GCSE PE Topic 1.1.1: Healthy, active lifestyles and how they could benefit you What is a healthy
active lifestyle? Health is defined as…
Can you complete this sentence? So a healthy person is: physically well
free from disease. …a state of complete mental, physical and social well-being, and not merely, the absence of disease or infirmity.
For co-operation and competition
To mix socially
Meet new people Task - can you list 12 benefits of taking part in physical activity and classify them into either: Physical Mental Social To improve body shape
For good health
To put on muscle mass
To get to a certain weight To look and feel better
For enjoyment (releases serotonin - the feel happy hormone)
To relieve stress and tension
For a physical challenge
For the Aesthetic qualities
Improved confidence Physical Mental Social So....what is a healthy and active lifestyle?
‘’a lifestyle that contributes positively to physical, mental and social wellbeing, and includes regular exercise and physical activity’’. As well as individual reasons for taking part in physical activity, there are many social reasons too. How many can you describe? This video will help Exercise helps to make you confident- you can cope better with difficult people and situations.
Playing sport is a way to meet people and make good friends.
Sport develops teamwork and co-operation. These qualities will help you in life. You may find you are talented at sport. You may be able to make a career of it or be a part time professional.
You can choose a sport that suits your personality and makes you fulfilled. E.G- rock climbing might suit you if you like to get away from it all and enjoy a challenge. TASK - Answer the exam questions (7mins)
What are the mental benefits of participating in physical activity? How could it prevent heart disease
Give two ways in which playing sport could help you learn social skills that would be useful when you start work? How could the mental benefits of participating in physical activity help prevent heart disease?
Exercise has been proved to reduce stress/tension. Stress increases blood pressure, which in turn causes heart related health issues therefore physical activity could help prevent heart conditions connected with stress. E.g. strokes and heart attacks Give two ways in which playing sport could help you learn social skills that would be useful when you start work?
Learning to work as part of a team towards a collective goal
Learning to work with people who you may not get on with for the benefit of the team (Sherringham and Cole)
Learning how to communicate with other people
Learning about how discipline and hard work can help you to achieve your goal
Learning how to speak to people in a position of authority. E.g. Taking orders from a coach/duty manager 1.1.1 1.2.5 Healthy active, lifestyle
and your skeletal system Watch the next clip of Usain Bolt sprinting
and write down what you think the functions
of the skeleton are. You should have: support at the start, movement throughout and protection whilst running in case of falls. Functions of the skeleton The skeleton performs many functions in the body. Shape – The skeleton gives us our shape and determines our size. Blood cell production – blood cells are made in the bone marrow. Movement – The skeleton allows us to move. Muscles are attached to the bones and move them as levers. Protection – The skeleton protects delicate parts of the body like the brain and lungs. Support – The skeleton supports muscles and organs. 1 2 3 4 5 Shape and size Your skeleton affects your body shape and size.
Bones play an important part in determining your height and build. People with long, light bones are usually tall and thin, whilst people with short, thick bones are likely to be short and more heavily built. Some sports are more suited to people of a particular size or body shape. This means that your skeleton and bone size can affect your performance in different sports. For example, weightlifting favours individuals with strong, heavy bones. Support The skeleton acts as a framework.
It gives the body support, enabling us to stand and walk upright.
The bones of the back and chest support internal organs and help to keep them in place.
The bones of the body are held together by ligaments.
The skeleton provides a framework for the muscles, which are attached to bones by tendons. Can you imagine what humans would look like if they didn’t have bones to support them? Movement Bones work with muscles to produce movement.
Muscles are attached to bones by tendons.
Bones have surfaces that allow for strong attachment. Tendons fuse with the tough Periosteum membrane on the outside of the bone. Muscle Tendon Periosteum Bone Protection Some of our body parts, such as the brain, are very delicate and need protection from external forces.
Bones can protect body parts from impacts and injuries.
The cranium protects the brain. It encloses the brain entirely in a shell of bone.
The rib cage protects the delicate organs of the chest. Can you think of two reasons why the rib cage has gaps in it rather than being a solid shell of bone? cranium Blood cell production Red and white blood cells and platelets are made in the bones.
The ends of long bones and some other bones including the ribs, humerus, femur and even vertebrae bones, contain red bone marrow.
This is where the blood cells are produced.
The shaft of long bones is filled with yellow bone marrow which does not produce blood cells. Red marrow embedded in spongy bone Yellow bone marrow in the shaft Functions of the Skeletal System
State the 3 main functions of the skeletal system:
3……………………………………………………… Exam question: Freely movable (synovial) joints The joint capsule is an outer sleeve that protects and holds the knee together.
