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Copy of History of Sculpture (Humanities Report)

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by Patrick France on 4 September 2013

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Transcript of Copy of History of Sculpture (Humanities Report)

HISTORY OF SCULPTURES
SCULPTURE
-in the form of abstract forms and represented in 3 dimensional form. It is usually carved in stone & wood by casting metal or plaster.
PRE - HISTORIC
EGYPTIAN
Semilla, Jean Christianne N.
Flores, Charlene Mae I.
Pe, Reanne Denise G.
Maderazo,Hannah Joy
Zamora, Winzel Marie
Muyrong, Jose Lorenzo
Rogando, Patrick Lawrence S.
Cruz, Ian Raymond R.
3AR-4
Humanities Report
ROME
EARLY
CHRISTIAN & BYZANTINE
GOTHIC
CHINESE
RENAISSANCE
MESOPOTAMIA
MESO AMERICAN
INDIA
KOREAN
EARLY MODERN
PHILIPPINE
CONTEMPORARY
CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Inspired in nature with sensitive forms that can easily be
understood
2. SPIRITUAL dimension of ICONOGRAPHY
3. Characters' gestures and attitudes are human. Represents
emotions & natural features
EVOLUTION:
13th Century:

14th Century:

15th Century:

"CLASSICIST"
-Idealized Naturalism
-MANNERISM in stylation
-Longer images with
bends
-Sculptures of Kings,
Bourgeoises & Aristocracy
TYPANUM:
-Located at the top of the door
-Virgin Mary is at the Center
TRUMAEU
-Located in between the doors
-Image of Christ or the Virgin
-Access to Paradise
DOOR JAMBS
-Reserved for the apostles
SEPULCHERS:
-Found in chapels
-Death of a person on the
bed lying or praying
CHOIR CHAIRS
PULPITS
ALTAR PIECES
2 Kinds of Sculpture:
1. MONUMENTAL SCULPTURE
South Portal of Chartres
Cathedral
-Exaggerated
-Elongated Columnar
West Portal of Rheims
Cathedral
Nicola Pisano and his
son Giovanni
-Proto Renaissance
-Sympathetic Handling of nudity
Nativity and Adoration of the Magi
Pulpit of Sienna Cathedral
Fontana Maggiore
David and a prophet from the Well of Moses
-Claus Sluter
2. Portable Sculpture
-Small Figurines
-Made out of Ivory

Lid of the Walters Casket, with the Siege of the Castle
of Love at left and jousting
Virgin and Child
CHINESE SCULPTURE
Native Chinese religions do not usually use cult images of deities, or even represent them, and large religious sculpture is nearly all Buddhist, dating mostly from the 4th to the 14th century, and initially using Greco-Buddhist models arriving via the Silk Road. Buddhism is also the context of all large portrait sculpture; in total contrast to some other areas in medieval China even painted images of the emperor were regarded as private. Imperial tombs have spectacular avenues of approach lined with real and mythological animals on a scale matching Egypt, and smaller versions decorate temples and palaces. Small Buddhist figures and groups were produced to a very high quality in a range of media, as was relief decoration of all sorts of objects, especially in metalwork and jade. Sculptors of all sorts were regarded as artisans and very few names are recorded.
JADE CARVINGS
Appreciating gems and jewellery is about focusing mainly on appreciating moldings and colors. Chinese jade carvings elicit elaborate artistic conceptions of beauty. It is an art with deep ethnic characteristics, and the resulting pieces are a dazzling treasure in the world of sculpture. Implicit in the carvings are the wisdom of the Chinese culture, its religious notions, and its aesthetic style.
This dull green jade python cup sits on the horns and tail of a monster-mask near its base. A tiger headed creature peers over its rim and another with a bird tail lifts its head up to the edge of the rim. A third smaller creature climbs up the cup's side. The upper portion of the cup presents a band of incised monster-masks and rui heads.
Chaozhu Wood Carvings

Chaozhou wood carvings began in the Tang Dynasty and the Song Dynasty, at the latest, and were further developed during the Ming Dynasty. They were developed into near perfection by the end of the Qing Dynasty and reached great heights just before the beginning of the Chinese war against Japan.



