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Types of isotopes and their uses

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by brianna dunn on 25 October 2012

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Transcript of Types of isotopes and their uses

TYPES OF ISOTOPES AND THIER USES 3 common isotopes Oxygen occurs in nature as 3 different isotopes, each with 8 protons. The most common isotope is 16O (8 protons, 8 neutrons), which constitutes 99.765% of all oxygen atoms on earth. There is also the rare isotope 18O (0.1995%) and the even rarer isotope 17O. The most common water molecule by far has the most common isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen ans is thus 1H216O, but there are also such molecules as H218O, and HD16O. Molecules with more than one rare, heavy isotope are really rare. Atoms of all matter on Earth are made up (if we do not go into too much detail) of a nucleus and electrons. The nucleus has a positive charge and most of the mass of the atom; electrons circle the nucleus, have very little mass and a negative charge, The overall charge of an atom is neutral, because the number of positive particles in the nucleus (protons) equals the number of electrons. The number of electrons determines to which element an atom belongs, and how it behaves in chemical reactions. In addition to protons, the nucleus of all elements may contain particles with the same mass as a proton, but uncharged; these are called neutrons. The number of protons plus neutrons is called the atomic mass numbe Atoms of all matter on Earth are made up (if we do not go into too much detail) of a nucleus and electrons. The nucleus has a positive charge and most of the mass of the atom; electrons circle the nucleus, have very little mass and a negative charge, The overall charge of an atom is neutral, because the number of positive particles in the nucleus (protons) equals the number of electrons. The number of electrons determines to which element an atom belongs, and how it behaves in chemical reactions. In addition to protons, the nucleus of all elements may contain particles with the same mass as a proton, but uncharged; these are called neutrons. The number of protons plus neutrons is called the atomic mass number. The isotopes that we will discuss here are the isotopes of the two elements that occur in water, hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen occurs as two isotopes. The most common hydrogen isotope has only one proton in its nucleus (1H), but an isotope with 1 proton and 1 neutron also occurs. This isotope is called Deuterium (2D). A hydrogen isotope with 1 proton and 2 neutrons is not stable but radioactive, is called Tritium (3T) and used in the manufacturing of nuclear bombs. Atoms of all matter on Earth are made up (if we do not go into too much detail) of a nucleus and electrons CONCLUSION Different isotopes belong to the same element because they have the same number of electrons, which means that they all behave almost the same in chemical reactions.
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