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Cardiovascular System

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by Karina Valdespino on 16 January 2013

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Transcript of Cardiovascular System

VEINS ARTERIES VENTRICLE •Capillaries are a small blood vessels.
•Capillaries disfuse unwanted waste substances that later replenish the body’s tissues with oxygen and nutrients.
•A single cell makes up the thickness of the Capillaries wall-like structure. •The Capillaries are responsible for linking small veins together like the arterioles and venules. •Similar to a tree, Capillaries have branches that transports blood to the largest vein in the body, the vena cava.
•Blood being transported through the capillaries can only transport through one cell at a single time.
•There are three kinds of capillaries: continuous, fenestrated, sinusoidal. Capillaries •The atrium is divided into two valves, the right atrium and the left atrium.
•The atriums are heart valves.
•Valves are flaps that transfer blood one-way.
•Blood flows through the left atrium given when the mitral valve opens. By tightening, the left atrium then pumps blood into the left ventricle.
•The superior vena cava, inferior vena cava and coronary sinus give oxygen to the right atrium that lacks dissolved oxygen.
• The left atrium receives the same kind of oxygen, but from that of the left and right pulmonary veins.
•The atriums cleanse the blood and prevent toxic blood flow to the heart.
•The atriums also alows a steady blood flow to the heart. Atrium THE SUPERIOR VENA CAVA the aorta is the largest artery in the human body
the aorta starts in the left ventricle of the heart and extends, arching over the heart and desends behind the heart to near the spinal column
average size: one inch in diameter and about a foot long
carries all the oxygenated blood exiting the heart to the rest of the body and tissues
stretches with every heartbeat and once it fills with blood, it contracts and sends it to to the arteries branching off THE AORTA VENULES Made of cardiac muscles ( these muscles only exist in the heart)
Pumps oxygen rich blood to the body
Pumps oxygen poor blood into your lungs
Strongest muscle in the body
Divided into four chambers: Right atrium, Left atrium, Right ventricle, Left ventricle THE HEART THE BLOOD THE CARDIOVASUCULAR
SYSTEM Veins transport blood at low-pressure.
three layers: tissue (top layer), muscle (middle layer) and the epithelial cells (bottom layer). Veins are similar to arteries, but smaller in size
help blood flow to the heart. In order for this to happen, they must work against gravity.
Some veins like the pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood all the way to the heart from the lungs
Other veins like the systemic veins take deoxygenated blood to the heart from the body
Deep veins are found in the muscle tissue
two dominant characteristics: thin walls and thin layers of muscle and elastic fibers Two different types of ventricles that are located inside the heart
Right Ventricle
Collects blood that is lacking of oxygen from right atrium
Sends blood to the pulmonary artery large vein, comes from back of heart
located below the collarbone and to the left of the breastbone behind heart
composed of two parts, right and left brachiocephalic
the name "brachiocephalic" formed from the greek words for arm and head
makes sense cause it carries blood that has been collected from the arms, neck, and brain
also drain blood from upper half of the body and returns it to the right atrium of the heart
second largest vein in human body
Size: 2 1/2 too 3 inches long When venules join as one they form veins
Blood vessel that collects deoxygenated blood from capillary beds.
depart deoxygenated blood to veins without blood, we wouldn’t be alive, often called the “fluid of life”
heart pumps blood all throughout the body through the arteries, capillaries and veins
blood cells are produced in the bone marrow
healthy, average person: millions of red and white blood cells are made daily in the bone marrow
blood is made up of 45% blood cells and 55% plasma (plasma is a clear, yellowish fluid that carries hormones, nutrients, proteins and chemicals)
3 types of blood cells: Red, white and platelets http://www.cts.usc.edu/graphics/aorta.gif ascending aorta: rise up from the heart and the cornary arteries branch off from it to supply the heart with blood
the aortic arch: curves over the heart to send blood to the head, neck and arms
the descending thoracic aorta: travels to the chest and sends blood to the ribs and other organs in the chest area
the abdominal aorta: begins at the diaphram and supplies blood to major organs http://www.starsandseas.com/SAS_Images/SAS_Physiol_Images/SAS%20cardiopics/heart_chambers.jpg http://antranik.org/wpcontent/uploads/2011/12/precapillary-sphincters-vascular-shunt-metarteriole-thoroughfare-channel-true-capillaries.jpg red blood cells: shaped like indented flattened disks, contain hemoglobin (iron rich protein) hemoglobin releases oxygen to tissues, life span is about 4 months, body contains more blood cells than any other cell in the body. Body produces more blood cells everyday to replace lost ones SOURCES "Heart." National Geographic. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013
"Cardiovascular System." Cardiovascular System. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013
“TeensHealth." Heart and Circulatory System. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2013.
Merriam Webster.(2013).Superior Vena Cava.Medical Dictionary.Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/superior%20vena%20cava
Encyclopedia Britannica.(2013).Superior Vena Cava. Major Reference.Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/574412/superior-vena-cava
High Blood Pressure.(2013).Arterioles.Part#3 Arterioles.Retrieved from http://highbloodpressure.about.com/od/highbloodpressure101/p/circ_art3.htm
Medical Termonology and Cancer (2000) The Cardiovascular System: Blood and Heart Retrieved from: http://www.cancerindex.org/medterm/medtm8.htm#vessel
