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Chapter #8 - Teacher-Centered Instructional Strategies

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by Katie Britney on 4 February 2013

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Transcript of Chapter #8 - Teacher-Centered Instructional Strategies

Teacher-Centered Instructional Strategies A Continuum of Instructional Approaches Instructional Strategy: a method of delivering instruction that is intended to help students achieve the learning objective Teacher-Centered to Student-Centered Approaches Some strategies that are most suited to help achieve the objectives of the lessons are teacher directed, such as lectures, recitations, questions, and practice Others are more interactive, such as various group and discussion methods. Still other strategies are more student directed; these often emphasize inquiry and discovery Direct instructional approaches those in which teachers tell the students the concept or skill to be learned and then lead students through most of the instructional activities designed to bring about student learning. Direct instructional approaches include direct instruction, presentations, demonstrations, questions, recitations, practice and drills Inductive instructional approaches those that involve some type of exploratory activity that helps lead students to discover a concept or generalization. Teachers employ several strategies to help students attain the concepts. Inductive approaches include concept attainment strategies, inquiry lessons, and projects, reports, and problems Social instructional approaches have students working together in various ways to gather, process, and learn information or skills. The teacher acts as a facilitator; rather than the information giver. Social approaches include discussions, cooperative learning, panels and debates, role playing, simulations, and games Independent instructional approaches allow students to pursue content independently with less teacher direction than other lessons. Students sometimes are permitted to pursue their own interest. Independent approaches include learning centers, contracts, and independent work Direct and Indirect Instructional Approaches Direct Instructional Approaches Teacher-centered instructional strategies are sometimes referred to as direct instruction. With direct-instruction, the teacher typically selects the instructional objectives, the corresponding content, and the instructional strategies that will be used in the lessons
The teacher structures the learning environment and is primarily the conveyer of information in teacher-directed instructional activities (presentations, demonstrations, recitations, drill and practice)
Students generally are not involved in the selection of objectives, content, or instructional strategies.
Lends itself to the lower level of Bloom's Taxonomy, with emphasis on knowing and remembering the facts
There are usually fewer objectives in the higher-higher levels of Bloom's taxonomy in direct instruction, partly because students are not expected to be very active in the learning process or in constructing their own learning. Indirect Instructional Approaches Student-centered instructional strategies are sometimes referred to as indirect instruction. With indirect instruction, the teacher often takes the lead in identifying the instructional objectives and corresponding content, but students may be involved in this process to some degree
Instructional strategies are used that actively involve students through cooperative and interactive approaches such as projects, cooperative learning, problem-based learning, and inquiry approaches
Students interact with peers and are actively involved in the learning process
The teacher serves as a guide and a resource
Indirect instruction lends itself more to the middle and upper levels of the revised Bloom's taxonomy, with emphasis on doing something with the facts - applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating knowledge
Indirect instruction lends itself to authentic and performance assessments
Teachers sometimes like to start with teacher-centered approaches since they can control the classroom conditions and environment
Once teachers have control and students are learning, they next try instructional approaches in which they give more responsibility to the students with peer-assisted and student-centered instructional approaches The Gradual Release of Responsibility Model First proposed by Pearson and Gallagher (1983), the gradual release of responsibility model of instruction suggests that the cognitive work should shift slowly and intentionally from teacher-as-model, to joint responsibility between teacher and student, to independent practice and application by the learner The model provides a structure for teachers to move from assuming "all the responsibility for performing a task...to a situation in which the students assume all of the responsibility." This gradual release may occur over one day, a week, a month, or a year. Over time students assume more responsibility for the task Focus lessons - Teachers establish a lesson's purpose and then model their thinking to illustrate for students how to approach the new learning. Focus lessons include modeling and direct explanation of the skills, strategies, or tasks being taught. This is followed by teacher-led metacognitive awareness lessons that show students when and how to use new learning, as well as to evaluate the success of the approach they have selected. Then teachers use think-alouds in which they describe how they make decisions, implement skills, active problem-solving procedures, and evaluate whether success has been achieved Guided instruction - Teachers strategically use questions and assessment-informed prompts, cues, direct explanations, and modeling to guide students to increasingly complex thinking and facilitate students' increased responsibility for task completion. Students are typically grouped with other learners who are similarly performing, based on assessment data. The groupings change frequently due to ongoing formative assessments. The guided instruction phase facilitates differentiated instruction by content, process, and product because the small group sizes allow for much higher level of customization Collaborative Work - Teachers design and supervise tasks that enable students to be in productive groups to consolidate their thinking and understanding, and that require students to generate individual products that can provide formative assessment information. Groupings should be heterogeneous Independent work - Teachers design and supervise tasks that require students to apply information they have been taught to create new and authentic products. Students demonstrate their expanding competence Deductive and Inductive Strategies Deductive Strategies Deductive Strategies: involve deductive reasoning in which the teacher starts with a known principle or concept followed by examples of the concept The strengths of the deductive strategy are the directness and specific focus of the teaching strategy and the tight linkage between the teachers' examples and the task required of students