The synovial membrane lines the capsule and secretes synovial fluid – a liquid which lubricates the joint, allowing it to move freely. Femur Tibia Joint capsule Synovial membrane Synovial fluid Ligaments hold the bones together and keep them in place. Cartilage Smooth coverings of cartilage at the ends of the bones stops them rubbing together and provide some shock absorption. Ball and Socket Joint. In ball and socket joints, the rounded end of one bone fits inside a cup-shaped ending on another bone. Ball and socket joints allow movement in all directions and also rotation. The most mobile joints in the body are ball and socket joints.
Examples: Shoulders and hips. Hip Hinge joints work like a hinge on a door. Hinge Joints They can only move in two directions, e.g. the knee and elbow joints. Different types of synovial joints allow different kinds of movement. There are 6 basic types of movement that can occur at such joints: 1. Extension: Straightening or extending a limb. 2. Flexion: Bending or flexing a limb. Example: the arm can be extended at the elbow. Example: the leg can be flexed at the knee. Movement at Synovial Joints 3. Abduction: Moving a limb away from the centre line of the body. 4. Adduction: Moving a limb towards the centre line of the body. Example: The leg can be moved away from the centre of the body at the hip. Example: The arm can be moved towards the centre of the body at the shoulder. 5. Rotation: This is a turning or rotational movement of a limb or body part. Example: the head can be rotated at the neck. 6. Circumduction: The ability of a limb to be moved in circles. Example: the arm can move in circles at the shoulder. What types of movement are possible at the following joints? Extension
Flexion Rotation Ball and Socket Joint: Hinge Joint: Pivot Joint: The structure of the human skeleton helps sports people to perform in the following ways: How does the Skeleton contribute to performance in Sport? Support:
Bone is hard which means it creates a solid supporting framework inside the body. The legs support the body keeping it upright during the physical activity. Movement:
The skeleton is jointed so we can move. The ability to move in a variety of ways is essential in most sports, e.g. run, sprint, jump, dodge, etc. Flexion = bending Extension = straigthening The long term effect of exercise – the skeleton Exercise has been shown to increase bone density and strength.
Stronger, denser bones are better at carrying weight and more resistant to injury.
The increase in bone density is specific to the activity – walking will strengthen your leg bones, but not your arm bones.
Both aerobic exercise and weight training are effective in increasing bone strength, but the activity must be weight-bearing. Effects of exercise on bones As well as a good diet, regular weight-bearing exercise can help to maintain bone density and strength. Weight-bearing exercise can include walking, jogging and ball or racket games. After the age of 35, bone tissue begins to be broken down more quickly than it is replaced.
This means that bone density and strength begin to deteriorate. Osteoporosis can occur, where bones become very brittle. Swimming does not help, as your weight is supported. Chronic injuries Chronic injuries are caused by continuous stress on a body part over a long time.
Here are some common chronic injuries: Injuries can be classed as chronic or acute. First, we will consider chronic injuries. Chronic injuries can be caused by training too hard, not allowing time for recovery, poor footwear and bad technique. tennis elbow
shin splints. Chronic injuries: tennis and golf elbow Overuse injuries can occur due to repeated powerful muscle movements. These injuries should be treated by applying an icepack and resting for several weeks.
Physiotherapy treatment may be needed and possibly cortisone (steroid) injections to relieve the pain. Golf and tennis put a lot of strain on the elbow.
In golf and tennis elbow, the tendons that attach muscles to the elbow joint become inflamed, sore and painful. Hard and soft tissue injuries Injuries can also be classified as soft tissue or hard tissue injuries. Hard tissue injuries are bone injuries. Soft tissue injuries involve damage to skin, muscles, tendons, ligaments or cartilage. Sprained/ twisted ankle Sprains are different to strains – they involve ligaments rather than muscles and tendons.
Sprains occur when ligaments at joints get stretched and torn. A sharp twist of the foot can give you a sprained or twisted ankle. Severe sprains result in torn ligaments. Sprains are more serious than strains, and result in considerable pain and loss of function at the joint. The symptoms are similar to a fracture or dislocation.
Sprains should be treated with ice and rest. Dislocation A dislocation occurs when a bone is pulled or twisted out of place at a joint. When the shoulder is dislocated, the humerus is pulled out of the socket on the scapula.
The injured person is usually unable to move their arm, and the shoulder loses its rounded shape. Dislocations are very painful. They require hospital treatment to move the bone back into position. The ligaments and tissue around the joint can take a long time to recover. Cartilage tear of the knee Cartilage aids friction free movement at the knee joint and provides some shock absorption.
Cartilage can tear if the knee is twisted excessively. This is a common football injury, caused when players change direction quickly.
A cartilage tear is a serious injury. The knee will be painful, may ‘lock’ and will swell. cartilage An icepack can reduce swelling, but surgery is sometimes needed to repair the damaged cartilage. bone Hard tissue injuries Hard tissue injuries are bone fractures – the bone either cracks or breaks.
