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DESIGN DRAWING CONVENTIONS

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by Ryan Repucci on 15 October 2013

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Transcript of DESIGN DRAWING CONVENTIONS

DESIGN DRAWING CONVENTIONS
GLENN MURCUTT
"The hand is an extension of the mind."
To
draw
is to
reveal
.
To
reveal
is to
understand
.
To
understand
is the beginning of
knowing
.
TOPIC POINTS
THE THINKING HAND
ORTHOGRAPHIC, SECTION, AXONOMETRIC
HARMONY OF THREE

THE IMPORTANCE OF DRAWING BY HAND AND ITS DIRECT RELATIONSHIP WITH DESIGN.
THE THINKING HAND
PETER EISERMAN:
AN ARCHITECTURE STUDENT THAT DOESN'T KNOW HOW TO DRAW IS LIKE AN ENGLISH MAJOR THAT DOESN'T KNOW HOW TO WRITE.
RICHARD SERRA:
YOUR EYE IS A MUSCLE AND IN ORDER TO KEEP IT TUNED YOU DRAW. THE MORE YOU DRAW THE BETTER YOU SEE. IT HAS TO BE A CONTINUOUS ACTIVITY TO ACHIEVE FOCUS.
1. THE MORE I DREW THE MORE I SAW.
2. THE HUMAN BODY AS A WHOLE IS A KNOWING ENTITY; THE MIND IS NOT THE SOLE LOCUS OF COGNITION.
LIMITING ONESELF BY LIMITED TOOLS.
BOY IN THE BOX
DESCRIBES RELATIVE LOCATIONS, CONFIGURATIONS, AND POTENTIAL FUNCTIONS - MOST IMPORTANTLY THE PATTERN OF INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF THE SPACES FORMED BY THE PLANES.
DESIGN DRAWINGS
DESIGN DRAWINGS
THE NATURE OF THE HUMAN IS PREDOMINATELY IMPERFECT - WE LACK THE CONTROL THAT WOULD INDICATE PERFECTION. HOWEVER, FROM THAT SEEMINGLY NEGATIVE ATTRIBUTE COMES THE REALIZATION THAT OUR IMPERFECTION YIELDS AN INCREDIBLY
UNIQUE LANGUAGE SPECIFIC TO ONESELF, EVIDENT IN A SIMPLE LINE.
IN THESE IMPERFECT LINES IS A HISTORY OF EXPERIENCE, CHARACTER AND QUALITIES THAT ONLY YOUR HAND CAN EXHIBIT. A SIGNATURE OF SORTS. THIS LINE BEARS TRAITS THAT CAN SIGNAL TO THE MIMETIC LEARNING EXPERIENCED THROUGH A CAREER. COMPARE THOSE LINES TO THE COMPUTER GENERATED LINES THAT CAN BE DUPLICATED ENDLESSLY.
3. AS A SPECIS THAT TENDS TO PERSONALIZE OUR ENVIRONMENT, WHY DO WE
CHOOSE TO DEPICT THAT SAME ENVIRONMENT IN AN IMPERSONAL WAY?
COMPUTER
JUHANI PALLASMAA
TREATISE: THE THINKING HAND
ORTHOGRAPHIC/SECTION/AXONOMETRIC
THE PROCESS OF REFINING A CONCEPT
DESIGN DRAWING; CONTINUED
PLAN / ELEVATION
ORTHOGRAPHIC DRAWINGS
WHEN APPROACHING A PLAN, IT IS IMPERATIVE THAT A SENSITIVITY TO HIERARCHICAL ELEMENTS BE EXERCISED. WE START WITH THE GENERAL LAYOUT, STRUCTURE, WALLS, PENETRATIONS AND ANCILLARY DETAILS. LINE WEIGHTS GOVERN THE HIERARCHY OF ELEMENTS, THE HEAVIER THE LINE WEIGHT THE MORE WIEGHT OR IMPORTANCE THAT ELEMENT HOLDS.


PLANS; OVERHEAD PROJECTIONS OR A TOP VIEW
OF THE OBJECT THAT YOU ARE DEPICTING.

-TYPICALLY A PLAN IS CUT AT 3-4' ABOVE THE FINISHED FLOOR (AFF)-PLANS CAN DESCRIBE A VARIETY OF BUILDING ASPECTS DEPENDING ON THE LEVEL OF THE "CUT"
ROOF COMPOSITION, ROOF STRUCTURE, CEILING LAYOUT, FLOOR STRUCTURE, FLOOR PLAN, AND FOUNDATIONS.