Chaozhou wood carvings fall into 4 overall categories of architecture: decoration, libation decoration, ornamental furnishings, and desk ornaments. Wood carvings are usually stuck with pure gold foil after
careful sculpturing, allowing them to glitter. Wood carvings are also known as “gold-coated wood carvings.”

A wooden and gilded statue of the Buddha (bodhisattva) from the Chinese Song Dynasty (960-1279), from the Shanghai Museum
The Terracotta Army or the "Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses", is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. It is a form of funerary art buried with the emperor in 210–209 BC and whose purpose was to protect the emperor in his afterlife.
Terracotta Wariors and Horses
Dogū are constructed of clay and are typically 10 to 30 cm high. Most of the figurines appear to be modeled as female, and have big eyes, small waists, and wide hips.
JAPANESE
Boxwood Carvings
Boxwood carvings belong to the family of circular carvings. They make full use of the natural characteristics of boxwood including its smooth texture, subtle grains, and dignified color. Originally, boxwood carvings display a cream yellow color. As time goes by, the color darkens and presents a kind of simple and elegant beauty.
Almost all subsequent significant large sculpture in Japan was Buddhist, with some Shinto equivalents, and after Buddhism declined in Japan in the 15th century, monumental sculpture became largely architectural decoration and less significant. However sculptural work in the decorative arts was developed to a remarkable level of technical achievement and refinement in small objects such as inro and netsuke in many materials, and metal tosoguor Japanese sword mountings. In the 19th century there were export industries of small bronze sculptures of extreme virtuosity, ivory and porcelain figurines, and other types of small sculpture, increasingly emphasizing technical accomplishment.
Japanese Sculpture

Agyō, the west Niō (guardian king) and guardian of the daylight hours of Horyuji (Horyu-ji), a Buddhist temple in Nara Prefecture, Japan. The figure was originally sculpted in the 7th century, but it has been extensively restored, so it bears little resemblance to its original design.

Korean sculpture was exported abroad, primarily during the Baekje period to Japan, where Korean Buddhist sculptures from the seventh century still exist. In the main Korean sculptures were of wood, then stone, and then ceramics, with votive sculptures being of the greatest number. Smaller sculptures were also made in jade, gold and other metals. The greatest time for sculpture was in the time of Korean Buddhist art
KOREAN SCULPTURE
A Korean gilt-bronze Buddha triad from the Baekje Kingdom, 6th or 7th century. Horyu-ji Dedicated Treasure no. 143 now at the Tokyo National Museum.
Pensive bodhisattva, probably Maitreya. Gilt bronze, seventh-century Silla, Three Kindoms of Korea period. Seoul, South Korea, National Museum of Korea. National Treasure no. 83.
Haein Temple. These two images, recently dated to the 9th century, are probably the oldest surviving Buddha images made of wood in Korea other than a couple of images in Japan that are older.
EARLY RENAISSANCE
-Physical Realism & Classical Composition
Lorenzo Ghiberti
-Founder of the early renaissance
GATES OF PARADISE
-Bronze door to the Florence Baptisery
-Consists of Biblical Scenes
Donatello
-Ghiberti's assistant
The towering figure of early modern sculpture is
Auguste Rodin
(Modern sculpture is generally considered to have begun with the work of his sculpture), who mainly produced bronzes. Although some are smoothly polished, Rodin’s most characteristic works feature rough, unfinished forms and textures, giving them a dramatically raw appearance. 5 Rodin’s style constitutes the sculptural equivalent of the sketchy, unfinished appearance of impressionist paintings; in both cases, the imagination fills in the details.
Early Modern Sculpture
Sometimes, parts of Rodin’s sculptures are left so unfinished that they seem to be emerging from the block of material. This can be observed in his best known work, The Thinker. Rodin’s other primary works include The Kiss and The Burghers of Calais.
The Burghers of Calais
The Kiss
The Thinker
*All works by Auguste Rodin
Indian Sculptures
SCULPTURES IN INDIA TOOK AN IMPERATIVE PART IN ITS ART CULTURE. ITS SCULPTURE STARTED OUT AS BRONZE AND OTHER STONES. IT HAS ITS ROOTS FROM THE PLANET’S OLDEST INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION TO GLOBALLY CELEBRATED MODERN INDIAN SCULPTURE ART. LATER ON, THE SCULPTURES OF INDIA WENT INTO A NEW PATH. THEIR IMPACT ADDED BEAUTY ON COMPLEX CARVINGS, CAVES, STUPAS AND OTHER SACRED BUILDINGS. AMONGST THE MOST MAGNIFICENT EXAMPLES OF INDIAN SCULPTURES ARE TAJ MAHAL OF AGRA.
Taj Mahal, India
History
-IN 3RD MILLENIUM, THE MOST MAGNIFICENT EXAMPLE OF THIS SCULPTURE IS THE GREAT BATHS OF MOHENJO- DARO.
-AT HIS TIME, TERRACOTTA AND MUD BRICKS WERE USED FOR SCULPTURE.
-WHEN THE NEW RELIGIOUS FAITH- BUDDHISM EMERGED, THE BRICK CONSTRUCTIONS AND TERRACOTTA WORKS WERE GRADUALLY REPLACED.
-MAURYA DYNASTY
CHARACTERS AND SCENES WERE CARVED FROM HINDUISM, BUDDHISM AND JAINISM TO A LESSER EXTENT.
-SCULPTURES SEEMS TO BE POSING FOR A PHOTOGRAPH. WITH ALL THEMES FROM THE BEGINNING, THERE ARE INSTANCES OF THEIR ART’S MOST ENDURING IMAGE: SUPERB YOUNG WOMAN, NUDE AND IN SOME ATHLETIC POSE. SUCH TYPE OF IMAGE CAN BE FOUND IN FAMED TEMPLES OF KHAJURAHO, 11TH CENTURY AD.
Early Century Sculptures
BUDDHIST CARVINGS- GREAT SANCHI STUPA
*SOUTH INDIAN SCULPTURE- FOLLOW THE EXPRESSIONS OF DRAVIDIAN ART.
*INDIAN SCULPTURE IS LONG LASTING.