Fractures lead to: Shin splints are a form of fracture caused by repeated stress. bruising and swelling
pain due to nerve damage
the limb or area of the body where the break is becomes immobile
if it is a bad fracture, the area will look obviously deformed. Fractures A simple or closed fracture means that the bone is cracked but the skin is not broken. A compound or open fracture means that the skin is broken and the bone is sticking out. Fractures can be open (simple) or closed (compound). Open fractures are more serious. They usually involve blood loss. A greenstick fracture is when the bone cracks on one side only, not all the way through. A stress fracture is generally an overuse injury. It occurs when muscles become fatigued or overloaded and can not absorb the stress and shock and repeated impact.
Fatigued muscles transfer that stress to the nearby bone and the result is a small crack or fracture, in the bone. Fractures Fractures are usually caused by violent impacts. They are most common in contact sports like rugby, and sports where there is a risk of falling from height or at speed, for example, horse riding, skiing and climbing.
Fractures are difficult to prevent as they are caused by sudden and unexpected events or accidents. Using correct technique and playing by the rules can reduce the risks to some extent.
Fractures should be treated by immobilizing the injured area with a splint or sling and controlling any bleeding with a dressing. The casualty should not be moved until the ambulance arrives, unless absolutely necessary. R.I.C.E. Whenever there is any injury to bones, joints, ligaments muscles or tendons, blood vessels will be damaged.
Broken blood vessels mean that blood leaks into tissues around the injury. This will lead to swelling, bruising and pain. To combat the effects of this, you should follow the R.I.C.E method of treatment: R – Rest E – Elevation C – Compression I – Ice Dehydration When we exercise, especially in hot conditions, the body loses water as a result of sweating.
If the performer does not re-hydrate by drinking lots of water, they may suffer from dehydration.
The body also loses important electrolytes – salts which conduct nerve impulses and maintain cell metabolism.
This results in the performer feeling very tired, nauseous and faint. The performer should stop exercising and re-hydrate somewhere cool. Hypothermia Normal body temperature is 37°C.
If a performer’s body temperature falls below 35°C, they begin to suffer from hypothermia.
People who take part in activities in mountainous areas or on water are particularly at risk.
Common symptoms of hypothermia are shivering, paleness, loss of dexterity and erratic behaviour. A hypothermic person should be warmed-up gradually. They need warm, dry clothing, warm drinks and high energy foods. * of 29 Diet and exercise for healthy bones Certain substances are needed for this process of growth and renewal. These need to be include in your diet.
Minerals are important. They are inorganic substances which perform a variety of functions in the body.
Calcium is the most important for bone strength. It is found in cereals, milk and other dairy products. Some fish and vegetables also contain calcium. Bones are alive. Old cells and bone tissue are constantly being broken down and replaced by new ones. Exam-style questions Karim wants to become a professional basketball player. How may Karim’s skeleton affect his performance?
Suggest two things that Karim could do to make sure that his bones stay healthy as he gets older. 1.2.4 A healthy, active lifestyle
and your muscular system Muscles of the body Muscle groups (anterior) Raises your arm at the shoulder. Draws it across your chest pectorals 5 Straighten your leg at the knee and keep it straight when you stand quadriceps 4 Pull in your abdomen. Flex your trunk so you can bend forward Abdominals (4 muscles) 3 Bends your arm at the elbow Biceps 2 Raises your arm sideways at the shoulder Deltoid 1 Main Action(s) Muscle Muscles of the body Muscle groups (posterior) Straightens the ankle joint so you can stand on tiptoes gastrocnemius 11 Bend your leg at the knee Hamstrings (3 muscles) 10 Pulls your legs back at the hip. Raises it sideways at the hip. Gluteus Maximus is the biggest of these muscles Gluteals (3 muscles) 9 Straightens your arm at the elbow joint triceps 8 Holds and rotates your shoulders. Moves your head back and sideways trapezius 7 Pulls your arm down at the shoulder. Draws it behind your back Latissimus dorsi 6 Main Action(s) Muscle Muscles work in pairs Muscles can only pull therefore they need to work in partnership for movement to occur AGONIST - Pulling muscle,
It contracts and becomes shorter and fatter ANTAGONIST-
and becomes thin Key Words TENDON- Where a voluntary muscle attaches to the bone
The point where the muscle tendon attaches to the stationary bone is called the ORIGIN .
The point where the muscle tendon attaches to the moving bone is the INSERTION. Isotonic contractions The different types of strength are related to the different types of muscular contractions. Isotonic contractions occur when using dynamic and explosive strength. When a contraction is isotonic, movement is created. The contracting muscle shortens and fattens. This shortening action pulls on the bones, causing them to move. Isotonic contractions are generally the more important type of contraction for sportspeople, especially games players. They produce both speed and power. Fast-paced games require isotonic contractions. Isometric contractions Isometric contractions do not create movement – the muscle neither shortens nor lengthens. Isometric contractions produce static strength. This type of contraction occurs in several situations: To support a weight in a stationary position.