DETAIL ITEMS; STRUCTURE, WALLS, DOORS, WINDOWS, COUNTER TOPS, ETC.
PLAN INFORMATION
SECTIONS ARE ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS OF AN OBJECT AS IT WOULD APPEAR IF CUT THROUGH BY AN INTERSECTING PLANE PARALLEL TO THE PICTURE PLANE. THE SECTION IS THE PREMIER DRAWING FOR STUDYING AND REVEALING THE VITAL SOLID VOID RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FLOORS, WALLS, ROOF STRUCTURE, THE VERTICAL DIMENSIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS OF THE CONTAINED SPACES.
SECTION DRAWINGS
HIGHLY USEFUL IN DEVELOPING SPATIAL VAIRETY, REALTIONSHIPS, ADJACENCIES AND JUXTAPOSITIONS.
SECTION INFORMATION
SECTION EXAMPLES
SECTIONS ARE EXCELLENT TOOLS TO CONVEY THE POWER OF LIGHT WITHIN A SPACE AS SEEN IN PAUL RUDOLPH'S WORK.
SECTION EXAMPLES
ELEVATIONS SHOW THE EXTERIOR / INTERIOR FEATURES OF YOUR WORK. EACH ELEVATION IS LABELED IN RELATIONSHIP TO THE COMPASS DIRECTION IT FACES. TYPICALLY, MEASURING ELEMENTS ON THE ELEVATION ARE TAKEN FROM THE GROUND OR FINISHED FLOOR DATUM.
ELEVATIONS
UTILIZING THE 3 DRAWINGS TO ARTICULATE
THE FULL SCOPE OF YOUR CONCEPT.

BY ELEGANTLY AND THOUGHTFULLY COMPOSING A DRAWING,
A VIEWER IS ABLE TO GLEAN VASTS
AMOUNTS OF INFORMATION.
HARMONY OF 3
COMPOSITION
IN THE NEXT PROJECT WE WILL BE UTILIZING THESE SKILLS
TO CUT A SECTION THROUGH AN OBJECT. THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLE ILLUSTRATES AN EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC SECTION.

EXAMPLE:
EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC SECTION

SOMETIMES REFERRED TO AS PARALINE DRAWINGS, AXON'S ARE A SIMPLE WAY OF REPRESENTING A THREE DIMENSIONAL OBJECT WHILE KEEPING THE ELEMENTS TO SCALE AND SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEVERAL SIDES OF THE OBJECT.
AXONOMETRIC PROJECTIONS
SIMONE FERRACINA
SIMONE FERRACINA
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC
SIMONE FERRACINA
PAUL RUDOLPH
RENZO PIANO
BRANDON MOSELY
SMOUT/ALLEN
PAUL RUDOLPH
PAUL RUDOLPH
PAUL RUDOLPH
PAUL RUDOLPH
WILL LASLETT
JAYNE KERSTEN
MAX KETTENACKER
MAX KETTENACKER
ISOMETRIC PROJECTIONS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTIONS PROVIDE
EQUAL EMPHASIS FOR EACH OF THE
FACES THAT ARE VISIBLE THROUGH THE
USE OF AXIS THAT SHARE THE SAME
ANGLE.
ALL VERTICAL LINES ARE VERTICAL AND
ALL LINES IN THE TWO PRINCIPAL
HORIZONTAL DIRECTIONS ARE 30 DEG
FROM TRUE HORIZONTAL.
THE ISOMETRIC IS THE MOST VISUALLY
ACCURATE DUE TO THE DISTORTION BUT
MOST DIFFICULT TO CONSTRUCT.
KIRBY LOCKARD
OBLIQUE PROJECTIONS
OBLIQUE PROJECTIONS HAVE ONE VISIBLE FACE,
OR THE PRINCIPAL PLANE, THAT IS ALWAYS
PARALLEL TO THE PICTURE PLANE. OBLIQUES
EXPRESS MORE DISTORTION HOWEVER ARE
EASIER TO CONSTRUCT DUE TO THE FACT THAT
ORTHOGRAPHIC DRAWINGS CAN BE USED TO
SCALE AND CREATE THE PRINCIPAL PLANE IN
THEIR TRUE SHAPE, PROPORTION AND SIZE.

THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF OBLIQUES THAT
CAN BE UTILIZED; PLAN OBLIQUE AND
ELEVATION OBLIQUE.
PLAN OBLIQUE
ELEVATION OBLIQUE
THE PLANE THAT IS MOST VISIBLE IS THE PRINCIPAL
PLANE. THE PRINCIPAL PLANE IS DETERMINED BY THE
ANGLES THAT THE DESIGNER CHOOSES TO UTILIZE.
NOTE: LINE WEIGHTS AGAIN PLAY A CRITICAL ROLE IN THE DEPICTION
OF ANY AXONOMETRIC. THE HIERARCHY OF WIEGHT DICTATES THE
IMPORTANCE OF THE ELEMENT AND DISTINGUISHING THE OBJECT IN
TOTAL FROM THE BACKGROUND.
AXONOMETRIC DRAWING
CREATE A BOX OR SCAFFOLD (CHING 68-79)
USE PROPORTIONING TO OBTAIN THE ANGLES
4-7 PROPORTIONED TRIANGLE = 30-60-90
SENSITIVITY TO LINE WEIGHT
DISTINGUISH FROM BACKGROUND
SPATIAL EDGES IN THE OBJECTS OUTLINE
PLANAR CORNERS - INTERSECTIONS OF TWO SURFACES
LIGHTEST LINE WIEGHT IS USED FOR SURFACE DISTINCTION
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS:
(AS DEFINED BY CHING "DESIGN DRAWINGS") ARE PROJECTORS THAT ARE PARALLEL TO ONE ANOTHER AND PERPENDICULAR TO THE PICTURE PLAN.
ORTHOGRAPHIC DRAWINGS:
PLANS & ELEVATIONS (SECTIONS)
WE ARE CONNECTED WITH THE WORLD THROUGH
OUR SENSES. THE SENSES ARE NOT MERELY PASSIVE RECEPTORS OF STIMULI, AND THE BODY NOT ONLY A POINT OF VIEWING THE WORLD FROM A CENTRAL PERSPECTIVE. THE HUMAN BODY IS A KNOWING ENTITY. OUR ENTIRE BEING IN THE WORLD IS A SENSUOUS AND EMBODIED MODE OF BEING.
JUHANI PALLASMAA "THE THINKING HAND"
TACTILE KNOWLEDGE/ KINESTHETIC LEARNING
AS HUMANS, WE STORE MASSIVE AMOUNTS OF SILENT, SUB-CONSCIOUS INFORMATION THAT WE HAVE GATHERED FROM EXPERIENCING THE WORLD AROUND US.
DID THAT JUST HAPPEN?
THE LIGHT WE USE TO DRAW.

THE LIGHT WE USE TO SEE OUR WORLD IS APPROXIMATELY 8 MINUTES & 19 SECONDS OLD,
MEAN DISTANCE FROM SUN TO EARTH: 92,955,807.231 MILES
APPROXIMATE SPEED OF LIGHT: 186,282 MILES/SECOND.
IT TAKES APPROXIMATELY 1.82 SECONDS TO SEE THE MOON DUE TO THE DISTANCE AND APPROXIMATE SPEED OF LIGHT.

AT A DISTANCE OF
50'
IT TAKES APPROXIMATELY
5.236X10-8 SECONDS
FOR LIGHT TO REACH OUR EYES. (0.000 000 005 326 SECONDS).

AT A DISTANCE OF
3'
IT TAKES APPROXIMATELY
3.195X10-9 SECONDS
FOR LIGHT TO REACH OUR EYES. (0.000 000 000 319 SECONDS).

QUIZ:
WHILE WE CAN'T SEE "NOW" WE CAN ATTEMPT TO CAPTURE "NOW".
WHAT IS SOMETHING PROFOUND THAT YOU HAVE LEARNED ABOUT
DRAWING OR THROUGH THE ACT OF DRAWING?

MITER LINES
USING 45 DEG. MITER LINES WE CAN ACCURATELY
DEPICT PLAN AND ELEVATION.
HONORS:
DRAW AN ISOMETRIC CUBE THAT HAS BEEN MANIPULATED IN A MINIMUM OF 3 OPERATIONS. UTILIZE A CUBE OVER-LAYED WITH A GRID TO DRAW AN ACCURATE ISOMETRIC BY HAND WITHOUT THE AID OF DRAFTING TOOLS.
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