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AQA Higher English Language GCSE Reading Paper

A reminder of the technique needed for each question
by Mr Dean Colston's English on 26 April 2013

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Transcript of AQA Higher English Language GCSE Reading Paper

Source 2
 The word ‘they’ used before the reader knows what ‘they’ are – mystery, curiosity and tension are the effects.

 There are a number of descriptive words and phrases about the jellyfish which evoke a repulsive, grotesque creature in the reader’s mind, repulsive and attracting at the same time: They are 6ft wide, 200 kg in weight, and pink, slimy and repellent. Also descriptions like: rubber monsters from a Godzilla film, authentic horror of the deep.

 Unusual words are also effectively used to describe this unusual jellyfish: armada of the behemoths, poisoned and be- slimed, slimy plague. These words also relate to the ideas of an army, attacking, destroying, spreading destruction as well as being physically revolting. This shocks the reader at the same time as being entertaining.

 There is also the language of facts in the text. This adds authenticity to the article and shows the serious side of the effects of the jellyfish.

 The article ends on a humorous note. The idea of jellyfish ice cream is bizarre and revolting and the detail that it is
‘slightly chewy’ engages the taste buds of the reader but the effect of the words is probably revolting.

NB
 Candidates need to take these, and /or similar examples and effects and compare their uses in the contexts presented by the writers.
 Candidates may include comments about person, tense and devices but these need to be tied to language and their effects explained for higher marks. Q4: Peer Assess Source 3
 The language in the text describes a possibly serious encounter in a humorous way.

 Instantly every neuron in my brain was awake and dashing around frantically like ants when you disturb their nest:
this describes the thoughts of panic and alarm rushing around his head with a vivid simile which readers can relate to and will find clever and amusing. Ants scurry about mindlessly when disturbed. Neuron,dashing around, might be
picked out for comment.

 Once a skunk had come plodding through our camp and it had sounded like a stegosaurus: Another amusing simile – a skunk is a small animal and a stegosaurus a huge dinosaur; the juxtaposition, hyperbole, exaggeration of the sound of a harmless creature compared with a giant killer is amusing.

 It was a perfectly respectable appliance for, say, buttering pancakes, but patently inadequate for defending oneself against 400 pounds of ravenous fur: This description of his knife is humorous and effective because of the contrast between homely pancakes and a wild 400 pounds of fur. The effect is that the reader realises the ridiculous, comic
and yet potentially serious and deadly situation.

 The description of Stephen’s character adds to the humour of the situation. He is as unconcerned as Bill is worried and offers sarcastic remarks and suggestions: 'What are you doing?' 'I'm moving my tent.'

 'Oh, good plan. That'll really confuse it.' The reader can enjoy the understatement, irony and two points of view of the Q4: Peer Assess Compare the ways in which language is used for effect in the two texts.
Give some examples and analyse the effects. Facts are evident throughout ‘Item 2’. For example, ‘scientists found more than 270 new marine species’. The use of statistic here creates a sense of scale: the reader is forced to appreciate the surprising amount of discoveries. At the same time, the use of statistics and facts creates an informative tone that is appropriate for the scientifically minded, educated target audience. By contrast, ‘Item 3’ uses more descriptive language: ‘A lonely man walks behind a plough’. Whilst this is a fact, the man’s loneliness is supposed to represent the desolate setting. This is because ‘Item 3’ is written for an audience concerned with the human interest element of a news story. Language
Choice of vocabulary; patterns of verbs, adjectives, personal pronouns
Style – factual, descriptive, persuasive, emotive Compare the ways in which language is used for effect in the two texts.
Give some examples and analyse the effects. The mood of ‘Item 2’ is one of excitement and wonder: ‘so delicate that it could not be brought to the surface’. This mood is sustained throughout the piece which is appropriate for the genre. We are unlikely to find the article believable if the mood keeps shifting.