To hold the body in a particular position (e.g., in gymnastics).
To stabilize part of the body so movement can occur elsewhere. Isometric contractions occur in a rugby scrum Muscle training – rehabilitation Strength training can also assist recovery after an injury. Light weights are used at first to prevent further injury. Gradually the performer lifts heavier weights as the injury heals and the muscles strengthen.
Strength training can also help to prevent injuries – strong muscles can take higher stresses without being damaged. A performer who has suffered a joint injury may use a programme of weight training to strengthen the muscles, tendons and ligaments around the joint in order to reduce the risk of the injury reoccurring. Sprained/ twisted ankle Sprains are different to strains – they involve ligaments rather than muscles and tendons.
Sprains occur when ligaments at joints get stretched and torn. A sharp twist of the foot can give you a sprained or twisted ankle. Severe sprains result in torn ligaments. Sprains are more serious than strains, and result in considerable pain and loss of function at the joint. The symptoms are similar to a fracture or dislocation.
Sprains should be treated with ice and rest. Proteins Proteins are used to generate energy only when the body has exhausted its stores of carbohydrates and fats. The protein you eat is broken down into amino acids and used by the body to build cells, make blood and repair and replace tissue. Your body cannot make all of the different types of amino acid that it needs – you have to consume some of them in the food that you eat. Proteins are very important in the body for other reasons. Our muscles and other tissues are made from proteins. The body manufactures proteins from amino acids. Proteins are made from sequences of amino acids. Proteins Proteins are especially important for sportspeople who need to build up large, powerful muscles. Performers in sports like weightlifting, rugby and sprinting can benefit from a protein-rich diet. Proteins are also needed by performers who are recovering from injury in order to repair damaged tissue. Proteins Foods containing proteins Meat Eggs Lentils Chick peas Nuts Fish Anabolic steroids Anabolic agents (steroids) are the most commonly used performance-enhancing drugs. They are hormones which help build and repair muscle and bone.
Anabolic agents occur naturally in the body. Nandrolone
Testosterone. However, they are also made artificially and can be used by performers to illegally improve their performance.
Examples include: Anabolic steroids – side effects The side effects of anabolic steroids are serious: heart disease, which can be fatal
high blood pressure
bone, tendon and ligament weakness
severe liver disorders
facial hair growth and deepening of the voice in women. Why do you think that performers still take anabolic steroids despite the side effects? Physical activity as part of
active lifestyle 1.1.4 Here is an example of a Physical Activity Readiness-Questionnaire
Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PARQ)
Do you have or have you had any of these conditions? If you are not sure check with your doctor 1. Have you or a member of your close family have had any heart problems? YES/NO
2. Do you have or have you had high blood pressure? YES/NO
3. Do you have increased or high cholesterol? YES/NO MEDICAL CONDITIONS
Do you have or have you had any of these conditions? If you are not sure check with your doctor
1. Any chronic illness YES/NO
2. Recent surgery, for example within the last 12 months YES/NO RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS
Do you have, or have you had, any of these conditions? If you are not sure check with your doctor
1. Have you a history of breathing problems? For example Asthma YES/NO
2. Do you smoke? YES/NO
Do you have difficulty with regular exercise? YES/NO
Do you have a muscle or joint disorder? YES/NO
Do you suffer from diabetes? YES/NO EXERCISE HISTORY
Select and tick the line(s) which best describe(s) how active you are
I have never been active in sports or exercise
I used to play sports and take exercise but not now
I am quite active as I play but do not train
I take aerobic (CV) exercise regularly
I lift weights regularly Can you of reasons as to why
someone would need to fill in
this questionnaire before starting
an exercise programme? Hopefully you have considered
*Any reoccuring injuries
*conditions than can effect them
such as asthema (a coach needs
to know this) Examining your fitness levels- HRE. Cooper’s 12-minute run test
This tests C.V fitness and muscular endurance in a participants legs.
Participants run round a course/on a treadmill for 12 minutes.
They then measure the distance covered and calculate their VO2max (aerobic capacity) Examining your fitness levels- HRE. Hand grip strength test
Tests muscular strength in the hand.
Take a hand grip dynamometer and squeeze as tightly as possible.
Take 3 recordings- Record the best score. Examining your fitness levels- HRE. Sit and reach flexibility test.
This test measures the flexibility of some leg muscles.
Either use a standard sit and reach box or sit down with legs straight and feet against a bench on it’s side
Measure how far beyond your toes you can reach.
Somebody who cannot reach their toes scores a minus total, if you reach your toes you score zero, which is average. Examining your fitness levels- HRE. Harvard step test
This measures cardiovascular endurance and muscular endurance.
Step on and off a bench- which should be at a height of 45cms- every 2 seconds for 5 minutes.
