 19. In addition, Shawn would be allowed to leave the facility during the day to attend community college classes, private counseling sessions, and Narcotics Anonymous meetings. Eventually he was even allowed to go home for meals with his family.
Even Shawn's attorney Bridgett Jones says that this case reminds her: "There is inequity in the juvenile justice system . . . . There is inequity in terms of race, there is inequity in terms of socioeconomic status. . . . You know it and you see it, but to actually have a case like this, it really brings it to the forefront." Juvenile Arrest Rate
Beaver, Kevin M. "Study Reveals Specific Gene in Adolescent Men with Delinquent Peers."
Newswise. Newswise, 1 Oct. 2008. Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <http://newswise.com/articles/view/544839/>.

"Four Kids, Four Crimes." Frontline. WGBH Educational Foundation, n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2013.
<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/juvenile/four/>.

"Juvenile vs Adult Justice." Frontline. WGBH Educational Foundation, 13 Aug. 1999. Web. 30 Apr.
2013.<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/juvenile/stats/juvvsadult.html>.

Levin, Marc A., and Bart Lubow. "Juvenile Rehabilitation versus Incarceration." Corrections Today 74.3
(2012): 10. Rpt. in SIRS Issue Researcher. N.p.: ProQuest LLC, 2013. N. pag. Print.

Linzer, Dafna, and Jennifer LaFleur. "A Racial Gap for Criminals Seeking Mercy." The Washington Post 4
Dec. 2011: n. pag. Rpt. in SIRS Issue Researcher. N.p.: ProQuest LLC, 2013. N. pag. Print.

"Statistical Briefing Book." Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. USA.gov, 6 June 2012.
Web. 30 Apr. 2013. <http://www.ojjdp.gov/tools/statistics.html>.
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