Deductive strategies are more direct and straightforward and lend themselves to direct instructional approaches Inductive Strategies Inductive Strategies: involve inductive reasoning where the lesson begins with examples, and the students examine the examples in an effort to identify the main principle or concept This inductive approach is indirect, but it can be very effective because students interact with the content to make meaning The Direct Instruction Model Characteristics of Direct Instruction Direct instruction involves instructional approaches in which the teacher structures lessons in a straightforward, sequential manner focusing on mastery of knowledge and skills that can be taught in a step-by-step manner The teacher is clearly in control of the content or skill to be learned and the pace and rhythm of the lesson The direct teaching format calls for teacher-led and teacher-assisted instruction involving presentations, demonstrations, questions and answers, review and practice, and feedback and correction of student errors Generally, direct instruction allows a teacher to introduce new skills or concepts in a relatively short period of time Direct instructional strategies are academically focused, with the teacher clearly stating the goals for the lesson to the students The teacher closely monitors student understanding and provides feedback to students on their performance A direct instruction lesson requires careful orchestration by the teacher and the creation of a learning environment that is businesslike and task oriented Direct instruction focuses mainly on academic learning tasks and aims at keeping students actively engaged Direct instruction has four key components: Clear determination and articulation of goals
Teacher-directed instruction
Careful monitoring of students' outcomes
Consistent use of effective classroom organization and management methods Characteristics of Direct Instruction Direct instruction is effective because it is based on behavioristic learning principles, such as obtaining students' attention, reinforcing correct responses, providing corrective feedback, and practicing correct responses It also tends to increase the academic learning time, or the amount of instructional time during which students are attending to the task and performing at a high success rate. Uses and Limitations Direct instruction can be applied to any subject, but it is most appropriate for performance-oriented subjects such as reading, writing, math, grammar; music and physical education and the skill components of science and history
Younger children and slower learners can benefit from direct instruction
Direct instruction is not intended to achieve social learning outcomes or higher-order thinking. Opponents of direct instruction note that this instruction is too teacher centered and puts too much emphasis on teacher talk
Critics also argue that the model is limited to teaching basic skills and low-level information, while not being as useful when teaching higher-level objectives Degrees of Direct Instruction The teacher-directed approach is the most structured in which the teacher transmits information to students in the most direct way possible.
The teacher-directed approach is typically fairly scripted and sequential
Some forms of instruction may involve creating homogeneous learning groups to focus on specific knowledge and skills that must be mastered
Explicit instruction calls for the teacher to gain student attention present new material, reinforce correct responses, provide feedback on student progress, and increase the amount of time that students spend actively engaged in learning
Its objective is to teach skills and help students to master a body of knowledge
It is teacher-led instruction, with some involvement by students Characteristics of Direct Instruction Degrees of Direct Instruction Ten general principles apply when developing an explicit instruction lesson: Begin a lesson with a short statement of goals
Begin a lesson with a short review of previous prerequisite learning
Present new material in small steps, with student practice after each step
Give clear and detailed instructions and explanations
Provide a high level of active practice for all students
Ask many questions, check for student understanding, and obtain responses from all students
Guide students during initial practice
Provide systematic feedback and corrections
Provide explicit instruction and practice for seat work exercises, and when necessary, monitor students during seat work
Continue practice until students are independent and confidence Components of Direct and Explicit Instruction Lessons Six teaching functions that are part of lesson design: Daily review
Presenting new material
Conducting guided practice
Providing feedback and corrections
Conducting independent practice
Providing weekly and monthly reviews Characteristics of Direct Instruction Components of Direct and Explicit Instruction Lessons The components of explicit instruction lessons in the sequence they should be arranged in the lesson: Provide Set Induction Set induction: the initial activity of a lesson that is used to gain students' attention, inform students of the lesson objectives, and describe the lesson to students. It is intended to create a mental "set" in students so that they are in a receptive frame of mind for the lesson. Also referred to as anticipatory set. Prepare students for the knowledge base Effectiveness of teaching depends partly on the teachers' presentation and partly on the students prior knowledge and active thought process during learning Activate students' prior knowledge