Keep to a regular pace so that you step on and off once every 2 seconds, making 150 steps in 5 minutes (30 steps a minute)
Take you pulse at 1,2 and 3 minutes into recovery, to measure your hearts rate of recovery. The fitter you are, the quicker the recovery. The Illinois Agility Run A course is set up according to the animation below, involving both shuttle and slalom parts. (Use the stop and start buttons if needed) How can Balance be Tested? A person’s ability to balance can be measured using a variety of tests, which are carried out in different ways. The longer the time, the better the person’s ability to balance The most common test used is the: Stork Stand The person undertaking the test must stand comfortably on both feet with their hands on their hips.
They then lift one leg and place the foot of this leg, flat against the other.
On the command ‘go’, they must raise the heel and balance for as long as possible in this position.
Carry out the task twice, timing each attempt using a stopwatch, and record the longest time. How can Co-ordination be Tested? Co-ordination can be measured using a variety of tests. The more catches made, the better the co-ordination The most common test used is the: Alternate Wall Toss The person undertaking the test must stand 2 metres away from the wall.
They then throw a tennis ball with their right hand against the wall and catch it with their left.
They then throw with the left hand and catch with their right.
Repeat this process as fast as possible for 30 seconds, counting every time you catch the ball.
Carry out the task twice, timing each attempt using a stopwatch and record the greatest number of catches. Speed 30-meter sprint
This tests a persons speed.
Mark out a 30 meter distance. When you are signalled to start, run as fast as you can.
A partner needs to record your time. Power Standing broad jump
This test measures power.
Measure your height on the floor by lying down and getting someone to mark where your feet are, and where your head is.
From a standing jump, at the marker for your feet, see how far beyond your own height you can jump. PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING OBJECTIVES:
Be able to describe, explain and apply the principles of training:
- Individual needs/differences
- Progressive Overload
- Rest and recovery
Explain the components of the FITT principle and how to apply them
Explain the term ‘Reversibility’, why it might occur and its impact on performance. PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING INDIVIDUAL NEEDS When planning a PEP individual needs must be taken into account.
Current level of fitness: A first time marathon runner would not use an experienced runners programme. – why not?
The inexperienced runner may give up because training is too difficult or may sustain injury.
What sport is the PEP for and what are the aims of the PEP? Cardiovascular/Speed/Flexibility?
Interests: To ensure that training is enjoyed and continues regularly the persons interests need to be considered.
Age, Gender and body build also need to be taken into account. SPECIFICITY Means matching training to the requirements of an activity.
Divers and long distance runners obviously train differently
Specificity in football might mean concentrating on cardiovascular fitness to allow them to keep going for longer or speed to beat players to ball.
In your PEP you could use the principle of specificity by training to improve your cardiovascular fitness, and choosing particular methods of training to do this.
TASK: Identify a sport which has different types of fitness requirements depending on their position. How will their training be different? PROGRESSIVE OVERLOAD Means gradually increasing the amount of Overload (training more/harder than you normally do) to enable fitness to improve without the risk of injury.
This could be simply increasing the amount of weight lifted or increased number of reps in weight training or increase duration of a run.
A six week PEP should be reviewed and evaluated after about 2 weeks. Overload can then be gradually increased. This happens again after another 2 weeks.
Overload does not mean training too hard/much REST AND RECOVERY REST: The period of time allotted to recovery
RECOVERY: The time required to repair damage to the body caused by training or competition
The human body reacts to hard training and adapts (i.e muscles get bigger).
The body will only recover and adapt however while at rest therefore rest days are vital. FITT PRINCIPLE You can apply the principle of Progressive Overload by using the FITT principle.
FITT stands for:
- Type FITT PRINCIPLE CONT… FREQUENCY:
Means planning how often to train.
Frequency should be a minimum of 3 times/week
You can Progressively Overload by increasing this to 4 days a week after a period of regular training
Means how hard someone trains
Intensity may vary depending on aims and type of training
Training needs to be carried out at a worthwhile level of intensity
We can measure intensity by Heart rates, amount of weight lifted, length/duration of run FITT PRINCIPLE CONT… TIME:
Means how long each training session should last
In terms of cardiovascular fitness at least 20 minutes should be spent training with pulse in the target zone.
Professionals will train for much longer than this to reach their required levels of fitness.
You can Progressively Overload by gradually increasing duration of your training sessions.
Means the methods of training chosen to achieve a persons particular goals
This principle overlaps with Specificity. The type of training should be chosen according to the goals/aims. REVERSIBILITY Means gradually losing fitness instead of progressing or remaining at the current level.
Occurs when a person is injured or ill.
Anyone will lose fitness if they stop training.
