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Copy of Copy of Intelligence Testing

Angelica Cordenas and Dara Tynefield 319 presentation
by Dara Tynefield on 2 May 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Intelligence Testing

Intelligence Testing What Is Intelligence? Intelligence operationally defined, is the aggregate
or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully,
to think rationally and to deal effectively with his
environment. - David Wechsler “The measure of intelligence is the ability to change.” - Albert Einstein “The highest form of human intelligence is to observe yourself without judgment.”- Jiddu Krishnamurti The G Factor •General Intelligence
•Charles Spearman
•Related to Learning Ability
•Common to All Mental Abilities Common to all mental abilities
•Large Part of IQ
•G Does Not Predict Everything Psychometric View of Intelligence “It has yet to be proven that intelligence has any survival value.” - Arthur C. Clarke “Madness is the acme of intelligence.” - Naguib Mahfouz “An intelligence test sometimes shows a man how smart he would have been not to have taken it.”- Laurence J. Peter •School success
•Income and managing money
•Prescriptions and medical instruction
•Accidents and health
•Using computers and other digital devices
•Reading bus or train schedules
•Filling out government or employment forms
•Vocational choice
•Job success
•Basic life decisions •Based on a subset of the mental abilities that relate to everyday intelligence
•Scores rank a person relative to other peopleGood Measure of General Ability
•Scores Predict Success in Many •Aspects of Life
Education Level
Income
Job Performance
HealthoMortality IQ Tests Life Areas Where G Matters What Do IQ Score Actually Mean? High Score= the person knew the answer
Low scores= the person didn’t know the answer
Many possible reasons for not knowing the answer
•Never were taught it
•Never learned it on your own
•Learned it but forgot it a long time ago
•Learned it but forgot it during the test
•Were taught it but couldn’t learn it
•Didn’t know how to reason it out
•Knew it, but couldn’t reason it out •Robert Sternberg
•3 Kinds of Intelligence
Analytic
Creative
Practical
Is G really important? •Exceptional Skill
Geniuses with low IQs
Very specific abilities with little or any G
Powerful independent
Specific versus general mental abilities Savants •Howard Gardner
•Different Specific Modalities
•9 multiple intelligences
•The G-Factor is unnecessary
•Intelligence Instead of Ability or Skill
•Traditional Use of Intelligence as Too Narrow
•Lack of Empirical Support Theory of Multiple Intelligences Sternberg's Theory of Practical Intelligence Intelligence and Social Context •Richard Nisbett
•Genes don’t count for much
•Social context determines IQ
•Schools and education make a big difference in IQ
•Social and cultural factors influence test scores History of Intelligence Testing- WAIS History of Intelligence Testing- WAIS •1930s- 11 Subtests
1937 Revision of the Stanford- Binet Test
The Army Group Examinations- Picture
ArrangementsKoh’s Block Design- Block
DesignArmy Alpha- Information
ComprehensionArmy Beta- Digit Symbol
CodingHealy Picture Completion- Picture Completion
Pinther-Paterson Test- Objec Assembly
1939- Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale •WAIS 1955
•WAIS-R 1981
•WAIS-III 1997
•WAIS-IV 2008 •Binet Simon Scale
•Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale
•Army Alpha Testing
•Army Beta Testing
•Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT)
•Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Types of Intelligence Testing Reliability •High Reliabilities •Small Band of Error•High Degree of Temporal Stability•Improved Performance Due to RetestingIncrease in PointsPractice Effects Validity •Extensive Validity Studies for the WAIS-III Limitations Assets •Vast Research Base
•Easy to Administer
•Adequate Norms
•WAIS Conormed With the WMS-IV
•Extended Age Range
•Clear, Precise Data Regarding Individual’s Cognitive Functioning
•Aids in Assessing Personality Variables •Lack of Data Supporting Ecological Validity
•Norms May Not Be Applicable for Ethnic Minorities
•Complexity of Scoring
•Supplementary Subtests
•Degree of Subjectivity When Scoring
•Limited to the Scope of Measurement Use With Diverse Groups •Academic Predictions
•Same Construct
•Tests Versus Unequal Opportunities General Guidelines for Clinicians General Guidelines Contd. •Evaluate client’s level of acculturation and language proficiency
•High Degree of Flexibility
•Different Accommodations and Strategies
•Always Consider Biases Use of Wechsler With Minority Groups in the U.S. •Insure Clients’ Comfort
•Increase Motivation
•Clear Communication
•External Resources •Use of Subtests for Language or Cultural Differences
•Deemphasize Speeded Tests
•Be Cautious Interpreting PRI<VCI Differences
•Be Cautious Interpreting VCI<PRI Differences
•Use of Alternative Nonverbal Tests
•Greater Reliance on Auditory or Verbal Subtests Use of WAIS in Institutions Mental Age WAIS IV Subtests Pros and Cons of Intelligence Testing Administration and Scoring Find picture Cancellation
supplemental subtest of Processing Speed Index demonstration of practical knowledge
knowledge of conventional standards
evaluate past experience, proper selection, organization and emphasis of facts and relationships
abstract thinking and generalization
social maturity, social judgment, common sense, judgment in practical social situations
grasp of social milieu (ie moral codes, social rules, regulations)
reality awareness, understanding and alertness to the day to day world. Comprehension
Supplemental Subtests of the Verbal Comprehension Scale logical abstract reasoning
verbal concept formation
distinguishing essential and non essential details
associative ability with language facility