On the other hand, the mood of ‘Item 3’ changes. At the start, Mansur seems to be happy: the verbs used (‘scream and shout’ suggests) happiness. However, the mood is more sombre in the second half of the extract: ‘Now the plain is the most mined place in the world’. Unlike ‘Item 2’, the writer of ‘Item 3’ contrasts very different moods to show the different emotions that Mansur is experiencing as this is a more personal account. Tone/ mood
- positive? Humorous? Reflective? Have you?
Written one section about each aspect of LIP for both sources?
Analysed/ exploded quotes in detail?
Have you compared the two sources throughout? Q4: Key Skills Language
Choice of vocabulary; patterns of verbs, adjectives, personal pronouns
Style – factual, descriptive, persuasive, emotive

Imagery/ devices
Simile, metaphor, personification
Pattern of three, repetition, expert opinion,

Tone/ mood
- positive? Humorous? Reflective?


Read Source 2 and 3. Try to find aspects of each. Q4) Language Question Genre
Audience
Purpose Q4) Language Question • When he heard the ‘large vaguely irritable snuffling noise’ he immediately thought ‘Bear’.
• He ‘sat bolt upright’, shocked and alarmed. His brain started thinking frantically, he obviously felt alert and panicky, so concerned that he thought he needed to find his knife to defend himself.
• He recollected that he’d had many ‘tranquil’ nights in the woods with no thought of disturbance.
• He felt concerned enough to ask Stephen what he thought, which shows that he felt a certain panic and he agreed that ‘everything sounds big in the woods’.
• He felt the need to be cautious but needed to take a look outside.
• He thought his knife looked ‘wimpy’ and useless for defending himself against a huge animal.
• He was trying to work out what the animal was, but thought it was a bear.
• He thought Stephen was unhelpful and not concerned about the creature. He was concerned enough to move closer to his friend and felt it ‘brought me a tiny measure of comfort to be nearer to him’.
• He thought the eyes looked big and abnormal like eyes in a cartoon.
• He (jokingly) says he ‘couldn’t decide’ whether he wanted to be definitely dead if he stayed outside the tent or inside the tent ‘waiting to be dead’
• His main thought was that he ‘really, really’ wanted the creature to go away. Q3: Peer Assess Have you?

- Identified a range of thoughts and feelings

- Made reference to different parts of the text?

- Explained why he feels like this?

- Used short quotes throughout? Q3: Explain the thoughts and feelings the writer has during his encounter with the bear. (8 Marks)  At the beginning of the extract, Parrado was feeling curious to ‘see what lay at the end of the valley’. This shows their eagerness or even desperation to find a way out, to find rescue and save their friends still stuck on the mountain. On the other hand, Canessa was feeling tired and we get the impression that he was physically drained since he ‘could not go on’.

Whilst searching for rescue, ‘panic entered the hearts of both of them’. They were worrying about how the tough conditions would make the path impassable: they were dreading what they were going to see. However, the panic turns to careless speed for Parrado who feels ‘impatient’ to find out what lay ahead, and Canessa feels that he will endanger himself. This can be explained as different ways of dealing with danger: Parrado wants to take control of the situation; Canessa wants to be cautious.

Eventually, the snow stopped and they saw water trailing into a gorge with ‘tremendous force’. Pannado stood there with ‘tears of joy’. This is because he thought it was a beautiful sight and he is thankful that he can see a way out. Canessa came up behind him and was also suddenly filled with happiness and delight. Their moods seem to have become positive as they rested in the sun. They feel confident that they are now saved.

Finally, ‘they were confident now that they would succeed’ and they have the motivation to push on. They were a bit fearful of the gorge because there were rough rocks and boulders the size of armchairs to climb over. They feel strong and confident enough to cross the river even though it is carrying huge boulders down with it.
  Q3: Explain some of the thoughts and feelings Parrado and Canessa have whilst searching for rescue. Have you?

- Identified a range of thoughts and feelings

- Made reference to different parts of the text?

- Explained why he feels like this?

- Used short quotes throughout? Q3: Key Skills The headline
• This is in large, bold font and includes an exclamation mark which causes the reader to pause on the word ‘Slimezilla’ and has a dramatic effect.
• ‘Slimezilla’ is a made-up word but refers to Godzilla, a (Japanese) monster which has featured in numerous films. ‘Slime’ refers to the nature of the jellyfish which is slimy.
• ‘Monster jellyfish’ provides a description of what the word Slimezilla means. The three words are humorous, revolting, evocative and enticing in their effect.
• ‘armada’ refers to a large number of ships at sea. The metaphor is explained in the text because there are lots of the jellyfish. The Spanish Armada invaded England, just as the armada of jellyfish invaded Japan. The word ‘threatens’ changes the tone. Now the effect is one of concern, worry, vulnerability, threat etc.
• ‘Divers and nuclear plants’ are the target of the invaders. For a jellyfish to be a threat to/attack a nuclear plant seems exaggerated and adds to the reader’s understanding of its awesome size.