Some people stop training because their PEP is boring so they give up. JOHN’S EXERCISE PROGRAMME
John is 15 and a keen rugby player. He feels that his fitness levels are low and he wants to improve his performance in games and has therefore chosen to design a 6 week exercise programme. A year ago he trained regularly but became injured and unfortunately had to stop training and as a result lost a lot of his fitness. As he plays as a centre he has chosen to improve his Cardiovascular fitness and Muscular strength to enable him to last the whole game and also improve his tackling. His programme includes a variety of continuous training sessions (continuous running/rowing) to improve his Cardiovascular fitness. He has also included weight training sessions in order to improve his strength. John’s PEP also includes some swimming as he really enjoys it. Initially for the first couple of weeks he will be training 3 times a week with 4 rest days but after these two weeks this will be reviewed with the possibility of him increasing it to 4 days a week with 3 days rest. John’s continuous training sessions will initially last for 20 mins but again after the first 2 weeks this will be reviewed and possibly increased by 5 minutes. He will also be monitoring his Heart rate during these sessions to ensure that he is training at a worthwhile level. For his weight training sessions, as he wants to improve muscular strength, he will be lifting heavier weights with low repetitions (8-10). This will also be reviewed after 2 weeks and the size of weight may be increased slowly. Methods of Training Continuous training Continuous training is the simplest form of training. As the name suggests, it involves training with no rest periods or recovery intervals.
This type of training is a good way to improve your aerobic energy system.
Swimming, running and cycling are common examples of continuous training activities.
You need to work for a minimum of 20 minutes to achieve some kind of benefit. Continuous training The fitter you become, the longer you will be able to work for.
As fitness improves, you will also be able to sustain a higher level of intensity.
You should start training at about 60% of your maximum heart rate (MHR) increasing to around 75%–80% as your level of fitness improves. You need to stay within the aerobic zone during continuous training. Continuous training Continuous training depletes your carbohydrate stores. As the body needs an energy supply to keep working, it is forced into using fat supplies. This means that continuous training is a good way to burn fat and lose weight.
Continuous training doesn’t just mean running. Aerobics is a popular form of continuous training. It is usually performed to music and requires the performer to coordinate whole body movements. The main drawback of continuous training is that it does not improve speed or agility. This means it is not ideal for games players who need to be able to change pace.
Continuous training can also be extremely boring! Disadvantages Examples of activities
that are suitable for
continuous training * of 25 Interval training Interval training involves following a fixed pattern of periods of strenuous exercise alternated with periods of rest or light activity.
It can be used to gradually improve pace or train for sports like football and hockey where bursts of speed are required. Row for 1 minute at 30 strokes per minute, then 2 minutes at 18 strokes per minute.
One set = 5 repetitions of the above pattern.
Complete 3 sets as shown above with 5 minute rests between each set. Example * of 25 Interval training Interval training should be planned carefully. The duration and intensity of the exercise and the length of the rest periods must be calculated to suit the performer’s level of fitness. the type of activity done by the performer
the length of the training session
the number of bursts done in each period of exercise
the rest period between bursts of strenuous exercise
the intensity put into each burst of exercise
the duration of each burst of exercise. The following can be adjusted to suit the individual performer: Interval training involves a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic exercise. * of 25 Fartlek training Fartlek training was developed in Sweden. Essentially, this training involves many changes of speed. Intensity can also be varied, e.g., by running uphill or downhill.
Like interval training, fartlek training is good for performers in activities requiring changes of pace and sudden bursts. It usually involves running, though you could apply the same principles to other activities like cycling and swimming.
Fartlek is derived from the Swedish term meaning ‘speed play’. * of 25 Fartlek training Fartlek training can be used to improve both the aerobic and anaerobic systems by mixing moderate activity with bursts of speed.
It can be varied to suit the fitness level of each individual performer and the available time they have to train.
This type of training can be used to avoid boredom in sports like running and cycling which can be monotonous. As the performer decides on the intensity of work, it can be hard for coaches to tell if performers are working as hard as they should be. Advantages Disadvantages * of 25 Fartlek training – an example An example of a Fartlek training session: 10 minute jog to warm up.
Sprint hard for 30 seconds.
Jog for 2 minutes.
Run (about 75% of max) for 50 seconds.
Jog for 2 minutes.
Repeat 6 times, reducing the periods of jogging by 10 seconds each time.
10 minute warm down jog. Examples of activities
suitable for fartlek training Circuit training Circuit training is a good way to organize training.
In a circuit, you undertake a sequence of exercises. Each exercise is performed at a station (or workstation).
There are usually between 8 and 15 of these stations in a circuit. Performers spend a set amount of time at each station in turn, e.g., 1 or 2 minutes at each.
Alternatively, you can do a set number of repetitions or exercises for each activity. Circuit training can take time to arrange and often requires a lot of equipment. Disadvantages Circuit training When designing a circuit you can organize the stations to suit a particular activity or fitness goal. To develop general fitness, you may wish to use a range of different types of activities. You can alternate muscle groups between each station to delay muscle fatigue. You can target specific muscle groups.
You can include weight training activities to increase strength.
You can increase the length of each activity to train the aerobic system.
