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Respiratory System of Different Organisms

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by Dave Emmanuel Wong on 18 March 2013

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Transcript of Respiratory System of Different Organisms

About the cover Respiration can be defined as the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide sponteously.

In this picture, we can see one of the best memories our section has. Not NSTP but the joy of having the opportunity to wear smiles to other children together as one family, as one 1H Family. We gave life to both our hearts and to the children's faces. Our memories will forever remain in our hearts. God bless! Respiratory System Functions:

1.)It delivers oxygen to the cardiovascular system for distribution to the body.
2.)The respiratory system helps regulate the balance of acid and base in tissues, a process crucial for the normal functioning of cells.
3.)It protects the body against disease-causing organisms and toxic substances inhaled with air.
4.)The respiratory system also houses the cells that detect smell, and assists in the production of sounds for speech.
5.)The system is also responsible for the proper thermoregulation of the body. SOURCES OF OXYGEN
1.AIR – 21%
2.WATER - 0.7% or less ANIMALS ACCORDING TO THEIR SOURCES OF OXYGEN
1.AEROBIC ANIMALS
2.ANAEROBIC ANIMALS KINDS OF RESPIRATION:

1.DIRECT RESPIRATION
2.INDIRECT RESPIRATION
A.EXTERNAL RESPIRATION
B.INTERNAL RESPIRATION KINDS OF BREATHING:
1.EUPNEA
2.DYSPNEA
3.HYPERPNEA
4.APNEA RESPIRATORY ORGANS
1.GILLS
-Designed for water breathing
A.INTERNAL GILLS
B.EXTERNAL GILLS

2.LUNGS
-Designed for air breathing
3.GAS BLADDER
A.SWIM BLADDERS
-If fishes used to control the buoyancy in the vertical water column.
B.RESPIRATORY GAS BLADDERS
-Heavily vascularized to participate in supplementary respiration. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD RESPIRATORY ORGAN
1.It must be thin
2.It must be moist
3.It must be highly impregnated with blood vessels
4.It must be elastic and highly distensible
5.It must have a large surface area. Ventilation Processes - Ram ventilation(Figure A)
- Dual pump
-suction phase
-induction phase
- Pulse pump
-inhalation phase
-exhalation phase
- Aspiration pump Figure A. Figure B. Patterns of Gas Exchange Countercurrent flow 1H Family :')) Crosscurrent flow Amphibian Respiration Septal - respiratory surface of the amphibians

Faveoli - divided internal walls by the interconnecting septa that open into the central chamber within each lung.

Oral valve - separates the buccal cavity from the mouth

Internal narial valve - separates the buccal cavity from the nares Amphibian Respiratory Mechanism Air ventilation: buccal pump
-the buccal pump employs the mouth cavity, which expands to fill with fresh air and then compresses to pump this air into the lungs.

Two types of buccal pump:
1. Two-stroke buccal pump
2. Four-stroke buccal pump
Amphibian Respiratory Organs 1. Gills
2. Lungs
3. Skin
Amphibian Respiratory Tract(Pulmonary) External nares - Buccal cavity - Lungs - External nares Reptilian Respiratory Tract 1. External nares
2. Internal nares
3. Glottis
4. Larynx
5. Trachea
6. Bronchi
7. Alveoli
Reptilian Respiratory Organs A. LUNGS
•They have a much greater surface area for the exchange of gases.
•They are inflated and deflated by the bellow-like expansion and contraction of the rib cage.
•Most snakes have only one lung (the right lung)
•Allows for less frequent breathing
B. CLOACA (for some turtles)
•Water is sucked in through the cloaca
•Oxygen is extracted
•Cloaca excretes deoxygenated water
Reptilian Pulmonary Respiration Mechanism •Pulmonary respiration Respiratory Tract of Fish Mouth/Oral Cavity - Gills Respiratory Organs of Fish - Gills
- Lungs
- Gas bladder
Respiratory Mechanism of Fish 1. Compression and expansion of the branchial apparatus
2. Ram ventilation
3. Dual pump

Avian Respiratory Tract 1. External nares
2. Larynx
3. Trachea
4. Syrynx
4. Bronchii
Avian Respiratory Organs 1. Lungs
2. Airsacs
- interclavicular , cervical , posterior thoracic and abdominal
Avian Respiratory Mechanism -Suction pump Mammalian Respiration In humans and other mammals, the anatomical features of the respiratory system include airways, lungs, and the respiratory muscles. Molecules of oxygen and carbon dioxide are passively exchanged, by diffusion, between the gaseous external environment and the blood. This exchange process occurs in the alveolar region of the lungs.
Exhalation is generally a passive process; however, active or forced exhalation is achieved by the abdominal and the internal intercostal muscles. During this process air is forced or exhaled out.
Inhalation is initiated by the diaphragm and supported by the external intercostal muscles.
INVERTEBRATES Echinoderm Respiratory Tract 1. Cloaca - extract oxygen from water in a pair of "respiratory trees" that branch off from it.

2. Anus - Sea Cucumbers have respiratory trees used in gas exchange. These structures are paired, heavily branched tubes inside the body cavity that attach to the rectum.

3. Respiratory tree
Echinoderm Respiratory Mechanism 1. Sea cucumbers have large respiratory trees used for oxygen
exchange.
2. Water is forced to the respiratory trees through the
cloaca. This process may take six to ten minutes. All of the water
is expelled in one contraction.
3. Gas exchange occurs across the thin walls of the tubules, to and from the fluid of the main body cavity.
Echinoderm Respiratory Tract Annelid Respiration - Some aquatic annelids have thin-walled, feathery gills through which gases are exchanged between the blood and the environment. However, most annelids have no special organs for gas exchange, and respiration occurs directly through the body wall.
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