The picture
• The picture is colourful, dramatic and eye-catching.
• The monster-like nature of the jellyfish is apparent; clearly it could destroy the diver. The effect is shocking,
dynamic and arresting. It looks slimy, threatening and dangerous. The tentacles and soft slime of the jellyfish are also apparent, their effect ‘repellent’ as the text says.
• The diver seems to be vulnerable but unafraid, in fact he (or she) seems to be chasing the jellyfish so perhaps he is not in as much danger as first thought. He (or she) seems to be deep into the ocean. The idea of fighting the jellyfish off is also possible.

Links with the text
• The text fills in the factual details referred to in the headline and shown in the picture: the size of the jellyfish, reference to the film, the revolting nature of the jellyfish, an explanation of the damage it can do, the numbers of them involved.
• Candidates should select and quote links as indicated in the mark scheme Q2: Peer Assess Have you?

Identified 3 separate points about the picture?

Identified 3 separate points about the headline?

Explained why each technique has been used?

Made 4 links to the rest of the text using short quotes? Headline
 
The headline is effective because it has used alliteration of ‘rescue’, ‘reaches’, ‘refuge’ which is eye-catching and adds drama to the headline. These are important words to emphasise because they contain the key aspects of the article.
 
The words ‘at last’ imply that the rescue effort has been a long one, which is confirmed in the text: ’65 days’. we understand that because the miners have been stuck in the chamber for so long the newspaper have called it a ‘refuge’. This really highlights to the reader a sense of time and how long the miners have been stuck there for.
 
The word ‘drill’ is a pun meaning the mechanical tool and the efficient process which characterised the rescue attempt. This links to the text which explains that the drill had to find a tunnel ‘700m underground.’
 
Finally, the fact that the miners are ‘Chilean’ is important because the reader then learns where all of the trouble happened if they didn’t know before. This links to the text because we read about how the event is so significant, a government minister will comment on it.
Picture
 
The picture is effective because we see an extremely happy face which shows us how glad the miners are to be reunited with their families. This links to the text as it demonstrates the ‘celebrations amongst the miner’s relatives’.

The fact that the two men are so different (clown and reporter) shows that the story affects everyone in Chile.
Next, we see that a huge Chilean flag is being waved. This shows the reader that the country is proud of the miners and that they are proud to be Chilean. Also, we see that the two people in the photograph are running towards each other to hug. This shows the sheer happiness and gratefulness that they have to see each other again. Again this links to the text as it says the ‘nervousness has gone now’.

Finally, we see in the background a lot of the landscape which shows us how grim the conditions were in that era for mining.
NB...
A very good interpretation would be that since the text speaks of the ‘media onslaught’ which we call a ‘media circus’ –the reporter represents the media and the clown represents the circus.
  Headline
 
The headline is effective because it has used alliteration of ‘rescue’, ‘reaches’, ‘refuge’ which is eye-catching and adds drama to the headline. These are important words to emphasise because they contain the key aspects of the article.
 
The words ‘at last’ imply that the rescue effort has been a long one, which is confirmed in the text: ’65 days’. we understand that because the miners have been stuck in the chamber for so long the newspaper have called it a ‘refuge’. This really highlights to the reader a sense of time and how long the miners have been stuck there for.
 
The word ‘drill’ is a pun meaning the mechanical tool and the efficient process which characterised the rescue attempt. This links to the text which explains that the drill had to find a tunnel ‘700m underground.’
 
Finally, the fact that the miners are ‘Chilean’ is important because the reader then learns where all of the trouble happened if they didn’t know before. This links to the text because we read about how the event is so significant, a government minister will comment on it.
Picture
 
The picture is effective because we see an extremely happy face which shows us how glad the miners are to be reunited with their families. This links to the text as it demonstrates the ‘celebrations amongst the miner’s relatives’.