Provide daily reviews of previously learned knowledge and skills
Pre-teach new vocabulary Provide instruction of new material Provide guided practice Guided practice helps students transfer information from working memory into long-term memory
After instruction of new material, teachers can arrange for guided practice with practice with peers, group problem solving or teacher-directed individual guided practice
Guided practice is most effective after a presentation or cognitive modeling of an initial concept
Linked to the learning objectives of the lesson, enables active participation, and promotes student self-direction. Provide independent practice Check students understanding after guided practice
Self-directed; little or no teacher intervention
Skill-based (promotes mastery or application based (real life settings) Provide closure to the lesson Closure: refers to actions that are designed to bring a lesson presentation to an appropriate and satisfying conclusion Instructional Approaches for Direct Instruction Presentations Presentation: an informative talk that a more knowledgeable person makes to less knowledgeable persons. Can be used to disseminate information in a short time, explain difficult ideas, stimulate student desire to learn Presentations should be used when: Objectives rather than knowledge acquisition are sought
This information is complex, abstract, or detailed
Learner involvement is important; higher cognitive learning is sought
Students are below average in ability Presentations often do not actively engage students in learning or permit passive learning and do not give the teacher opportunities to check student understanding Tips: know the content like an expert, limit the length of the presentation, present in a way that is interesting, provide structure and sequence, maintain flexibility, provide organizers, use media and materials, summarize and provide follow-up activities Guidelines for planning and conducting presentations: Present the lesson objectives to the students
Use an anticipatory set to capture the students' interest
Present the information in an organized, step-by-step manner
Give step-by-step directions
Organize material so that one point can be mastered before the next point is introduced
Focus on one thought at a time, completing one point and checking for understanding before proceeding to the next
Expect student interaction in the form of questions and comments
Move from general ideas to specific ideas
Use a graphic organizer to other aids to promote learning
Use good explanations and examples
Encourage students to reflect on and apply what they have learned
Check for student understanding Demonstrations Similar to a lecture in its direct communication of information from teacher to student A demonstration involves a visual presentation to examine processes, information, and ideas Allows students to see the teacher as an active learner and a model. Allows for students to observe real things and how they work There may be pure demonstrations, demonstrations with commentary, or participative demonstrations with students Demonstrations can be used to illustrate points or procedures efficiently, stimulate interest in a particular topic, provide a model for teaching specific skills, and provide a change of pace Guidelines to carry out effective demonstrations: Carefully plan the demonstration
Break down complex procedures into separate components that can be adequately demonstrated
Practice the demonstration
Develop an outline to guide the demonstration
Make sure that everyone can see the demonstration
Introduce the demonstration to focus attention
Describe the procedure at the same time that you demonstrate it.
Ask and encourage questions
Permit students to practice the procedure if they are expected to use it
Provide individual corrective feedback
Plan a follow-up to the demonstration Questioning Questioning is a critical instructional tool, but there are many facets to successful questioning Kinds of Questions Questions for the learning domains Questions can be developed for each level of the cognitive domain: remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating. The first three levels generally require low-level questions because they emphasize primarily the recall and moderate use of the information. The upper three require high-level questions that go beyond memory and partial recall; they deal with abstract and complex thinking Convergent and divergent questions Convergent questions tend to have one correct or best answer. These questions may be phrased to require either low- or high-level thinking
Divergent questions are often open ended and usually have many appropriate but different answers Types of Questions Focusing questions are used to focus students' attention on the day's lesson or on material being discussed. They may be used to determine what students have learned, to motivate and arouse students, to generate interest at the start of or during a lesson, or to check for understanding during or at the close of a lesson
Prompting questions include hints and clues to aid students in answering questions or to assist them in correcting an initial response. A prompting question is usually a rewording of the original question with clues or hints included
Probing questions may be needed when a student does not answer a question completely. Stay with the same student by asking one or more probing questions that are intended to seek clarification and to provide guidance to more complete answers. Questioning Teachers need to give careful consideration to formulate questions, present questions, prompt student responses, assess and use questions, and encourage student question Formulating Questions Questioning Techniques Plan key questions in advance to provide lesson structure and direction
Ask questions at various levels of the cognitive domain
Phrase questions clearly and specifically
Adapt questions to student ability level
ask questions that relate to students' own lives or similar situations
Vary the types of questions being asked Presenting Questions and Prompting Student Responses Ask questions logically and sequentially
