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History of Atomic Physics

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by Taylor Matthews on 24 September 2012

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Transcript of History of Atomic Physics

By Taylor R. Matthews History of Atomic Physics 460-370 B.C.E. Democritus of Adbera Traveled on his inheritance studying, later lived with his brother doing work in the field of botany Proposed that things cannot be divided indefinitely Suggested that atoms were small, round, impenetrable pieces of matter Democritus' proposed atom 384-322 B.C.E. Aristotle Travelled and studied at the Academy in Athens; tutored Alexander of Macedonia Distinguished clearly between the states of matter 1766–1844 John Dalton Teacher for various primary and secondary schools across what was the U.S. at the time Dalton devised methods for calculating atomic masses and the chemical makeup of things October 20, 1891- July 24, 1974 James Chadwick Graduated Honors School of Physics in 1911, spent the next two years in the Physical Laboratory in Manchester, where he worked on various radioactivity problems *Not-so-fun fact: P.O.W. for four years during WWII Proved the existence of neutrons in 1932, when he noticed that, by tracking particle radiation, the atomic mass was greater than the amount of charged particles in the atom December 18, 1856- August 30, 1940 J.J. Thomson Cavendish Professor of Physics at the Trinity College at Cambridge Discovered neutrons during a series of experiments between 1895 and 1897 where he realized that cathode tubes exhibited properties of negativity, and must be composed of a particle that had a negative charge. He also discovered isotopes. Thomson also proposed a new "plum pudding" structure of atoms Ernest Rutherford August 30, 1871- October 19, 1937 In 1910, his investigations into the nature of the inner structure of the atom which caused alpha ray scattering led to his theory of an atomic nucleus In 1907, he became Langworthy Professor of Physics in the University of Manchester, succeeding Sir Arthur Schuster, and in 1919 he accepted an invitation to succeed Sir Joseph Thomson as Cavendish Professor of Physics at Cambridge. Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment Bohr's proposed Planetary atomic model Niels Bohr October 7, 1885 -November 18, 1962 Director, Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Copenhagen Proposed that electrons orbit around a nucleus and discovered that light behaves as both a wave and a particle Rutherford altered the plum pudding model by suggesting that in the center of the atom, there was a tight, dense ball of positive material surrounded by negatively charged electrons Electrons Nucleus Edwin Schrödinger August 12, 1887- January 4, 1961 Schrödinger's wave equation (which describes how the quantum state of physical matter changes over time), was.... ...discovered during the first half of 1926, which he was motivated to discover due to his dissatisfaction with the quantum condition in Bohr's orbit theory and his belief that atomic spectra should be determined by an eigenvalue problem Professor at various universities, served as an artillery officer during WWI Louis DeBroglie August 15, 1892- March 19, 1987 Wrote science papers, served in the war of 1914-1918, and was a teacher at various universities Major contribution to science was the discovery of the wave nature of electrons (which is how me know to distinguish between light waves, radio waves, etc) , basically just expanding Einstein’s theory and applying it to all forms of matter and energy, not just light Werner Heisenberg 1901 – 1976 A farmer and messenger in his youth, which is an unusual start for a physicist, but was due to living in post-WWI Germany In 1927, he realized that measuring an electron's properties using gamma rays would alter the electron's behavior. He further concluded that measuring the position of an electron (or other particle) OR its momentum with greater precision would throw off the accuracy of the other measurement. He explained this in an equation using Planck's constant, and called it the uncertainty principle. Robert Millikan March 22, 1868- December 19 1953 As a scientist, Millikan made many incredible discoveries. His earliest major success was the accurate determination of the charge carried by an electron, using the "falling-drop method"; he also proved that this quantity was a constant for all electrons (1910), thus demonstrating the atomic structure of electricity. Next, he verified experimentally Einstein's all-important photoelectric equation, and made the first direct photoelectric determination of Planck's constant h (1912-1915). Millikan's falling-drop method experiment Max Planck 1858 - 1947 Max Planck discovered the relationship between energy and radiation frequency. The energy for a frequency resonator, V, is hV where h is a universal constant. Most of his career was spent as a professor at Berlin University Atomic Citations 1. Walker, Jim. "History of Atoms." History of Atoms. N.p., Sept. 1988. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <http://www.nobeliefs.com/atom.htm>.



2. "Niels Bohr." Quantum Physics Atomic Energy. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <http://www.famous-scientists.net/niels-bohr.htm>.



3. "Joseph J. Thomson." Biography of a Famous Physicist. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <http://www.famous-scientists.net/joseph-j-thomson.htm>.



4. "Erwin Schrödinger - Biography". Nobelprize.org. 14 Sep 2012 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1933/schrodinger.html



5. "Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy." Aristotle. N.p., 11 Apr. 2001. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <http://www.iep.utm.edu/aristotl/>.



6. "Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy." Democritus. N.p., 5 Apr. 2001. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <http://www.iep.utm.edu/democrit/>.



7. "Louis de Broglie - Biography". Nobelprize.org. 14 Sep 2012 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1929/broglie-bio.html



8. "Robert A. Millikan - Biography". Nobelprize.org. 14 Sep 2012 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1923/millikan-bio.html



9. "John Dalton." Homepage of the Chemical Heritage Foundation. Chemical Heritage Foundation, n.d. Web. 14 Sept. 2012.

<http://www.chemheritage.org/discover/online-resources/chemistry-in-history/themes/the-path-to-the-periodic-table/dalton.asp



10. "Werner Heisenberg - Biography". Nobelprize.org. 14 Sep 2012 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1932/heisenberg-bio.html 11."Max Planck - Biography". Nobelprize.org. 14 Sep 2012 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1918/planck-bio.html

12."Ernest Rutherford - Biography". Nobelprize.org. 16 Sep 2012 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1908/rutherford-bio.html

13."James Chadwick - Biography". Nobelprize.org. 16 Sep 2012 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1935/chadwick-bio.html

14."Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy." Aristotle: Motion and Its Place in Nature []. N.p., 16 Dec. 2005. Web. 18 Sept. 2012. <http://www.iep.utm.edu/aris-mot/>.

15.PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dp32ne.html>.

16.PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bpheis.html>.

17.Dalton, John. Photograph. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 18 Sept. 2012. <http://school.eb.com/eb/art-167812>.

18.Thomson, Sir J. J. Photograph. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 18 Sept. 2012. <http://school.eb.com/eb/art-151581>.

19.Rutherford of Nelson, Ernest Rutherford, Baron. Photograph. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 18 Sept. 2012. <http://school.eb.com/eb/art-115396>.

20.Bohr, Niels. Photograph. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 18 Sept. 2012. <http://school.eb.com/eb/art-137867>.

21."Philosophy of Chemistry." (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2012. <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/chemistry/>.

22.Prasar, Vigyan. "Louis De Broglie." Louis De Broglie. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2012. <http://www.vigyanprasar.gov.in/scientists/ldbroglie.htm>. Also this is a quantum mechanical atom, which is the current
shape atoms are believed to have
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