The fact that the two men are so different (clown and reporter) shows that the story affects everyone in Chile.
Next, we see that a huge Chilean flag is being waved. This shows the reader that the country is proud of the miners and that they are proud to be Chilean. Also, we see that the two people in the photograph are running towards each other to hug. This shows the sheer happiness and gratefulness that they have to see each other again. Again this links to the text as it says the ‘nervousness has gone now’.

Finally, we see in the background a lot of the landscape which shows us how grim the conditions were in that era for mining.
NB...
A very good interpretation would be that since the text speaks of the ‘media onslaught’ which we call a ‘media circus’ –the reporter represents the media and the clown represents the circus.
  Read Source 2. Explain how the headline and picture are effective and how they link with the text?

Have you?

Identified 3 separate points about the picture?
Identified 3 separate points about the headline?
Explained why each technique has been used?
Made 4 links to the rest of the text using short quotes? Q2) Presentational Devices Read Source 1.
What do you understand about the Amazon tribe and the issues it faces? (8 marks)
Key Skills:
Identified 8 separate points?

Used short quotes throughout?

Provided an overview?

Made inferences throughout? Q1 Key Skills:
Identified 8 separate points?

Used short quotes throughout?

Provided an overview?

Made inferences throughout? In general, we learn that the RNLI are using the Beach to city programme to bring awareness to young people about being safe when near water. This shows that they are being more innovative about their approach to lifesaving.
 
The programme also makes young people aware of the existence of the RNLI and Lifeguards and the good work they do as a charity about which there is very little knowledge in some places which are ‘a long way from the sea’.
 
Primary aged school children who live in cities are targeted because ‘incident statistics’ show they are more ‘at risk’. They live away from the coast and so don’t think about the need for or work of lifeguards and being safe around water.
 
The programme uses ‘plenty of play acting’ and fun activities to make the safety messages memorable which, with ‘equipment to get to grips with’, would engage children and help them retain the lessons.
 
Important basic messages are learnt during the sessions: about sun protection and danger flags on holiday beaches. We learn that the children misread or simplify some of these danger flags.
 
The programme also focuses on cities where there are inland waterways like canals, such as Birmingham and London and teaches young people how to use safety equipment available to the public.
 
The programme is going to be extended in the future. Q1: What do you learn from the article about the Beach to City programme run by the RNLI? In general, we learn that the RNLI are using the Beach to city programme to bring awareness to young people about being safe when near water. This shows that they are being more innovative about their approach to lifesaving.
 
The programme also makes young people aware of the existence of the RNLI and Lifeguards and the good work they do as a charity about which there is very little knowledge in some places which are ‘a long way from the sea’.
 
Primary aged school children who live in cities are targeted because ‘incident statistics’ show they are more ‘at risk’. They live away from the coast and so don’t think about the need for or work of lifeguards and being safe around water.
 
The programme uses ‘plenty of play acting’ and fun activities to make the safety messages memorable which, with ‘equipment to get to grips with’, would engage children and help them retain the lessons.
 
Important basic messages are learnt during the sessions: about sun protection and danger flags on holiday beaches. We learn that the children misread or simplify some of these danger flags.
 
The programme also focuses on cities where there are inland waterways like canals, such as Birmingham and London and teaches young people how to use safety equipment available to the public.
 
The programme is going to be extended in the future. Q1: What do you learn from the article about the Beach to City programme run by the RNLI? Key Skills:
Identified 8 separate points?

Used short quotes throughout?

Provided an overview?

Made inferences throughout? Q1 Reading Paper
8 marks (12 mins)
8 marks (12 mins)
8 marks (12 mins)
16 marks (24 mins) Timings 135 minutes; 80 marks
= Approx 1.5 marks per minute

Reading the paper= 15
Answering reading questions = 60
Writing Paper = 60 Timings LO: To understand how you can raise your grade on the reading paper Improving Reading Exam Skills Have you?

Used the LIP structure?

Used the PEE structure throughout?

- Exploded your quotes?

Made comparisons throughout?

