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Earth Dams

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by Irsa Anwar on 23 July 2013

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Transcript of Earth Dams

EARTH & ROCK-FILL DAMS
Impervious Zone of an earth Dam. As indicated by the name, it's the Integral component that restricts the flow of water.
Core
Drains
Cut-Off Wall/ Trench
Rip-Rap
Artificial water barrier made of earthen material including sand, soil, clay and/or rock
WORKING PRINCIPLE
The force of impoundment creates a downward thrust upon the mass of the dam, greatly increasing the weight of the dam on its foundation. This added force effectively seals and makes waterproof the underlying foundation of the dam, at the interface between the dam and its stream bed. Such a dam is composed of fragmented independent material particles. The friction and interaction of particles binds the particles together into a stable mass rather than by the use of a cementing substance
Components of an Earth and Rock-Fill Dam
Filter
specifically graded soil designed to prevent the migration of fine grain soil particles and collect and redirect any seepage
Shell
Horizontal Filter
Vertical Filter
Inclined or vertical filter abutting downstream face of either impervious core or down stream transition zone is provided to collect seepage emerging out of core/transition zone and thereby keeping the downstream shell relatively dry.
It collects the seepage from the inclined/vertical filter or from the body of the dam, in the absence of inclined/vertical filter, and carries it to toe drain.
Homogeneous Earth Dam
Heterogeneous Earth (Zoned) Dam
It is a zone of rocky material that provides structural stability to a dam.
It catches any leakages from the filter and drains it properly
Different types of Drains help carry natural seepage to downstream area without upsetting the structural integrity of the dam. Several types exist:
Chimney Drain:
Inclined/vertical drain lining the core
Downstream &/or upstream Blanket:

Special type of horizontal drain that prevents seepage into the foundation
Toe Drain/ Rock Toe:

Made of graded material to retain core particles and collect seepage from horizontal/vertical drains (if present); prevents tail water erosion.
Placement of Large Boulders on surface of the dam to prevent surface erosion.
Rip-rap works by absorbing and deflecting the energy of waves before they reach the defended structure while the gaps between the rocks trap and slow-down the flow of water, lessening its ability to erode soil
A wall or trench, constructed underground, designed to impede the flow of water.
This is provided to prevent the formation of an underground path for water.
Selection of Suitable Filter Material
Retention Criteria
FILTER
Permeability Criteria
Cohesion Criteria
Irsa Anwar
0472

Variations in Designs
Earth and Rock-fill Dams - An Overview
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