Ask the question before calling on a particular student
use random selection when calling on students
Encourage wide student participation by calling on many students
use variety and unpredictability in asking questions and calling on students
Wait at least three to five seconds after asking a question before calling on a student
Do not consistently repeat student answers
Have students respond to classmates' answers Assessing and Using Questions Follow-up on student responses
Provide appropriate feedback to students
Expand and use correct responses Encouraging Student Questions Teach students how to generate good questions
Encourage student questions
Encourage students to ask questions when they need help in understanding content Recitations Recitation: involves a teacher asking students a series of relatively short answer questions to determine if they remember or understand previously covered content There are three main purposes of a well-orchestrated recitation: To ensure that all students know whether a given answer is right or wrong
To ensure that all students are aware of the most complete, appropriate, and correct response to each question
To help students connect new knowledge to prior learning and experiences and help move it into long-term memory You might use recitations as a means to diagnose student progress Typical interaction pattern - teacher question, student response, and teacher reaction Questions posed in recitations are usually low-level questions, asking students to remember or recall facts, provide definitions, or demonstrate comprehension Recitations questions rarely engage students in thinking deeply about an issue. It is highly structured, with the teacher clearly in control of directing the learning Recitation questions might be posed for the following purposes: To review before a test
To see if students have read or understood a passage
To check on completion and/or comprehension of homework
To assess what students know about a topic, either before, during, or after instruction
To cue students to important content
To get students to talk
To provide opportunities for drill and practice Practice and Drills Practice: involves going over material just learned Practice is intended to consolidate, clarify, and emphasize what the student has already learned. Practice sessions are more meaningful when spread out over time, when conducted in context, when whole issues are examined rather than the parts, and when used in different activities Drills: involves repeating information on a particular topic until it is firmly established in the students' minds. It is used for learning that needs to be habitualized or to be retained a long time (multiplication tables). Works best at the beginning of class. Reviews Review: An opportunity for students to look at a topic another time. A review does not require drill techniques. It does involve reteaching and is intended to reinforce previously learned material and to sometimes give new meaning to the material Reviews can be in the form of summaries at the ends of lessons, units, or terms; quiz games; outlines; discussions; questioning sessions; and other approaches A daily review at the start of a class will help you to determine if your students have the necessary prerequisite knowledge or skills for the lesson Weekly and monthly reviews help to check student understanding, ensure that the necessary prior skills are adequately learned, and also check on the teacher's pace. Guided Practice & Homework Guided Practice Seat work Involves students working on in-class assignments, often independently
Successful independent practice requires both adequate preparation of students and effective teacher management of the activity
Ways to improve student engagement during seat work: Circulate around the classroom during seat work, actively explaining, observing, asking questions, and giving feedback
Have brief contacts with individual students
For difficult material in whole-class instruction, have a number of segments of instruction and seat work during a single class period
Arrange seats to facilitate monitoring of students
Establish a routine to use during seat work activity that prescribes what students will do, how they will get help, and what they will do when they have completed the exercise Teacher-Led Practice Often takes the form of repetition drills and question-and-answer sessions
It is intended to establish associations that are available without "thinking through" each time that the associations are needed.
Drill is useful for skill learning and intellectual skills Student Cooperative Practice Students help each other during seat work
Students in the groups prepare a common product, such as an answer to a drill sheet, and in other situations the students study cooperatively to prepare for competition that takes place after the seat work Guided Practice & Homework Homework a study that students do when they are not under the direct supervision of their teachers, such as study at home, in the library, or in study hall
Homework does not include in-school guided study; home study courses delivered through the mail, television, or an audio- or videotape; or extracurricular activities such as sports teams and clubs.
There are four types of homework assignments: Practice, to help students to master specific skills and to reinforce material presented in class
Preparation, to prepare students for upcoming lessons
Extension, to go beyond the information obtained in the classroom and to transfer new skills and ideas to new situations
Creative, to offer students the opportunity to think critically and engage in problem-solving activities Guidelines to make decisions about homework for your students: Recognize that homework serves different purposes at different grade levels
Assign a mixture of mandatory and voluntary homework
Use homework to address topics previously covered, those covered on the day of the assignment, and those yet to be covered
Focus homework on simple skills and material or on the integration of skills already possessed by the student
Select an appropriate amount of homework for the grade level
Select a process for providing feedback and grading homework
Show students ways to overcome distractions
Teach homework skills to students
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