THERE IS A VAST VARIETY SEEN AMONG THEM IN TERMS OF STYLES AND MATERIALS USED. FORMS OF INDIAN SCULPTURES ARE:



1.BRONZE INDIAN SCULPTURE
- LARGEST BRONZE CARVING MANUFACTURER
- IN FORM OF HINDU GODS, GODDESSES AND SAINTS
- FAMOUS IN SOUTHERN INDIA PART IN 17TH CENTURY
2. WOODEN INDIAN SCULPTURE
- SOPHISTICATED WOOD CARVINGS FOUND ON STATUES ON HINDU GODS, GODDESSES AND TOYS
3. MARBLE INDIAN SCULPTURE
- LOCALLY AVAILABLE
- FINE CARVINGS ANDELABORATE DESIGN
- SACRED INTENTIONS
4. SAND INDIAN SCULPTURE
- ORISSA (SAND TYPE SCULPTURES ORIGINATED)
- IN GREAT VARIETY OF SHAPE AND FORM


5. STONE INDIAN SCULPTURE
- ILLUSTRATIONS OFHINDU DEITIES IN HIMACHAL PRADESH
- EXTREMELY ELEGANT
6. INDIAN ROCK- CUT SCULPTURE
- DIFFERENT FROM OTHER SCULPTURES IN NUMBER OF WAYS
- CUTTING ROCKS IS INVOLVED
- CHAITYAS AND VIHARAS ARE EXAMPLES
7. INDIAN CLAY SCULPTURE
- SOLD IN DOMESTIC MARKET AND IN ABROAD
- MAJOR HANDICRAFT
MOLD POTS, STATUES, ETC.
8. RELIGIOUS SCULPTURE
-
WORSHIP OF IDOLS

OTHER FORMS:
9. HINDU TEMPLE SCULPTURE
10. JAIN INDIAN SCULPTURE
11. CHRISTIAN TEMPLE SCULPTURE
12. BUDDHIST INDIAN SCULPTURE
13. SIKH INDIAN SCULPTURE

