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AP Bio. Chapter 46

Animal Reproduction
by Isabelle Neylan on 25 March 2011

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Transcript of AP Bio. Chapter 46

Ch. 46
Animal Reproduction Asexual Reproduction- creation of new individuals whose genes all come from one parent without the fusion of egg and sperm
Budding-
new individuals arise from outgrowths of existing ones Fragmentation-
the breaking of the body into several peices, some of which
will develop into complete adults (accompanied by regeneration,
the regrowth of lost body parts) Examples Also Parthenogenesis-
process in which an egg develops without being fertilized
(produce haploid offspring) Hermaphroditism-
each individual has both male and female reproductive systems (use self and cross-fertilization) Sequential Hermaphroditism-
an individual reverses its sex during its lifetime Sexual Reproduction- the creation of offspring by the fusion of haploid gametes to form a zygote gametes-
haploid cell zygote-
fertilized egg, diploid egg (ovum)-
female gamete, large and nonmotile sperm-
male gamete, small and motile Fertilization-
the union of sperm and egg external fertilization-
eggs released by female into a a wet environment, where they are fertilized by the male Internal fertilization-
sperm are deposited in or near the female reproductive tract and fertilization occurs within the tract enormous number of zygotes, proportion that survive very low fewer zygotes, more energy put into protection and care of the embryos (tough egg shells, development within reproductive tract) Gonad-
organs that produce gametes in most animals (whiptail lizard) Humans Males Testes-
the male gonads Seminiferous tubules-
highly coiled tubes surrounded by several layers of connective tissue, where sperm are formed Leydig cells-
scattered between seminiferous tubules, produce testosterone and other androgens Scrotum-
hold testes outside of abdominal cavity, a fold of the body wall Epididymis-
coiled tubules where sperm mature Vas deferens-
two ducts (one from each epididymis) that run from the scrotum around and behind the urinary bladder where each joins a duct from the seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct-
the convergence of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicle, transports sperm from the vas deferens to the urethra Urethra-
tube that drains both excretory system and the reproductive system Semen-
the fluid that is ejaculated Seminal Vesicles-
(two) contribute about 60% of the total volume of semen, fluid excreted is thick, yellowish, and alkaline, contains mucus, fructose, a coagulating enzyme, ascorbic acid, and prostaglandins Prostate gland-
largest semen-secreting gland, secretes directly into urethra through several small glands, fluid is thin and milky, contains anticoagulant enzymes and citrate, causes medical problems for men over 40 Bulbourethral glands-
pair of small glands along the urethra below the prostate, secrete clear mucus that neutralizes any acidic urine left in the urethra Penis-
three cylinders of spongy erectile tissue derived from modified veins and capillaries Baculum-
bone that is contained in, and helps stiffen, the penis (not in humans) Glans penis-
the head of the penis Prepuce-
foreskin, fold of skin that covers the glans Females Gross Anatomy Ovaries-
female gonads Oviduct (Fallopian tube)-
tube passing from the ovaries to the uterus, has funnel-shaped opening and cilia lining the inside to help move the egg Uterus (womb)-
thick, muscular organ that can expand during pregnancy Endometrium-
lining of the uterus Cervix-
neck of the uterus, opens into the vagina Vagina-
thin-walled chamber that is the repository for sperm during copulation and the birth canal Vulva-
collective term for the external female genetalia Hymen-
thin peice of tissue that partly covers the vaginal opening in humans Vestibule-
a recess where the vaginal and urethral openings are located Labia minora-
pair of slender skin folds that border the vestibule Labia majora-
pair of thick, fatty ridges that enclose and protect the labia minora and vestibule Clitoris-
at the front edge of the vestibule, a short shaft supporting a rounded glans, or head, covered by a small hood of skin, the prepuce Bartholin's glands-
located near vaginal opening, secrete mucus into the vestibule keeping it lubricated and facilitating intercourse Gametogenesis Spermatogenesis Oogenesis Estous cycle-
in all female mammals except higher primates, nonpregnant endometrium is reabsorbed and sexual response occurs only during mid-cycle at estrus Estrus-