Tried to explain why they are similar/ different by referring to GAP? Imagery is used in both texts but in different ways. In ‘Item 2’ we learn that ‘discoveries shine a new light on... oceanic habitats’. The ‘light’ represents academic progress maintaining the scientific tone explained above. On the other hand, imagery in ‘Item 3’ heightens the power of the description: ‘mountains... proudly rise up to the sky’. The personification of the mountain makes it seem as if it is reaching for progress, just like the new Afghanistan. Imagery/ devices
Simile, metaphor, personification
Pattern of three, repetition, expert opinion, Have you?

- Identified a range of thoughts and feelings

- Made reference to different parts of the text?

- Explained why he feels like this?

- Used short quotes throughout?  At the beginning of the extract, Parrado was feeling curious to ‘see what lay at the end of the valley’. This shows their eagerness or even desperation to find a way out, to find rescue and save their friends still stuck on the mountain. On the other hand, Canessa was feeling tired and we get the impression that he was physically drained since he ‘could not go on’.

Whilst searching for rescue, ‘panic entered the hearts of both of them’. They were worrying about how the tough conditions would make the path impassable: they were dreading what they were going to see. However, the panic turns to careless speed for Parrado who feels ‘impatient’ to find out what lay ahead, and Canessa feels that he will endanger himself. This can be explained as different ways of dealing with danger: Parrado wants to take control of the situation; Canessa wants to be cautious.

Eventually, the snow stopped and they saw water trailing into a gorge with ‘tremendous force’. Pannado stood there with ‘tears of joy’. This is because he thought it was a beautiful sight and he is thankful that he can see a way out. Canessa came up behind him and was also suddenly filled with happiness and delight. Their moods seem to have become positive as they rested in the sun. They feel confident that they are now saved.

Finally, ‘they were confident now that they would succeed’ and they have the motivation to push on. They were a bit fearful of the gorge because there were rough rocks and boulders the size of armchairs to climb over. They feel strong and confident enough to cross the river even though it is carrying huge boulders down with it.
  Q3: Explain some of the thoughts and feelings Parrado and Canessa have whilst searching for rescue. Explanation Evidence Point Mansur’s experiences thoughts and feelings initially seem similar to that of any stereotypical young person. He ‘feels free’ in modern day Afghanistan , wanting to express his youthful exuberance by screaming and shouting out of the window of a car. His fears are very humdrum as he is concerned about not waking up in time for the trip. All of these thoughts suggest positive feelings about new Afghanistan. Inference Questions Read Source 2. Explain how the headline and picture are effective and how they link with the text? (8 Marks)

Have you?

Identified 3 separate points about the picture?
Identified 3 separate points about the headline?
Explained why each technique has been used?
Made 4 links to the rest of the text using short quotes? Q2) Presentational Devices NB The ‘content’ is what we learn about the tribe itself from the text. The ‘issues’ are about the threats to the isolation of this and similar tribes.
The tribe is ‘isolated’ and lives ‘in the Amazon jungle’. It has been observed by a helicopter showing the people of the tribe with more clarity than ever before.
They grow food and the members of the tribe are wearing cotton clothes which suggests that they grow cotton. This shows that they have the abilities and skills to survive on their own.
They probably moved nearer to the head of the Amazon river to avoid being enslaved by the rubber production
companies 100 years ago. But they live ‘deep in the forest’, not by the river.
The men have decorated bodies and are armed. They hunt, presumably animals for food and ‘gather’ other food, but they also grow their own crops; they ‘have agriculture’.
They almost certainly have their own language and may be part of a larger Indian group.
The photos from the helicopter tell us they are healthy, have gardens and baskets of food. They also have tools like ‘ a machete and a metal cooking pot’, probably obtained or stolen through contact with loggers.
They are called an ‘Un-contacted tribe’ and are protected from interference from the outside world. We know of about 29 ‘un-contacted’ tribes like these but there may be as many as 70. They will only survive if they ‘remain isolated from the outside world’.
For this tribe and others, contact with outsiders can bring fatal illnesses, such as the common cold, for example, which could kill up to half of them.
Tribes like this one have been protected from contact since 1987. But they remain endangered because their isolation is increasingly threatened-as this tribe’s was by the helicopter even though it had to keep its distance. Q1: Peer Assess
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