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John Krumboltz's Social Learning Theory of Career Development
Transcript of John Krumboltz's Social Learning Theory of Career Development
Social Learning Theory of Career Development (SLTCD and LTCC) by Kimberly Ball Davis
University of St. Thomas
EDUC 5359 Dr. Roman Alvarez Illustrations by Mat Moore
email@example.com FOCUS EXPLAIN Whole Student Social and
Emotional Health Lead by Example ""What will happen to babies like this? Will they become criminals or law abiding citizens? Will they become plumbers, accountants, politicians, tree surgeons, or musicians? Will they marry, divorce, or remain single? Will they be gay or straight? Will they adopt or reject the religious beliefs of Catholics, Presbyterians, or Muslims?" (Krumboltz, 2009) Pay Attention to Details Bandura's Social Learning Theory Listen Did this mom know her baby would grow up to be a teacher, just like her? Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making (Krumboltz, 1976) has evolved into The Learning Theory of Careers Counselling (Mitchell and Krumboltz, 1996).The two theories cover a twenty year span, but they could be considered as one theory, part one and part two. Part one explains how people choose their career and part two explains how career counselors can address career related problems. (Bimrose, 2004) Social Learning Theory of Career Development Developed to answer 3 questions. Focus of SLTCDM So what does this mean exactly? It means our personal experiences and the people who surround us, both influence how we choose our careers. The places we live, the careers of people we know, things we have overheard about different careers, all play a role in guiding us to make a decision about our career. Associative Learning Experiences
"Associative learning experiences occur from observing the environment or the behavior of others with its consequences. Children can make judgements about which of the multiple behaviors they observe they wish to emulate."
(Krumboltz, 2009) Environmental Conditions and Events
-These are generally outside the control of an individual. Their influence can be planned or unplanned. They are social, cultural, and political; economic forces, natural forces and natural resources. (Bimrose, 2004) Key Ideas from this theory:
-The ultimate goal of career counselling is creating satisfying lives, not just making a decision
-Tests should be used to stimulate learning, not just match;
-Practitioners should get clients to engage in exploratory action;
-Open-mindedness should be celebrated, not discouraged
-Benifits should be maximized from unplanned events
-LIFELONG learning is essential
(Bimrose, 2004) Applications for the REAL WORLD
"According to Krumboltz, career counseling should not end when a person has decided on a course of action. Rather, the person will need to look for a job, perhaps experience rejection, deal with positive and negative aspects of job, and have to deal with new unforeseen problems and possible crises that may arise in following through on a plan of action. Krumboltz believes that counselors should follow up with their clients as they implement their job hunting or changing." (Sharf, 2010) The REAL WORLD - for who?
Who does this work for best?
Although culturally diverse populations pose influences, such as some cultures valuing some occupations over others, some valuing education more than others, (Sharf, 2010) I don't feel those are the biggest influences.
Socio-economic factors will most hinder the applications of this theory. Best Results-
Clients who are openminded in what they want their future to be would be most successful in Social Learning Theory. Ultimate Goal of SLTCD
The goal is for Counselors to use goal clarification, be able to address troubling beliefs, and use cognitive rehearsal (Sharf, 2010) to help clients be aware of needs, not just immediate needs, but throughout their lives. All of these factors are instrumental in deciding a career. How do we take this information about our environmental factors and relate it to career counseling? Imperfect World
Social justice is not perfect. Some are born with in a peaceful world with food in their mouths, some are not. How did you choose what you wanted to be when you grew up??? "A new-born infant is a miracle... The happenstance events that led to the father and mother meeting could never have been predicted in advance. Yet here is this baby, beginning its adventures on Planet Earth, endowed with the DNA from countless unknown ancestors dating back to the dawn of history." (Krumboltz, 2009) Introduction: "Over the course of my lifetime so far, I personally have been employed as a garderner, magazine sales person, chauffeur, farmer, drill press operator, aluminum foundry worker, cereal packager, railroad loader, elevator operator, chemist's assistant, pancake tester, book publisher's assistant, tennis coach, camp counselor, career counselor, high school counselor, algebra teacher, military officer, test construction specialist, research psychologist, professor, and author. I did not, and never could have, predicted this pattern of employment. And who knows what I will do next?" (Krumboltz, 2009) Copyright Don't
Learning! Licensed for Creative Commons
Attibution Non-Commercial Share Alike like Preparing for your future. At the heart of Krumboltz's thinking is Bandura's theory. There are three major types of learning experiences Bandura identified. The three types are:
Instrumental: results from experiences that have had positive or punitive outcomes from their own behaviors
Associative: when a person associates a nuetral experience with one with and one with highly emotional one