*Hindu Temple Sculpture
Great Sculptors of India

DHRUV MISTRY
- BORN IN 1957 IN GUJARAT
- GEOMETRIC FORMS
- ‘RIVER’, ‘YOUTH’, ‘GUARDIANS AND OBJECT’, A SET OF SCULPTURE IN VICTORIA SQUARE, BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND 1993


-BORN IN 1917 IN LAHORE
-WOOD SCULPTURE
‘MONARCH SERIES’, ‘BULL’ BOTH CARVED IN WOOD, ‘CRY’ BRONZE

Bull
Monarch Series
Cry
DHANRAJ BHAGAT
SANKHO CHAUDHURI
BORN IN 1916
ABSTRACT FIGURES CARVED OUT OF DIFFERENT MATERIALS
‘MUSIC’ FOR ALL INDIA RADIO IN NEW DELHI IN 1957, ‘BRONZE STATUE OF MAHATMA GANDHI’, 1964.

RAMKINKAR BAIJ
BORN IN 1906 IN WEST BENGAL
FATHER OF MODERNISM IN INDIAN ART
BODY LANGUAGE, HUMAN FIGURES AND GENERAL HUMAN DRAMA FASCINATED HIM MOST
‘HARVESTER’, ‘SPEED’


G. REVINDER REDDY
BORN IN 1956 IN ANDHA PRADESH
LIFE LIKE SCLUPTURES
CLASSIC DESIGN
‘DEVI’ 1998, ‘GOPIKA’, ‘THE GIRL WITH FLOWER’; IN FIBERGLASS
ANISH KAPOOR
BORN IN 1954 IN MUMBAI
SCULPTURES RANGED IN BRILLIANTLY COLORED AND BEING MONOCHROMATIC AND ARE MOSTLY SIMPLER FORMS
‘TARATANTARA’ IN 1999, ‘SVAYAMBH’ IN 2007, ‘MEMORY’ IN 2008

SADANAND BAKRE
EXIBITED ARTWORKS IN 1961 AT THE COMMONWEALTH INSTITUTE
‘ACROBAT’ MADE OF CONCRETE, ‘SOLID STATE STILL LIFE’ MADE OF WHITE METAL

SOMENATH HORE
BORN IN 1921 IN BANGLADESH
BRONZE SCULPTURE
‘FLUTE PLAYER’ BRONZE, ‘MOTHER WITH CHILD’ TRIBUTE TO STRUGGLE OF PEOPLE IN VIETNAM
SOMENATH HORE


Flute Player
GREEK
Archaic age
ca. 800-500 BC

-kouroi/korai
Classical age
ca. 500-330 BC

-architectural sculpture (Phidias), statues (Myron > Polyclitus > Praxiteles)
Hellenistic age
ca. 330 BC-0

-Laocoön and his Sons, Winged Victory
SUMMARY OF GREEK SCULPTURE
Archaic Greek sculpture is rigid and stylized.

Principal types of Archaic sculpture:
kouros (plural kouroi) - a nude male statue standing with one foot forward
kore(plural korai) - a clothed female statue standing with feet together

ARCHAIC PERIOD
Kore Statue
Kouros Statue
CLASSICAL AGE
considered as the peak of Greek cultural achievement.
In this period, Archaic stylization gave way to breathtaking realism of human anatomy and posture, as well as realistic drapery (loose fabric). One common quality of lifelike statues is contrapposto, in which the figure’s weight is supported mainly by one leg, causing the torso to rotate slightly.
At the heart of this artistic shift was humanism, which propelled a great body of revolutionary ideas known collectively as the “Greek Awakening.

*The four most renowned Greek sculptors all lived during the Classical age:
Phidias
- remembered primarily for architectural sculpture
Myron, Polyclitus, and Praxiteles
- mainly produced statues.

PHIDIAS
is generally considered the greatest of all Greek sculptors; He is known chiefly for designing the sculptures of the Parthenon.

*Like other Greek temples, the Parthenon was decorated with two types of sculpture: relief (sculpture upon a flat surface) and in-the-round (fully three-dimensional sculpture).
Preferred subject: deities
Parthenon Pediment Sculptures (reconstruction)

Parthenon Pediment Sculptures
Parthenon Frieze Sculptures
Phidias’ Great Statue of Athena (scaled-down replica)
Phidias’ Great Statue of Zeus (artist’s conception)
POLYCLITUS
-Often considered second only to Phidias and was the most influential theorist of Greek sculpture.
Three of his main arguments were that a figure should have: ideal proportions, balance between tense and relaxed muscle groups, and balanced orientation of limbs.

