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Mao's Rise to Power

Conditions, methods, and results that helped Mao rise to power (with emphasis on political conditions)
by Megan Yu on 31 January 2012

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Transcript of Mao's Rise to Power

THE RISE OF MAO CONDITIONS POLITICAL SOCIAL ECONOMIC FOREIGN Jiang broke the United Front and attacked the Communist forces in the South. On December 7, 1930, more than 700 officers revolted against Mao in Futian. Wuchang Uprising: On October 10, 1911, dissatisfaction over the nationalization of the Canton-Hankou railroad led to the fall of the Qing Dynasty. Many provinces in China declared themselves as independent. In 1934, Jiang Jieshi surrounded the Communist stronghold in order to starve the Red Army. May Fourth Movement: On May 4, 1919, students from 13 universities protested in Beijing against China's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles. Before Mao rose to power, health care was very expensive. The average life expectancy was only 35 years old. Around 10 million peasants suffered from schistosomiasis in 1949. 1949: Only 1 out of every 10 Chinese could read; only 20% of children went to primary school and 1% went to secondary school. Before Mao came to power in 1949, people could own private businesses. According to Source 9 of the class handout, "women had virtually no rights in China" before Mao rose to power in 1949. Peasants were required to pay 45% of their total harvests to the landlords before Mao rose to power in 1949. Hyperinflation after Second Sino-Japanese War: KMT printed extra paper money that covered 65% to 80% of their annual expenditure, and this led to starvation. Chinese Civil War (1945-1949): Caused huge inflation. By the end of 1946, the money supplied had increased to 9181.6 yuan. In July 1948, the money supply had expanded to 399,091.6 billion yuan. During the Great Depression in the 1930s, China's GDP growth shrunk by 35% during the first three years. By 1934, China's GDP collapsed by 8.7%. Between 1949 and 1953, Mao needed help from the Soviet Union in order to improve China's industry. China was defeated in the Opium Wars of 1839-1842 and 1846-1850. Industrializing nations, such as Great Britain, divided China into "spheres of influence" in order to make profits. Many Chinese resented these nations. China fought with the Japanese in the first Sino-Japanese war from 1894-1895 and lost. METHODS Legal Illegal 1964: Committee for Reforming the Chinese Written Language released list of 2238 simplified Chinese characters; Mao also demanded literacy checkpoints for peasants to check their ability to read Mao passed out the Election Law in 1953 to give women the right to vote. Women were also given the right to divorce and some were granted land in their own names. From 1953-1955, Mao nationalized all private businesses. All of the banks came under state control. China signed the Sino-Soviet friendship treaty in February 1950. 11,000 Soviet experts arrived in China while 28,000 Chinese received training in the Soviet Union. Mao and the Red Army went on a Long March from October 1934 to October 1935, and established a base at Yan'an Soviet from 1937 to 1941. 1950- Agrarian Reform Law; distributed land among peasants; families required to form mutual aid teams Mao created the First Five-Year Plan to resolve the issue of hyperinflation from the civil war. For instance, he emphasize that by 1960, 10.7 million tons of steel should be made, and ordered peasants to build around 600000 furnaces. Mao ordered 2000 Red Army soldiers to be shot for staging a revolt at Futian in 1930, and arrested more than 4000 people. Mao attempted a peasant revolt in Hunan in 1927. Mao ordered peasants to kill the landlords, and the peasants charged the landlords with crimes in the People's Courts. RESULTS The average life expectancy increased to 55 years in 1976 and 1 million people became doctors after the Cultural Revolution. By 1955, the profits made by private businesses lessened to less than 10% of the total national profits. Mao stayed at Yan'an Soviet from 1937 to 1941. The number of troops increased from 5000 to 80000 troops. Food production increased from 112 billion kilograms in 1949 to 200 billion kilograms in 1957 Peasants took control over the courts and their properties. According to Todd and Walker, "capital was raised by setting low prices to be paid to peasants for grain" in order to "produce a large surplus for investment." (148) This meant that China now spent more money investing in businesses than before QUESTION: HOW IMPORTANT WERE POLITICAL CONDITIONS TO THE RISE OF MAO? POLITICAL CONDITIONS WERE IMPORTANT TO THE RISE OF MAO BECAUSE... IT HELPED HIM ELIMINATE OPPOSITION AND GARNER MORE TROOPS. IN ADDITION, IN ORDER TO ELIMINATE THE RED ARMY SOLDIERS WHO REVOLTED AGAINST HIM, IN ORDER TO ESCAPE FROM THE BRUTAL ATTACK OF THE NATIONALISTS, AS A RESULT, The Kuomintang stayed in China from 1911 to 1949. Chiang Kai Shek was their leader. Mao led the CCP to fight against the KMT in the civil war from 1945 to 1949. Mao and the CCP won the Chinese Civil War and drove the KMT to Taiwan in 1949. MOREOVER, IN ORDER TO ELIMINATE OPPOSITION FROM THE NATIONALISTS Mao eliminated opposition from the Red Army. THIS LED TO THE FACT THAT... AS A RESULT... ALL OF THESE RESULTS LED TO... MAO'S RISE TO POWER AS THE CHAIRMAN OF CHINA IN 1949. IN CONCLUSION, POLITICAL CONDITIONS WERE IMPORTANT TO THE RISE OF MAO'S POWER BECAUSE IT HELPED HIM ELIMINATE OPPOSITION AND GAIN MORE TROOPS.
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