Vicarious: being able to learn from others by observing and gaining new information through different mediums (Krumboltz, 1994) Would you have predicted this boy would grow up to be an electrical engineer, just like his dad? John Krumboltz Bing Images "Dr. John D. Krumboltz is living proof of the extraordinary life journey open to those who embrace opportunity. As a youngster his inability to choose a career caused him much stress. More constructively, it sparked a lifelong exploration of how learning experiences influence people’s career decisions.Undecided about a major, Krumboltz enrolled at Coe College in his hometown of Cedar Rapids. He joined the Air Force ROTC and qualified for the varsity tennis team. As “luck” would have it, the tennis coach was also a professor of psychology.On his advice, John declared a psychology major. Becoming a guidance counselor appealed to him. “I’d heard that counselors had tests that could tell people what their ideal occupation was,” he explains. “I figured I could counsel myself on my future occupation.” It was a tidy but unrealistic notion. After earning his master’s degree he worked as a counselor and taught algebra in Waterloo, Iowa. As the complexities of effective guidance became apparent, so did his dissatisfaction with the non directive
counseling he’d been trained to provide." (Impact Publishers, 2004) This theory teaches in the concept of the 'triadic reciprocal interaction' which states learning is the result of interaction with environment and genetics, and emphasizes the instrumental and associative learning. The focus of Krumboltz's theory is to teach clients alternatives to a traditional path in making a career decision.(Brimrose, 2004) Making Choices 1. Why people enter particular educational course or jobs
2. Why they may change direction during their lives
3. Why they may express various preferences for different activities at different points in their lives (Krumboltz, 1994) Why Do
Behave the Way
They Do? The influential factors are:
-Instrumental Learning Experiences
-Associative Learning Experiences
-Environmental Conditions and Events
-Parents and Caretakers
-Structured Educational Settings
(Krumboltz, 2004) Genetic Factors
-physical appearance an characteristics
-music (Mitchell & Krumboltz, 1996) Learning Experiences
"Learning is happening all the time an individual is conscious. ...we notice the dress, grooming, and behavior of other people whether we intend to or not." (Krumboltz, 2009) Instrumental Learning Experiences
"Instrumental learning experiences occur when individuals observe the consequences of their own actions. These consequences include verbal or physical feedback from other individuals. Feedback may be negative or positive." (Krumboltz, 2009) Parents and Caretakers
"Depending on how children are treated, they quickly learn whether the world is a safe or dangerous place to live." (Krumboltz, 2009) Structured Educational Setting
Educational settings should ideally be a place where students begin their livelong love of learning. Because the systems are structured in such a competive way, this may not happen. (Krumboltz, 2004) "1. People need to expand their capabilities and interests, and not base decision on existing characteristics only.
2. People need to prepare for changing work tasks, and not assume that occupations will remain stable.
3. People need to be empowered to take action, not merely given a diagnosis.
(Sharf, 2010) "According to Krumboltz, career counseling should not end when a person has decided on a course of action. Rather, the person will need to look for a job, perhaps experience rejection, deal with positive and negative aspects of a job, and have to deal with new unforeseen proplems and possible crises that may arise following through on a plan of cation. Krumboltz believes that it is the counselor's role to help the individual take action, as well as decide on a course of action." (Sharf, 2010) Peer Groups
Children learn from those around them. By the time they are at the age of five, they have already aquired many skills from observing their peers. They have watched kids share, bully, yell, cooperate, have praise and have condemnation. They are learning minute by minute how to use their verbal skills and have social skills. Whether they are appropriate or not. Linear Thinkers
Linear thinkers, or logical positivists will have a difficult time when counselors use this theory of social development in the therapy setting. Linear thinker do best when subjected to concrete information, rather than abstract. This would be helpful in Holland's theory because the use of an inventory gives solid information the linear thinker could translate into concrete information. SLTCD on the other hand, is a proponent of "going through the motions" in the therapy setting. One way to help the linear/logical thinker to be able to adjust would be to give the client concrete tasks to accomplish.
For example; keep record of everything I do that I get satisfaction from
-ask mother how she happened to get her job
-schedule one appointment to interview someone in a career they are interested in
-brainstorm search actions that are likely to get a job offer Resources
Bimrose, J. (2004) Learning Theory of Careers Choice & Couseling. National Guidance Research Forum, Unviversity of Warwick. Retrieved from
Krumboltz, J.D. (1994) Improving Career Development from a Social Learning Perspective. Convergence in Career Development Theories, 9-31.
Mitchell, L.K. & Krumboltz, J.D. (1996). Krumboltz's learning theory of career choice and counseling. Career Choice and Development. 3rd Ed., 223-280.
Krumboltz, J.D. (2004) Luck is no accident: making the most in your life and career. Atascadero, CA: Impact Publishers
Krumboltz, J.D. (1993) Integrating career and personal counseling. Career Development Quarterly, 42, 143-148
Krumboltz, J.D. (2009) The Happenstance Learning Theory. Journal of Career Assessment. 17, 135-145
Sharf, R.S. (2010) Applying Career Development Theory to Counseling. Krumboltz's Social Learning Theory. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning, Belmont, CA.
Images retrieved Nov. 1, 2012 from http://www.bingimages.com
Tibmanus (2010, Feb. 7). Sheldon Looking for a Job. (video file) Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SP8tTGfm4jU Schmidt, S. (2007, Jul. 22) Chandler's Job Interview. (video file) Retrieved from