“In what way are an orange and a banana alike?” Similarities
Subtests of the Verbal Comprehension Scale Wechsler-Bellevue 1939
Wechsler-Bellevue II 1946
WAIS 1955
WAIS-R 1981
WAIS-III 1997
WAIS-IV 2008
WAIS: A Historical Perspective “The fact that intelligence has been and can be defined in many ways need not overwhelm us nor impel us to the view, sometimes advanced, that the term is best abandoned because “nobody knows what intelligence is.” Actually, we know much more about intelligence than about practically any other subject in psychology.”
- David ‘Wex’ Wechsler Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Angelica Cardenas
Dara Tynefield Intelligence Testing
Santa Clara University
CPSY Clinical Assessment II Psychomotor speed
Ability to follow directions
Clerical speed and accuracy
Visual acuity
Ability to learn an an unfamiliar task
Flexibility, sequencing
Associative learning and ability to imitate newly learned visual material Coding
core subtest of Processing Speed Index Auditory short term memory
Sequencing ability
Concentration Example:  A - 7 - X - 2 - M - 4
Response: 2, 4, 7, 1, M, X Letter Number Sequencing
supplemental subtest of Working Memory Scale Arithmetic
Computational skill
Auditory short term memory
Sequencing ability
Numerical reasoning
Concentration
Reality contact and mental alertness Digit Span
immediate recall
reversibility
concentration and attention
auditory sequencing
rote learning Digit Span and Arithmetic
Core subtests of Working Memory Scale visual special reasoning
abstract reasoning
visual organization
simultaneous processing of visospatial information
analysis of wholes into component parts Matrix Reasoning
perceptual reasoning scale Analysis of whole into component parts
Spatial visualization
Nonverbal concept formation
Visuomotr coordination and perceptual organization
Capacity for sustained effort concentration
Visual motor spatial coordination; manipulative and perceptual speed. Block Design
perceptual reasoning scale range of general factual knowledge
old learning or schooling
intellectual curiosity
long term memory

“On what continent is Brazil? How many months in a year? Name three kinds of blood vessels in the human body?” Information
Subtests of the Verbal Comprehension Scale language development
word knowledge
general verbal intelligence
language use and accumulated verbal learning ability
rough measure of optimal intellectual efficiency
educational background
range of subjects ideas, experiences or interest
“I want you to tell me the meaning of some words. Let’s start with _______; what does _____ mean?” Vocabulary
Subtests of the Verbal Comprehension Scale individually administered
composite intelligent tests in battery format
provides a Full Scale IQ as well as index scores of different intellectual abilities via wide ranging subtests
most used psychological test
known to be among the best psychological assessment
adult version (WAIS) and a children’s version (WAIC) WAIS Overview “Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”
Global because it characterizes individual’s
behavior as a whole
Aggregate because it is composed of elements or abilities that are qualitatively differentiable

Wechsler, 1939 On Intelligence Testing Picture Completion
supplemental subtests of Perceptual Reasoning Scale Which one of these goes here to balance the scale? Figure Weights
supplemental subtests of Perceptual Reasoning Scale Which 3 of these pieces go together to make this puzzle? visual recognition and identification
perception of the parts in relation to the whole
analysis of wholes into component parts
capacity for sustained visual effort; concentration
fluid reasoning
visual spatial reasoning Visual Puzzles
perceptual reasoning scale “The measure of intelligence is the ability to change.”- Albert Einstein "The test of a first-rate intelligence is the ability to hold two opposed ideas in the mind at the same time, and still retain the ability to function.”- F. Scott Fitzgerald “The highest form of human intelligence is to observe yourself without judgment.” - Jiddu Krishnamurti “It has yet to be proven that intelligence has any survival value.” - Arthur C. Clarke “Madness is the acme of intelligence.”- Naguib Mahfouz General Ability
Mental Abilities Related to Everyday Functioning Kim Peek Alonzo Clemons Derek Paravicini Mental Age Administration and Scoring Pros and Cons of Intelligence Testing Psychomotor speed
Ability to follow directions
Clerical speed and accuracy
Visual acuity
Ability to learn an an unfamiliar task
Flexibility, sequencing
Associative learning and ability to imitate newly learned visual material Coding
core subtest of Processing Speed Index range of general factual knowledge
old learning or schooling
intellectual curiosity
long term memory