You can include skill-based activities. Advantages
2 MINUTE STATIONS Circuit training Here is an example of a circuit designed for footballers. dribbling press-ups star jumps sit-ups sprints passing sideways jumps keepy-uppy Cross-training Cross-training uses a combination of activities to break up the potential boredom of using a single type of training.
As cross-training is a mixture of various types of training, it can be adapted to suit an individual’s needs and preferences. For example, an individual could spend one day running, one day swimming and one day playing tennis. This type of training is a good way to maintain a high level of general fitness, while resting muscles used in a main activity.
Elite athletes, however, may find that it is not specific enough to prepare them for their chosen activity. Elite cyclists do almost all their training on bikes. Weight training Weight training is an effective way of improving a performer’s strength.
Weight training is usually anaerobic. However, aerobic weight training can be achieved by using very light weights over a long training time. Weight training is useful in several different ways: It can improve muscular strength.
It can improve muscular endurance.
It can improve speed.
It can aid rehabilitation after an injury. Weight training often requires a lot of equipment. Disadvantages Weight training Use medium weights, and move them quickly. When planning a weights programme to improve strength, you must first decide what type of strength you need: Exercise with a heavy weight and low reps or by pushing/ pulling against a static object. Use a heavy to medium weight and do a lot of repetitions. Static strength – the strength to hold a position or support weight. Explosive strength – the force that can be exerted in one quick movement. Dynamic strength – the strength to move weight. Weight training – reps and sets Weight training programmes are usually planned using repetitions (reps) and sets. A ‘repetition’ is a single movement or exercise. In a weights session, performers usually perform 2–3 sets of about 10–15 reps for each weight training exercise. A ‘set’ is a given number of repetitions (usually 8–12). How many repetitions are there altogether in 3 sets of 12 reps? Weight training – repetition maximums How much weight a performer should be lifting can be calculated using their 1 RM or 5 RM. RM stands for repetition maximum. A performer’s 1 RM =
A performer’s 5 RM = the heaviest weight they are able to lift once. the heaviest weight they can lift five times. The 1 RM or 5 RM needs to be calculated for each different weight training exercise.
Performers must take care when testing repetition maximums, as the weights involved are at the limit of their abilities. Exam-style questions 1. In relation to weight training, what is meant by the following: repetitions
sets 2. Circuit training is a commonly used method of training. a)Give two advantages of using circuit training.
b)Give one possible disadvantage of using circuit training. Exam-style questions The diagram opposite shows the layout of a fitness circuit. David is working on his general fitness and has decided to vary his method of training as much as possible. He is planning a fitness circuit, but has only included three activities so far.
Suggest three more activities that he may include in his fitness circuit. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. 1.1.2 THE 6 INFLUENCES/FACTORS Cultural influences
Health and well-being influences
Socio-economic influences CULTURAL INFLUENCES THERE ARE 4 FACTORS HERE:
GENDER, RACE, DISABILITY AND AGE
GENDER: Not all clubs cater for both boys and girls. However, golf and racket sports already see men versus women.
RACE: Some sports are traditional in certain countries. Sprinting is dominated by Jamaican's and American's. Cricket by India.
DISABILITY: Sporting opportunities are restricted. But there are more grants helping sports centres to update their facilities.
Age: There are separate competitions for different ages. Health problems which may restrict what sports people can do. HEALTH AND WELLBEING INFLUENCES THIS INCLUDES ILLNESS AND HEALTH PROBLEMS:
Participation in exercise can help your health and well-being.
Injuries and illnesses could prevent you from taking part. E.g asthma may prevent some people participating in activities that involve long distance running. IMAGE INFLUENCES This includes Fashion and media coverage:
Fashion: Many activities require the right equipment. E.g. you need boots to play football. Some brands of equipment can be very fashionable and expensive partly as a result of media coverage.
Media: Media influences many peoples choice of physical activity. The media coverage increases the popularity of some sports – rugby world cup, wimbledon, London marathon INFLUENTIAL PEOPLE This includes Family, Peers and Role models:
Family: Children frequently take part in the same physical activities as their parents – follow the same sports and support the same teams.
Peers: Influence of people the same age is very important. Easier to succeed in any activity with the encouragement and support of friends.
Role models: These people can inspire others to take up the same sport for example fans of Andy Murray may feel inspired to join their local tennis club. Family members and coaches can also be role models. RESOURCES This includes Availability, Location, Access and Time:
Availability: resources need to be available
Location: Participation in sport depends on what is locally available.
Access: Can you walk/bike there? If not do you own a car or can you get a bus there?
Time: Are opening times convienient? After work, school and on weekends? SOCIO-ECONOMIC INFLUENCES This includes Cost and Status:
Cost: Hire of facilities, lessons, equipment, shoes etc. If people cannot afford to take part, their socio-economic status has influenced their involvement.
