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sense organ: hearing

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by Tiffany Evans on 19 October 2012

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Transcript of sense organ: hearing

Sense Organ: Hearing By. Tiffany Koskiniemi
Hr: 5A The ear's malleus, incus and stapes (also known as the hammer, anvil and stirrup) are the smallest bones in the human body. All three together could fit on a penny.
Even while your asleep, the ear continues to hear sounds.
Sitting in front of the speakers at a rock concert can expose you to 120 decibels, which will begin to damage hearing in only 7 1/2 minutes!
Sound travels at a speed of 770 miles per hour and ears not only help you hear, but also help with balance. Facts: Sense Organ: Hearing http://www.woodardhearing.com/sound-knowledge/how-hearing-works.html http://www.clarityhearing.com/types_of_hearing_loss_baltimore_hearing_loss_ellicott_city_county_md.php The outer, middle, and inner structures provide hearing and balance. The external ear has an auricle to collect sound waves and a 2.5 centimeter tube, which is the external auditory meatus, which passes to the temporal bone. http://www.infovisual.info/03/048_en.html The ear drum is the first part of the middle ear.The eardrum is almost transparent and is covered by a thin layer of skin on its outer surface and a mucous membrane on its interal surface. http://www.chkd.org/HealthLibrary/Facts/Content.aspx?pageid=0222 Middle Ear The ear drum is cone shaped. The bottom of the cone faces inward. Sound waves travel through the ear canal to the ear drum , which then vibrates. The three bones of the middle ear. http://childofthecornx.livejournal.com/26977.html The three middle ear bones are called the auditory ossicles. They are an air filled space which is known as the tympanic cavity. The three small bones, the malleus(hammer), incus(anvil), and stapes(stirrup), are covered in mucous and are attached by ligaments to the cavity. The three ear bones vibrate and transmit to the inner ear through can opening, called the oval window. The malleus vibrates to the incus and the incus to the stapes. All the vibrations together are magnified. http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/fenestral The Inner Ear http://www.positivehealth.com/article/medical-conditions/coping-with-vestibular-inner-ear-trauma The inner ear is a system of tubes, chambers, and fluids. These together are called are called the labyrinth The labyrinths form a cochlea for the sense of hearing and three canals for the sense of balance. Semicircular canals The cochlear branches of the EIGHTH CRANIAL NERVE carry auditory sensations to the medulla oblongata. Pathway to the Brain and where in the brain that hearing and sound is processed. From the medulla oblongata, the sensations then proceed to the thalamus! http://kasper-achs-block1.wikispaces.com/Medulla+Oblongata http://kasper-achs-block1.wikispaces.com/Medulla+Oblongata http://www.healthyhearing.com/content/articles/Hearing-loss/Causes/40535-Heart-disease-hearing-loss From the thalamus the sensations meet their final destination, the auditory cortices of THE TEMPORAL LOBE. Because certain things are capable of crossing over, the sounds are interpreted by both sides of the brain. http://www.neuroskills.com/brain-injury/temporal-lobes.php Psychology Perspective http://www.neuroskills.com/brain-injury/temporal-lobes.php Psychologist perceive the sense of hearing by sound. Sound is the stimulus of hearing. It is made but of pressures called waves. There are three different types of sounds waves
Amplitude
Frequency
Purity
Each of these characteristics are related to a psychological experience. Larger waves amplitudes are relative to loudness; wave frequency to pitch, and wave purity to timbre. The system of hearing.
The outer ear collects waves and funnels them through the auditory canal to the eardrum and causes it to vibrate. The middle ear contains the hammer, anvil, and stirrup, which move and sense sensations to the oval window, which actually separates the middle ear from the inner ear. After that comes the inner ear, the main structure consists of the cochlea (the snail like structure) , the basilar membrane, which it stretched along it's length. When the stirrup vibrates against the oval window, fluid in the cochlea moves and causes the basilar to vibrate. The ear's hair cells, lie in the basilar membrane and convert the vibrations into NEURAL IMPULSES. The neural impulses then move along the auditory nerve to lower the brain stem, to the thalamus, and then on to the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe. Input from each ear is received on both sides of brain. The basilar membrane is stretched along the length of the cochlea. When the stirrup vibrates against the oval window, the fluid in the cochlea moves and cause the basilar membrane to vibrate. The hair cells that lie in the basilar membrane convert the vibrations into neural impulses. From that we move into the auditory nerve to the lower brain stem! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basilar_membrane Theories anyone? For the sense of hearing, there are two theories.
One is the plave theory and the other is the frequency theory. These theories distinguish the pitch of different sounds. Place theory This theory explains how people discriminate high-pitched sounds that have a frequency greater than 5000 Hz. Place theory states that sound waves of different frequencies trigger receptors at different places on the basilar membrane. the brain figures out the pitch of the sound by detecting the position of the hair cells that sent the neural signal. The frequency theory explains how people discriminate low pitched sounds that have a frequency below 1000 Hz. According to this theory, sound waves of different frequencies make the whole basilar membrane vibrate at different rates and therefore cause neural impulses to be sent at different rates. Pitch is determined by how fast neural signals move along to the brain. Frequency theory ACTIVITY: For this activity we are all going to gather together as a class.
Our first step will be to blind fold one student in the class
We will sit he/she in the middle of the class room and have students form a large circle around the blindfolded student
I will then proceed to point to one of the students in the circle and have he/she say the seated student's name
The seated student must then try and point in the direction of the voice and identify the name of the person who said his/her name WORKS CITED: Basilar Membrane. (2012, September 7). Retrieved from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basilar_membrane
Hearing. (2012). Retrieved from Cliffnotes: http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Hearing.topicArticleId-25438,articleId-25324.html
Chudler, C. (2012). Hearing. Retrieved from Washington Education: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/chhearing.html
Fiebig, P. (2012). Hearing testing. Retrieved from American Hearing Research Foundation: http://american-hearing.org/disorders/hearing-testing/
Liang, B. (2012). The sense of hearing. Retrieved from WISC-ONLINE: http://www.wisc-online.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP14204
SparkNotes Editors. (2005). SparkNote on Sensation and Perception. Retrieved October 17, 2012, from http://www.sparknotes.com/psychology/psych101/sen
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