*Preferred subject: athletes

Spear-bearer (replicas)
Discus-bearer (replica)
Athlete Tying on a Fillet (replica)
PRAXITELES
-succeeded Polyclitus; preferred to sculpt deities. Praxiteles’ style reigned, infusing it with a new gentleness and delicacy. His masterpiece is Aphrodite of Cnidus.
APHRODITE OF CNIDUS (REPLICA), PRAXITELES
HELLENISTIC AGE
During the Hellenistic age, Hellenistic sculptors tended to embrace dynamism and extravagance, in sharp contrast to the calm, restrained majesty of Classical statues

No statue better illustrates the typical Hellenistic style than the group sculpture Laocoön and his Sons. This work depicts a scene from Homer’s Iliad, in which the Trojan priest Laocoön and his two sons are killed by sea serpents (at Athena’s bidding) when he attempts to warn his people about the Trojan horse.

Laocoön and his Sons
Winged Victory of Samothrace
The most famous Hellenistic work may be Winged Victory of Samothrace, another masterpiece of dynamism. Victory’s robes are dramatically ruffled as though she were facing into a storm.
Another development of the Hellenistic period was the embrace of real people as appropriate subjects for Greek sculpture. During the Classical age, sculptors were preoccupied with physically “perfect”, youthful figures. Hellenistic sculptors, on the other hand, began to introduce elements of harsh reality, including age, injury, and un-idealized features.
Dying Gaul
SUMMARY OF ROMAN SCULPTURE
PaxRomana
ca. 0-200

-Augustus of Prima Porta, Equestrian Marcus Aurelius
Early
Christian

-sculpted sarcophagi
Late Empire
ca. 200-500

-Colossus of Constantine
Roman art is founded upon that of the Greeks; Roman sculpture is essentially the continuation and expansion of Greek sculpture.
Busts of emperors and other public figures were common throughout the Empire.
Bust of Augustus
Bust of Constantine
Triumphal Arch in Rome (Arch of Constantine)
Narrative Relief Sculpture on the Arch of Constantine
PAX ROMANA
Two types of Roman statues may be identified: the standing figure and mounted figure.
Equestrian Marcus Aurelius
Augustus of Prima Porta
LATE EMPIRE PERIOD
The foremost Roman statue of the Late Empire period is the enormous Colossus of Constantine. The head and limbs were carved from marble, while bronze plates on a wooden frame served as the body.Various marble parts survive, including most of the head.
Colossus of Constantine (head)
EARLY CHRISTIAN PERIOD
Early Christian sculptors mainly produced small works in stone, metal, and ivory.
Early Christian sculpture culminated in the form of sculpted sarcophagi.
*A
sarcophagus
is a coffin made from stone or stone-like material, e.g. ivory, terracotta.
Realism was somewhat subdued in Early Christian sculpture, as anatomy and posture were stiffened and stylized. This tendency reflects the unimportance of physical realism for conveying biblical characters and events.

Early Christian Sarcophagus
History of MesoAmerican Sculpture
Mesoamerican civilization began with the Olmec culture, which provided the cultural foundation of all subsequent Mesoamerican civilizations. Therefore made the Olmec as the mother culture of Mesoamerica, and basic familiarity with Olmec art serves as familiarity with Mesoamerican art generally.
The other most notable Mesoamerican culture (in terms of art history) is the Maya. Though not the most powerful civilization of the region, the Maya are widely considered to have lifted Mesoamerican art and architecture to its greatest heights.

