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Sport Psychology - Personality

BTEC Level 3 Sport and Exercise Science, and BTEC Level 3 Sports Coaching
by Alice Tocknell on 12 August 2014

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Transcript of Sport Psychology - Personality

Martens' Schematic View
and Sports Performance
P1: Define personality and how it affects sports performance
M1:Explain the effects of personality and motivation on sports performance
D1:Evaluate the effects of personality and motivation on sports performance

Situational-centered views
Interactional View
Trait Theory
Social Learning Theory
PERSONALITY
Personality
List all the personality characteristics you can think of
Personality
= ?
Key Terms
Psychological core = the part of you that
contains your beliefs, values, attitudes and interests.

Typical Responses = the usual way that
you respond to situations.

Role-related behaviour = behaviour determined by
the circumstances you find yourself in.

Trait - a relatively stable and enduring characteristic that is part of your personality
Effects on
Performance
There is no direct link between personality type and successful sporting performance. However, personality can suggest why an athlete is drawn to certain sports.

..But there is little evidence to say that your personality type will make you a better athlete
Athlete versus non-athletes
There is no universal athletic personality to predict successful performance...
Elite versus non-elite athletes
Do you think there is a difference in
between elite and non-elite athletes?
personality
In a recent study with a small number of athletes psychologists thought that successful athletes display lower levels of depression, fatigue, confusion and anger, but high levels of vigour.

However, this was deemed inconclusive...
Personality accounts for less than 1% of performance variation
Why??
Female athletes versus female non-athletes.....
How would their personalities effect their performance in sport?
Williams (1980) found that female athletes were:
More independent
More aggressive and dominant
More emotionally stable
Team Sports
Individual Sports
Schurr, Ashley, and Joy (1977) studied 1500 American student and found that....
Athletes were more:
Independent
Objective
Relaxed
Than non-athletes
Athletes who played team sports were found to be:

More outgoing and warm hearted
Less intelligent
More group dependent
Less emotionally stable

Than individual sports.
Athletes who played individual sports were found to be:

Less anxious
Less intelligent
Psychological Core
Typical responses
Role-related behaviour
"The real you"
Contains your beliefs, values, attitudes and interests - Constant and stable
The way you respond to the world around you
"good indicator of your psychological core"
Constant
Internal
Determined by the
circumstances you are in
Your personality changes as your perception of your environment changes
Example
In the same day you might be captaining your college sports team where you show a lot of leadership behaviors, then working as an employee at your part-time job where you will follow a lot of instructions
External
Dynamic
1990
Example
You may get angry and shout after being intentionally fouled in football because you feel deliberate fouls are un-sporting behaviour, but you may be quiet and shy when you meet people for the first time.
Do you agree or disagree??
Jessica Ennis-Hill
Trait theorist suggest that individuals have certain characteristic that will partly determine how they behave
For the videos of the 2 athletes, write down 5 personality characteristics you would say they have.
Trait Theory
Introversion
Extroversion
Neurotic
Stable
Don't actively seek excitement
Like calm environments
Like tasks that require concentration
Dislike the unexpected
Personality Characteristics?
Sports?
Get bored quickly
Poor at tasks that require
a lot of concentration
Constantly seek change and excitement
Less responsive to pain
More successful in sporting situations as they cope
better with competitive and distracting situations
Personality Characteristics?
Sports?
Easy -going
Even tempered
Remains emotionally stable
Restless, excitable
Highly aroused
Tendency to become anxious
tendancy to become upset/emotional
Introverted-Neurotic
Extroverted -Neurotic
Extroverted-Stable
Introverted-Stable
Personality Characteristics?
Personality Characteristics?
Sports?
Sports?
Introvert or Extrovert?
Sporting example?
Sporting example?
Sporting example?
Sporting example?
Put these traits in the correct sections
Moody
Aggressive
Passive
Pessimistic
Lively
Calm
Impulsive
Outgoing

Quiet
Active
Sociable
Thoughtful
Moody
Pessimistic
Passive
Calm
Outgoing
Lively
Aggressive
Impulsive
Trait Theory and Sport
Trait views are too simplistic
Personality alone cannot predict
success in sport
It can, however, be used to help understand why individuals choose certain sports
Behaviour is dependent on situation or environment
What environments may an athlete find themselves in?
Competitive
Remember....
A situation can influence a person's behaviour, but it cannot predict sporting behaviour.

To do this you also need to consider their personality traits as well.
What situations may an athlete find themselves in?
Training
Media
Family
Social
Olympic 100m Final
Sports personality of the year awards
Traveling across the world to train
Behavior is dependent on situation or environment
Situational centered views suggest that.....
Argues that this is far more important than traits
Freddie Flintoff...
Playing for England
Sport Relief Appearance
Interview with Graham Norton
Interview with Sky Sports
Individuals may be introverted - displaying characteristics such as tolerance and shyness...

but may participate in a sport that requires them to be more extroverted, displaying characteristics like aggression and dominance
In sport....
If a person can act so differently based on situation, how much influence does personality really have?

What is it?
“People learn through observing others’ behaviour, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviours.”
Bandura (1977)


Social learning suggests rather than being born with characteristics, we learn them from other people, especially significant others that include family, peers, teachers, heroes...

When sports performers invent new ways....we copy!
Kevin Pietersen's Switch Hit, 2008
Dick Fosbury flop, 1968 Mexio City Olympic Games
Johan Cruyff turn, 1970s
In Sport....
Modeling
Individuals are likely to model themselves on people they can relate to
Same sport Gender
Attempt to copy behaviour
Reinforcement
As behaviour is reinforced, or rewarded in some way, it is likely that behaviour is repeated.
Bandura identified four main stages of observational learning that demonstrates how modelling influences personality and behaviour
How does it happen??
Observe behaviour
Motivational response
Retention
Motor reproduction
Attention
Athlete must have a certain level of respect and admiration for the model they are observing

The amount of respect will depend on their status - If the model is successful, attractive and powerful they will hold the athletes attention
To be effective, the athlete must be able to retain the observed skill or behaviour in their memory and recall it when needed
The athlete must be able to physically perform the task.

Time is required to practice the skill in order to learn how it is performed and perfect it
Unless the athlete is motivated, they will not go through the first 3 stages of modeling.

Motivation is dependent on:
the amount of reinforcement, such as, praise, feedback, pride or achievement.
Perceived status of the model
Importance of the task
Four stages of observational learning
To attempt to predict behaviour in a sporting situation, you need to consider how the situation and personality traits link together
widely accepted by sports psychologists...
The theory suggests that when
situational factors
are particularly strong, for example during a penalty shoot-up at the world cup, they are more likely to predict behaviour than personality traits
Personality Traits
Examples.....
Men's Lightweight Double Sculls
Zac Purchase and Mark Hunter. London 2012
38mins 24secs
Sporting behaviour
Situational factors
Jody Cundy
Paralympic Track Cyclist
London 2012 Outburst
The sum of the characteristics that make a person unique
Personality Types
Type A
Lack patience
Strong urge for competition
High desire to achieve goals
Rush to complete activities
Happily multi-task under time constraints
Lack tolerance towards others
Experience high levels of anxiety
Some sports psychologists believe personality traits can be group under two headings: Type A and Type B
Type B
More tolerent towards others
More relaxed and reflective than Type A
Experience lower levels of anxiety
Display higher levels of imaginiation and creativity
Discuss: Which personality type is likely to continue participating, and be successful in sport?
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