“On what continent is Brazil? How many months in a year? Name three kinds of blood vessels in the human body?” Information
Subtests of the Verbal Comprehension Scale language development
word knowledge
general verbal intelligence
language use and accumulated verbal learning ability
rough measure of optimal intellectual efficiency
educational background
range of subjects ideas, experiences or interest
“I want you to tell me the meaning of some words. Let’s start with _______; what does _____ mean?” Vocabulary
Subtests of the Verbal Comprehension Scale logical abstract reasoning
verbal concept formation
distinguishing essential and non essential details
associative ability with language facility

“In what way are an orange and a banana alike?” Similarities
Subtests of the Verbal Comprehension Scale WAIS IV Subtests Wechsler in 1958 “[The grouping of subtests into Verbal and Performance areas]…does not imply that these are the only abilities involved in the tests…The subtests are different measures of intelligence, not measures of different kinds of intelligence, and the dichotomy of Verbal and Performance areas is only one of several ways in which the tests could be grouped.”
The measurement and appraisal of adult intelligence. (pg 64) Wechsler-Bellevue 1939
Wechsler-Bellevue II 1946
WAIS 1955
WAIS-R 1981
WAIS-III 1997
WAIS-IV 2008
WAIS: A Historical Perspective individually administered
composite intelligent tests in battery format
provides a Full Scale IQ as well as index scores of different intellectual abilities via wide ranging subtests
most used psychological test
known to be among the best psychological assessment
adult version (WAIS) and a children’s version (WAIC) WAIS Overview “Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment.”
Global because it characterizes individual’s
behavior as a whole
Aggregate because it is composed of elements or abilities that are qualitatively differentiable

Wechsler, 1939 On Intelligence Testing “The fact that intelligence has been and can be defined in many ways need not overwhelm us nor impel us to the view, sometimes advanced, that the term is best abandoned because “nobody knows what intelligence is.” Actually, we know much more about intelligence than about practically any other subject in psychology.”
- David ‘Wex’ Wechsler Auditory short term memory
Sequencing ability
Concentration Example:  A - 7 - X - 2 - M - 4
Response: 2, 4, 7, 1, M, X Letter Number Sequencing
supplemental subtest of Working Memory Scale Arithmetic
Computational skill
Auditory short term memory
Sequencing ability
Numerical reasoning
Concentration
Reality contact and mental alertness Digit Span
immediate recall
reversibility
concentration and attention
auditory sequencing
rote learning Digit Span and Arithmetic
Core subtests of Working Memory Scale visual special reasoning
abstract reasoning
visual organization
simultaneous processing of visospatial information
analysis of wholes into component parts Matrix Reasoning
perceptual reasoning scale Analysis of whole into component parts
Spatial visualization
Nonverbal concept formation
Visuomotr coordination and perceptual organization
Capacity for sustained effort concentration
Visual motor spatial coordination; manipulative and perceptual speed. Block Design
perceptual reasoning scale demonstration of practical knowledge
knowledge of conventional standards
evaluate past experience, proper selection, organization and emphasis of facts and relationships
abstract thinking and generalization
social maturity, social judgment, common sense, judgment in practical social situations
grasp of social milieu (ie moral codes, social rules, regulations)
reality awareness, understanding and alertness to the day to day world. Comprehension
Supplemental Subtests of the Verbal Comprehension Scale Picture Completion
supplemental subtests of Perceptual Reasoning Scale Which one of these goes here to balance the scale? Figure Weights
supplemental subtests of Perceptual Reasoning Scale Which 3 of these pieces go together to make this puzzle? visual recognition and identification
perception of the parts in relation to the whole
analysis of wholes into component parts
capacity for sustained visual effort; concentration
fluid reasoning
visual spatial reasoning Visual Puzzles
perceptual reasoning scale Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Cancellation
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