wiseGEEK (2013) What are Capillaries? Retrieved from: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-capillaries.htm
Ivy Rose Holistic (2013) The Structure of the Heart Retrieved from: http://www.ivyrose.co.uk/HumanBody /Blood/Heart_ Structure.php
Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin (2012) Anatomy and Functions of the Heart Valves Retrieved from: http://www.chw.org/display/PPF/DocID/23023/router.asp
Education/Biology (2012) Vein Function Retrieved from: http://biology.com/b/2012/08/10/vein-function.htm
Merriam Webster.(2013).Superior Vena Cava.Medical Dictionary.Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/superior%20vena%20cava
Encyclopedia Britannica.(2013).Superior Vena Cava. Major Reference.Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/574412/superior-vena-cava
High Blood Pressure.(2013).Arterioles.Part#3 Arterioles.Retrieved from http://highbloodpressure.about.com/od/highbloodpressure101/p/circ_art3.htm Left Ventricle:
Collects rich oxygen from the atrium
Send oxygen to the aorta Both are responsible for exiting the blood from the heart white blood cells:part of body's defense system against infections, move in and out of blood stream, fewer white blood cells than red blood cells but can create more to fight infections when needed, some types of white blood cells called granulocytes and lymphocytes are along the walls of blood vessel and fight threatening bacteria, some produce antibodies(proteins that recognize foreign substances and help destroy them) thank you for your time ^__^ platelets:oval-shaped cells created in the bone marrow that aid in the clotting process, example-if a blood vessel were to break, platelets were to come and help close up the leak, clotting factors(special proteins) and platelets work together to close up cuts and wounds http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/21c/keeping_healthy/heartdiseaserev2.shtml http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Giant_platelets.JPG/250px-Giant_platelets.JPG http://clipartist.info/SVG/scallywag/CLIPARTIST.NET/HEART/heart_medical_diagram_1-999px.png http://www.fi.edu/learn/heart/blood/images/large_white-cells.jpg http://www.interactive-biology.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/RedBloodCells3.jpg http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/uploads/VMC/TreatmentImages/2309_blood_450.jpg http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQeW9LK23NyoMqgLM7cJhRoxAs5PIMe6RiKvYN9rglB__zulUI947InPrYCkA http://www.vhlab.umn.edu/atlas/physiology-tutorial/graphics/fig2.gif http://0.tqn.com/d/biology/1/0/g/1/heartint.gif http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Heart_diagram-en.svg/350px-Heart_diagram-en.svg.png http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e5/Diagram_of_the_human_heart_(cropped).svg/650px-Diagram_of_the_human_heart_(cropped).svg.png http://www.customartificialeyes.org/resources/clear%20eye%20logo.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a3/U-Bahn.svg/500px-U-Bahn.svg.png largest and thickest of all the blood vessels
carry the blood from the heart to all the cells the body
aorta is the largest artery in the body
carry blood away from the heart when veins carry blood to the heart
the heart pumps blood from one main artery called the dorsal aorta
arteries consist of 3 layers: outer, muscle and inner
the muscle layer is elastic to withstand high blood pressure
arteries deliver blood to the capillaries which then go to the veins and tan back to the heart and lungs http://0.tqn.com/d/biology/1/5/f/1/artery.gif ARTERIOLES HOW DO THEY CONNECT? Cardiovascular System and Respiratory System:
function together to remove carbon dioxide and transport oxygen to the tissues
blood that has excess carbon dioxide is transported to the heart and pumped to the lungs
body breathes-the lungs expand and the fresh oxygen is transported into the heart (in the process, carbon dioxide returns back to the lungs)
fresh oxygenated blood returns to the heart and then later transported to the rest of the body HOW DOES IT CONNECT CONT'D Cardiovascular System and Nervous System
function together toward the body’s interactions with the outside environment and it’s responses
the brain has a certain heart rate and blood pressure
baroreceptors help make and determine the blood pressure
Venomous blood is cleansed due to the help of the Cerebrospinal fluid
endothelial cells keep a steady blood brain barrier (BBB). arteries get smaller as they farther from heart, at certain point they are called arterioles
Slighlty bigger than capillaries, capillaries are ateries that branch off from arteioles
Similar structure to arteries, thick and strong walls, mostly smooth muscle, strong
composed of fibroplast wall, smooth muscle, elastic fibers, and endothelium inside
important in blood pressure regulation
carry blood from heart to muscle and tissues
most highly regulated blood vessels in body
respond to chemical and electrical messages
change size frequently to speed up or slow down blood flow THREE MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM ARE:
TRANSPORTING MATERIALS THROUGHOUT THE BODY USING THE ARTERIES, VEINS, CAPILLARIES AND ARTERIOLES
PROTECTS THE BODY USING THE WHITE BLOOD CELLS
KEEPING THE BODY AT A CONSTANT STATE WITH THE BLOOD AND BLOOD VESSELS SIZE SIMILARITY Our group studied the sizes of the organs in an ordinary human body system and eyed the human body poster. We used this poster similar to a scale drawing. We researched what each organ, in size, is similar to.
The Heart: size of human fist.
Aorta: about an foot long.
Arteries and Veins: If you lay out your veins and arteries, they would encircle the world twice.
Atrium: 2 inch pipe
Blood: 3.5 2-liter soda bottles.
Capillaries: lead thick.
Superior Vena Cava: krill thick.
Ventricle: length of two PBC pipes.
Venules: animal cell thick.
Arterioles: half animal cell. By: Karina Valdespino, Deepak Kuttappa, Diana Visco and Shantal Sanchez
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