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Types of Chemical Reactions Assignment

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by Annie Yurchenko on 9 November 2012

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Transcript of Types of Chemical Reactions Assignment

-The chemical process we chose to research is the making of paper.-There are numerous steps to make paper with many different chemicals. The chemicals found in the woodchips naturally are: Cellulose, Glucomannan, Xylan, Hydrocarbons, Lignin, Resins, Polymer- A summary of the main chemicals added throughout the process are sodium sulphite, sodium hydroxide, water, oxygen, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, peroxide, ozone and sodium hypochlorite. (1) Types of Chemical Reactions Assignment Bibliography:
1. http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/forestry/4C.pdf
2. http://legacy.forestprod.org/cdromdemo/pf/pf8.html
3. http://www.h2obykl.com/images/Reactions%20in%20Kraft%20Pulping.pdf
4. http://www.asiapulppaper.com
5. http://www.google.map.com
6. http://www.rpi.edu/dept/chem-eng/Biotech-Environ/Environmental/THERMAL/tte1.html
7. http://www.water-pollution.org.uk/chemical.html
8. http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/pollution-overview
9. http://what-is-what.com/what_is/noise_pollution.html
10 http://www.ppc.ubc.ca/files/2011/03/final_pwc_report_to_task_force_nov_07.pdf
BleachThe pulp is treated with sodium hydroxide and oxygen gas to remove hydrogen from leftover lignin and break down polymer. The pulp is then treated four more times in order to remove remaining lignin. It is treated with chlorine dioxide, then with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and oxygen gas and peroxide, and then chlorine dioxide again. (1) Beat/RefineA mechanical beater makes the pulp fibers into the proper shapes and sizes.
ScreenThis step removes all pieces of pulp that are too big and after this step the pulp is ready to become paper. (2).
Final StepsThe pulp is made into a mat by the fourdinier wire. All additional water is removed by the presses and dryers. The pulp is then put through calendar rolls to make smooth sheets of paper; which are now ready to be sized however the factories choose. (2) -Chemical reactions involved in the paper making process: These reactions occur during cooking to remove lignin.Na2O+ CO2 Na2CO3 Na+ OH NaOH Na2O+ SO2 + ½ O2 Na2SO4 Na2S + 2O2 Na2SO4 Na2SO4 + Na2S + O2 2Na2S2O3 Na2SO4 + 2C Na2S + CO2 Na2SO4 + 4CO Na2S + 4 CO2 These occur during bleaching. Na2O + SO3 Na2SO4Na2O + CO2 Na2CO3Na2S(l) + 2 H2O H2S (g) + 2NaOHNa2S(l)+H2O+CO2 H2S(g) + Na2CO3 (3) -The by-products of making paper are: carbon monoxide, sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphite. - The products created at the end of this process are paper and the waste mixture of water and chemicals. (3) -The main steps to making paper are: cook, wash, bleach, beat/refine, wire, press, dry, calendar roll and size. (2)
CookDuring the cook stage the woodchips turn into fibers. The woodchips are cooked with a solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphite to help remove most of the lignin from the pulp. (1)
WashThe pulp is washed with water to remove the chemicals added during the cooking process as well as any leftover lignin. (2) Location: Asia Pulp & Paper (Canada) Ltd
20 Hereford
Brampton, ON L6Y 0M1
(905) 450-2100 (4) Additional Information:
For Financial and Investment Matters, Please Contact :
Email : app_investors@app.co.id

For Product Info, Please Contact :
Products, Sales & Marketing
(Representatives of all main Indonesian mills)
Email : customer_talk@app.co.id

Customer Service Department (CSD)
for Indonesia region : Jabotabek
Telp. 0-800-1-368-368 (Toll Free)
Email : CSD_CMI@app.co.id

For Procurement Supports, Please Contact :
Chemical & Packaging: APP-Procurement_CEP@app.co.id
Energy & Spare Parts: APP-Procurement_SP@app.co.id

(4) or Whistleblowing or Audit Matters, Please Contact :
Email : ethics_callcenter@app.co.id
Phone : +6221 53120412 (Monday – Friday, 8am - 5pm)
Fax : +6221 53120411
P.O. Box : 121 BMD TNG 15330
or click here to fill in the Report Form

For Job Application & CV Submissions, Please Contact :
Email: Recruitment_Corporate@app.co.id

For Environmental Concerns, Please Contact :
Email: environment@app.co.id

For Media Inquiries, Please Contact :
Email: neglasari_martini@app.co.id
Email: redita_soumi@app.co.id

(4) (5)
Paper factories are usually situated in forests due to convenience. Having the main ingredient you use to produce a product right outside your door is a sure-fire way of cutting down transportation time and maximizing the time you have to create more paper, thereby increasing your income.

However, having a major factory in the forest greatly disrupts the animals living in and around the area and disrupts nature. It takes certain chemicals and great amounts of heat to convert a tree into the paper that we take for granted every day.

After this process is finished there are left-over chemicals that are released into nearby lakes. This causes damage to every animal within the area that may drink or live in this lake used by paper companies as a public dump. It may cause genetic mutations and or birth defects in fish, and organ failure to animals such as deer, rabbits, foxes etc. that use said lake as a watering hole. There are four main types of pollution that are caused by Pulp and Paper Canada: thermal pollution, chemical pollution, air pollution and noise pollution. Air pollution is when gases created in the process of making paper, is released into the air, creating poisonous smog that is harmful to the surrounding wildlife.(8)

Finally, all factories are loud, obnoxious and disruptive to the surrounding people and animals alike. The loud noises created during the process of making paper scare off the animals living within the vicinity thereby disturbing habitats and ultimately not allowing the wildlife to hunt and or mate in the way that nature intended them to.(9) Opinion Paragraph - Thermal pollution is caused by dumping the left-over boiling water from the paper making process into nearby lakes. This causes an imbalance in temperature which can negatively affect the organisms living within the lake. (Dumping large amounts of water at such a different temperature can encourage the growth of algae as well as kill of native species that call the lake their home.(6) - Chemical pollution goes hand in hand with thermal pollution except rather than dumping boiling water, extra, unused chemicals are dumped into lakes causing genetic dispositions and deformities to the animals living within the lake.(7) Made by: Annie, Lauryn, Desiree & Madison. Benefits of Paper production:

Creates high paying jobs
Large contributer to the economy
Local activities and city infrastructure supported by the company (10)
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