-quite stylized , with simplified, curvilinear shapes.
- human and animal figures are common, as are hybrid creatures.
- Humans are often depicted with elaborate headdresses and jewellery.
-Olmec art has survived chiefly in the form of small figures and vessels sculpted from stone and clay.
- The most famous Olmec works are the colossal heads( enormous stone busts which stand over six feet high)
principal forms of Mesoamerican sculpture- stele
Stele- is an upright stone slab carved in relief.
Stele- fashioned by many cultures around the world as religious and civic monuments

Meso American Sculpture
MAYA PERIOD
-Mesoamerican sculpture culminated under the Maya, who worked extensively in stelae, figures, vessels, and architectural sculpture.
Maya Architectural Structure
Maya Stele
Maya Bird Vessel
Maya Figures
• Sculptures from this period were used not so beautiful because it was mainly used for rituals by the people during that time.
• Creating Sculptures during that time was really not the best form of art because it is easily destroyed and also because of the lack of tools and materials.
• Sculptures of this period are shaped based from human bodies, image of their gods and animals.

PRE HISTORIC SCULPTURE
Venus of Willendorf
25,000BC
Venus of Berekhat Ram
EGYPT SCULPTURE
• Egyptian sculptures were based from the Egyptians belief on Life after Death.
• They believe that the spirit of the person comes back to their statue after death. The images on statues were gods, kings and other rich and important people in Egypt.
• Large Statues signify that they are important members of the society. Examples: kings and nobles.
• Some statues are half human (head) and half animal (body). This symbolizes the intelligence of the human and the strength of the animal. Example: Sphinx

ABU SIMBLE TEMPLE
THE GREAT SPHINX OF GIZA
Mesopotamia Sculpture
• Sculptures during this period are mostly used for spiritual purposes. The statues represent their gods and represent the priests and worshippers.
• “These statues embodied the very essence of the worshipper so that the spirit would be present when the physical body was not.”
• The style and materials used for the statues vary depending on its ruler. Example: The Babylonians used brightly colored tiles in their reliefs.

Sumerian Art & Architecture
Standing female figure with clasped hands, Early Dynastic
IIIA, ca. 2600–2500 b.c.
Standing male worshipper, 2750–2600 b.c.;
Early Dynastic period II; Sumerian style
Philippine History of Sculpture
Before the Spaniards came, Ancient Filipinos had their own sculpture similar to the Egyptians which is called Frontal Nudity. The only difference between the two is their meaning and symbolism.
In the Philippines, Anitos were worshipped during the ancient times as gods, fairies and spirits of protection, rain and harvest. Among ifugaos, they had “Bulol” and it is considered as Ifugao’s granary god. It is a wooden sculpture in human form to assure a good harvest for the natives.
When the Spaniards came to our country, Anitos were transformed into sculpture of well-known saints. These sculpture of saints were mainly used in church altars and retablos. It also changes the Anitos in the altars of the native houses.
The earliest known sculptor in the Philippines is the 17th century sacristan, sculptor and silversmith Juan de los Santos (ca. 1590 – ca. 1660) of San Pablo, Laguna. A few of his extant works may be found at the San Agustin Convent Museum.

Except for Mr. de los Santos, there were other sculptors who were anonymous before the 19th century. But in the mid-19th century, simultaneous to the rise of ilustrados and the opening of the international trade, higher artistic standards were demanded from sculptors. A number of Filipino sculptors found fame such as Romualdo de Jesus, and Isabelo Tampinco

The second half of the 19th century, as travelling in the country considerably improved, saw a marked increase in the demand for non-religious souvenirs. Tipos del pais (human types of the country) sculptures, showing ordinary people doing various everyday works and wearing their local costumes, became the favourite.

The inclusion of sculpture in the Academia de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado de Manila’s curriculum in 1879 formalized training in sculpture. Known sculptors during this time were Bonifacio Arevalo, Graciano Nepomuceno, Marcelo Nepomuceno, and Anselmo Espiritu.

Philippine National Hero Jose P. Rizal was a sculptor. He took up woodcarving lessons from Romualdo de Jesus and Paete master carver Jose Caancan.

Mother's Revenge
Oyang Dapitana
Paete, a small woodcarving town in Laguna, Southern Luzon, produced the finest santo carvers during this period. The most prominent name is Mariano Madriñan who won a gold medal in the 1883 Amsterdam Exposition for his Mater Dolorosa (Sorrowful Mother).
Classical Philippine Sculpture reached its peak in the works of Guillermo Tolentino (1890 – 1976). His best known masterpiece is the Bonifacio Monument, which is a group of sculpture composed of numerous figures massed around a central obelisk. The principal figure is Andres Bonifacio, leader of the revolution against spain in 1896.The bonifacio monument completed in 1933 marked the apex of Tolentino’s Cancer
Bonifacio Monument
Edsa Shrine
Lapu Lapu Shrine
Rizal Park
Those whose peak of activity can be situated somewhere between the 1970’s (the advent of postmodernism) and the present day.

