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Types of joints, articulating bones, joint action, main agonists and antagonists

AQA AS
by Thomas Johnson on 12 September 2014

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Transcript of Types of joints, articulating bones, joint action, main agonists and antagonists

Types of joints
understand the key parts of the different types of joints in the body
be able to give a sporting example of movement using different joints
know where different types of joints are located
where 2 or more bones meet, they create a joint or an articulation.
Joints or articulations
joints and articulations are classified by the degree of movement that is permitted
The 3 main classes of joints are:

Fixed or fibrous
Cartilaginous or slightly movable
Synovial or freely movable
very stable, with no observable movement
bones joined together by fibres called SUSTURES
main example is the bones on the cranium
Fixed or Fibrous joints
bones are joined by tough, fibrous cartilage
this provides shock absorption and stability
small amount of movement
main example - joints in the spine, in between the vertebrae
Cartilaginous or slightly moveable joints
these are freely moving
most common type of joint
allow a wide range of movement
Synovial Joints
Key parts of a synovial joint
joint capsule
synovial membrane
synovial fluid
hyaline/articular cartilage
ligament
this is a fibrous material (means that it is strong) that surrounds the joint and is lined with the synovial membrane. Used to contain synovial fluid in joint
the synovial membrane produces the synovial fluid and secretes it into the joint
the synovial fluid is a protein rich fluid that lubricates and nourishes the articular cartilage. It helps to reduce friction in the joint
the hyaline is a smooth cartilage covering on the end of the articulating bone (the bones in the joint) to add protection and aid movement.
the ligaments provide support for the joint. They may run through the capsule or run round the sides. They are elastic, but will reduce in effectiveness when torn or over stretch
hinge
pivot
ellipsoid
gliding
saddle
ball and socket
types of synovial joints
Hinge Joint
uniaxial joint
only allows movement in one plane
very strong ligaments to prevent side ways movement
example - elbow joint
uniaxial
only allows movement in one plane - rotation
the two bones are known as the axis and atlas
example - cervical vertebrae (top of neck)
Pivot Joint
biaxial
allows movement in 2 planes
example - radiocarpal joint in the wrist - it allows side to side movement and forward and back too
Ellipsoid Joint
formed where flat surfaces glide past each other
normally biaxial, but will allow movement in all directions
example - the carpel joints in the hand
Gliding Joint
biaxial
normally occurs when one surface is concave and the other is convex
example - where metacarpal meets carpal in the thumb
Saddle Joint
allows the widest range of movement
occurs where rounded head of a bone fits into a cup shaped cavity
range of movement depended on depth of cup and the number of ligaments present - shoulder has more movement than hip joint
example - hip and shoulder joint
ball and socket joint
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