period of sexual activity associated with ovulation Menstrual cycle-
in higher female primates, nonpregnant endometrium is shed as a bloody discharge through the cervix into the vagina Menstruation-
the shedding of portions of the endometrium during a uterine (menstrual) cycle Ovarian Cycle 1. release of GnRH by the hypothalmus 2. GnHR stimulates the pituitary to secrete small amounts of FSH and LH 3. FSH stimulates follicle growth aided by LH 4. cells of the growing follicle make estrogen 5. FSH and LH levels shoot up sharply when secretion of estrogen increases by the follicle, (estrogen stimulates the secretion of GnHR) 6. Increase in LH induces final maturation of the follicle 7. The follicle and adjacent wall of the ovary rupture releasing a secondary oocyte (ovulation) Follicular Phase 8. LH stimulates the transformation of the follicular tissue left behind in the ovary to become the corpus luteum which secretes progesterone and estrogen that block the secretion of FSH and LH Luteal Phase Uterine (Menstrual) Cycle 9. After ovulation, estrogen and progesterone secreted by the corpus luteum stimulate continued development and maintenance of the endometrium 10. The rapid drop in ovarian hormones when the corpus luteum disintegrates causes the endometrium to be deprived of blood resulting in menstruation Secretory Phase Menstrual Flow Phase Proliferative phase (uterine cycle) Menopause-
the cessation of ovulation and menstruation, after about 450 cycles Hormonal control of the testes Pregnancy Gestation (pregnancy)-
the condition of carrying one or more embryos in the uterus Conception-
fertilization of an egg by a sperm (in humans),
occurs in oviduct Cleavage-
zygote begins to divide mitotically Blastocyst-
a sphere of cells containing a cavity Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-
acts like pituitary LH to maintain secretion of progesterone and estrogen by the corpus luteum for the first few months of pregnancy First Trimester -endometrium grows over the blastocyst
-differentiation begins
-placenta formed
-organogenesis
-zygote becomes fetus at around 8 weeks
-increased mucus in the cervix forms protective plug
-uterus enlarges
-ovulation and menstrual cycling ceases
-breasts enlarge Trophoblast-
outer layer of the blastocyst Placenta-
a disk-shaped organ containing both embryonic and maternal blood vessels, grows to about the size of a dinner plate, provides nutrients, exchanges respiratory gases, and disposes of metabolic waste for the embryo Fetus-
embryo after about 8 weeks Second Trimester -fetus grows and becomes active
-placenta completely takes over production of progesterone as the corpus luteum disintegrates
-HCG level declines and hormones stabalize Third Trimester -fetus continues to grow, but is less active
-mother's abdominal organs compressed
-labor begins (involving estrogen, oxytocin, and prostaglandins) and results
in birth Labor-
the process by which childbirth (parturition) occurs Birth Control Reproductive Technology Assisted reproductive technology (ART)-
generally involve surgical removal of eggs, fertilization of the eggs, and then returning them into the woman in vitro fertilization (IVF)-
most common ART procedure, oocytes mixed with sperm in culture dishes and incubated for several days then returned to the woman's uterus Estrogen from ovaries induces oxytocin receptors on uterus Oxytocin from fetus and mother's posterior pituitary stimulates uterus to contract stimulates placenta to make Prostaglandins stimulate more contractions of the uterus + + Multiple Choice Questions 1. Storage and maturation of human sperm occur in the
a. epididymis
b. interstitial cells
c.seminiferous tubules
d. Sertoli cells
e. vas deferens 2. Oogenesis in humans begins
a. during embryonic development
b. at birth
c. at puberty
d. monthly during the menstrual cycle
e. at fertilization 3. The function of the acrysome in the sperm head is to
a. provide ATP for flagellar movements
b. control DNA replication in the sperm
c. store enzymes for penetrating the egg during fertilization
d. enclose the genetic material
e. provides energy molecules for glycolytic reactions Answers
1. a
2. a
3. c Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. Preparing for the Biology AP Exam with Biology, Seventh Edition. San Fransico, Ca.: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings, 2005. Print.

Campbell, Neil A. Biology. [S.l.]: Benjamin-Cummings, 2005. Print.

Pack, Phillip E. CliffsAP Biology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Pub., 2007. Print.
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