Artists on this list meet the following criteria
1. The person is regarded as an important figure or is widely cited by his/her peers or successors
2. The person is known for originating a significant new concept, theory or technique
3. The person has created, or played a major role in co-creating, a significant or well-known work, or collective body of work, that has been the subject of an independent book of feature – length film, or of multiple independent periodical articles or reviews
4. The person’s work either (a) has become significant monument, (b) has a substantial part of a significant exhibition, (c) has won significant critical attention, or (d) is represented within the permanent collections of notable galleries or museums or had work in many significant libraries


Artists created environmental sculpture on expansive sites in the 'land art in the American West' group of projects. Also during the 1960s and 1970s artists explored abstraction, imagery and figuration through video art, environment, light sculpture, and installation art in new ways.

Contemporary Sculpture
Minimalism
Tony Smith, Free Ride
Richard Serra, Fulcrum
Post Minimalism
Anish Kapoor, Turning the World Upside Down
Some modern sculpture forms are now practiced outdoors as environmental sculpture, often in full view of spectators. Light sculpture and site-specific art also often make use of the environment. Ice sculpture is a form of ephemeral sculpture that uses ice as the raw material. It is popular in China, Japan, Canada, Sweden, and Russia. Ice sculptures feature decoratively in some cuisines, especially in Asia. Kinetic sculptures are sculptures that are designed to move, which include mobiles.
The Spire of Dublin officially titled the Monument of Light
Sculpture was not a natural form of expression for the early Christians. This was because one of the Ten Commandments forbids the making of graven (carved) images. Many early Christians interpreted this commandment, just as the Hebrews had, to mean that it was wrong to make any images of the human figure. Eventually church authorities decided that art could serve Christianity. It was only the making of idols (false gods) that was regarded as a breach of the commandment.
Early Christian And Byzantine Sculpture
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:
The sculptures have no special connection with the particular deceased, but were related to conceptions of death and the future life.
Sculptors represented these prayers upon the sarcophagi by carving the vey scenes from the Old Testament.

Non-religious sculpture for some time varied but little in its technique and themes from that of the pagan period.

Art continued its earlier traditions, and the Byzantine emperors followed in the footsteps of the emperors at Rome. Triumphal arches and columns and statues were decorated and erected in a style that shows a continuous decadence.
During 17th and 18th, marble came to be used less and less as the favorite material, while metal increased its vogue.

Sacrophagi
MATERIALS AND SOURCES.
Great varieties of materials were employed. Marble served mainly for the sepulchral monuments and for the carved sarcophagi in the catacombs, and in the cemeteries above ground.

Internally, stucco work was employed very successfully to decorate walls or ceilings.
SUBJECTS.

Symbolism played such an important part in the art of the early Christian period that it is not surprising to find that it permeates sculpture so thoroughly.

Inanimate symbols were employed

Dove as the symbol of the soul
(Animal as Symbol)
Constantinian Monogram
(Inanimate symbols were employed)
Statue of Heraclius
Gattamelata
-1st large scale equestrian
statue
-made out of bronze
Saint Mark
Saint George
High Renaissance
-Apex of classical balance, harmony and restraint
Michelangelo
-was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer
-Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with his fellow Italian Leonardo da Vinci.
Pieta
- Michelangelo
-is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture by Michelangelo Buonarroti, housed in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City.
-This famous work of art depicts the body of Jesus on the lap of his mother Mary after the Crucifixion.
-It is an important work as it balances the Renaissance ideals of classical beauty with naturalism.
David
Bearded Slave
Moses
Late Renaissance
-Measure of complexity & dynamism
*MANNERISM - distorted Anatomy
Giambologna
Architettura
- influential ideal
female type
Hercules and Nessus
Rape of the Sabine Women
Samson Slaying a Philistine
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