Status: A persons position in society eg employed, in education or looking for work. Status can affect participation in physical activity as people may not have time. G.C.S.E Physical Education Topic 1.1.2: Influences on your healthy, active lifestyle.
Opportunities for getting involved in sport Aims: Explain opportunities to become involved in physical activity, including leadership, officiating and volunteering.
Describe a number of initiatives developed to encourage participation in physical activity, including:
Minimum involvement in PE
PE School Sport and Club Links (PESSCL)
School Sport Partnerships
Sport England’s Start, Stay, Succeed initiative.
The Youth Sport Trust’s TOP and Active Kids Programme. Influences on taking part Task 1 (3mins):
Develop a mind-map of what you think are the main factors that affect involvement in physical activity.
Task 2 (2mins):
Give examples of each of your factors. Influences on taking part Task 3 (5mins):
Revise all the previous influences on taking part for 5 minutes.
Task 4 (3mins):
Circle question time: 1 person to start by giving an influence of taking part. Then next person to do the same. Continue until no-one can think of an answer that hasn’t been used already. Check sheet and see how many, and what, was not remembered. Opportunities for getting involved in sport Most activities offer opportunities to participate in a variety of roles, including teaching or coaching, officiating, and volunteering.
Training opportunities are available through most governing bodies.
Most coaching awards offer training in a variety of roles to encourage young people to stay involved in sport (JSLA).
Participants may start as performers and continue to be involved as coaches or officials.
Many sports depend on volunteers. Even the London 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games will rely on voluntary effort.
Opportunities for getting involved in sport TASK 5: Hotchair!
People will be picked to come up to the front of the class and deliver their presentation, on an initiative picked by me. Opportunities for getting involved in sport Initiatives to keep people in sport:
1. Government Initiatives- Recently the government introduced a policy to ‘ensure all pupils receive their entitlement to two hours of high quality Physical Education per week’. This will encourage more participation and improve students’ fitness. Opportunities for getting involved in sport 3. The organisation Sport England- This organisation believes sport has the power to change people’s lives. Sport England is committed to creating opportunities for people to start, stay and succeed in sport.
Start- Increase participation in sport in order to improve the health of the nation, with a focus on priority.
Stay- Retain people in sport through an effective network of clubs, sports facilities, coaches, volunteers and competitive opportunities.
Succeed- Create opportunities for talented performers to achieve success. Opportunities for getting involved in sport 4. Youth Sport Trust TOP Link- This is aimed at encouraging students in the 14-16 age group to organise and manage sports activities and dance festivals in local primary schools and special schools. Students who are taking GCSE PE or who have taken awards in, for example, sports leadership are offered the opportunity to put their skills to good use. Their experience as a leader or official may even count towards their GCSE. Opportunities for getting involved in sport 5. Active Kids programme- Various supermarkets and other enterprises run voucher programmes in which vouchers are collected by parents can be used by schools to buy sporting and other equipment. One example of these is the Active Kids programme. Opportunities for getting involved in sport Task 2 (2mins): Memory board.
With the person next to you, write down (or mind map) as many of the initiatives as you can, including as much detail as possible.
Can you remember how any of the initiatives inter-link?? G.C.S.E Physical Education Topic 1.1.2: Influences on your healthy, active lifestyle.
Sports participation pyramid Aims: Explain the sports participation pyramid in regard to the foundation, participation, performance and elite stages. Sports participation pyramid Task 1 (1min): Recreate the sports participation pyramid. Have explanations ready for your answers. Sports participation pyramid FOUNDATION
PERFORMANCE Sports participation pyramid Elite-
Pyramid narrows as less people take part at this level.
Governing bodies of sport are responsible for development at this level as players pass from county to regional to national squads Sports participation pyramid Performance-
During this stage young people begin to concentrate on sport specific skills and to develop talent in specific coaches.
Quality coaching is an essential part of player development at this level. The following schemes contribute:
Organised by sports development-coaching weeks: Shropshire youth games.
Other: Active sports, club activity. Sports participation pyramid Participation-
This is the stage when young people begin to participate regularly in a specific activity for enjoyment.
Sports development contributes significantly to this stage with it’s community TOP programme, school festivals, multi-skills clubs and club/school links.
Sports clubs become important at this stage as they make the link to the next stage of development. Sports participation pyramid Foundation-
Base of the pyramid. At this stage most are likely to be learning/ experiencing basic sporting skills. The types of activity which contribute to this stage include:
Primary PE lessons
TOP Play activities
Multi-sports sessions (sports centres)
The acquisition of good exercise/skill habits provides a basis for personal development and future participation in a chosen sport. Homework Select a sportsperson and research their background from when they started playing to where they are now. Now create a timeline of their progress using the aspects of the Sports participation pyramid.
E.g- Foundation Participation Performance Elite 1984- Billy started
Playing at Byfleet F.C Billy signs first YTS contract with Reading Billy plays for
team 1.1.3See the full transcript