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Malting and Mashing

A guide to the malting and mashing processes in beer.
by Ryan Thomas on 30 July 2013

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Transcript of Malting and Mashing

Malting and Mashing
Chemistry
Enzymes
Brewing...
can be regarded as a series of enzyme-mediated reactions (where structures get broken into smaller units) in the presence of a solvent (water), interspersed with some synthesis (the reverse process) primarily mediated by yeasts.

-Fix
Malting
Theoretical Mashing
Hot water steeping of grains that hydrates, gelatinizes starches, releases enzymes and converts starches to fermentable sugars.
Sources
New Brewing Lager Beer - Noonan

Brewing Better Beer - Strong

Principles of Brewing Science - Fix

How To Brew - Palmer
Applied Mashing
Carbohydrates
Starches
Sugars
Dextrins
Husks and insoluble compound sugars

Forms filter bed in mash

Can contribute tannins at high temperature or pH


Cellulose
20-400 C6-H10-O5 molecules

Amylose - straight chains (1-4 links)
Amylopectin - branched chains (1-4 and 1-6 links)

Unfermentable amylopectin fragments

Nothing breaks the 1-6 links in the mash

Fuller body and more 'maltiness'
Mono-/Di-/Tri- saccharides
"-ose" suffix
Can become alcohol in ferment
Proteins
Proteoses &
Peptones
Peptides
Amino Acids
2-30 amino acids
400-1500 M.W.
5000-12000 M.W.

12000-20000 M.W.
Good Head
Haze
30000-100000 M.W.
17000-150000 M.W.
Large Proteins
Polypeptides
Regions of activity
Concentration is important
"-ase" suffix

Acts on the corresponding
"-ose"

amylase = amylose
300-400 Amino Acids
(therefore Protein)
Cofactors such as calcium protect enzymes at mash temps and help them work more efficiently
Complex organic catalysts that assist a very specific reaction
Very sensitive to environment
temperature
pH

Denatured at high temps

Mash thickness (water-to-grist ratio) must allow sufficient concentration of enzymes for effective activity
Grains
Malted Grains
Unmalted Grains
Other Adjuncts
Simpler sugars not derived from cereal grains

Table Sugar, honey, molasses, treacle, maple syrup,...
Starchy cereal grains that have not been through the malting process

Corn, Rice
Dilute high protein 6 row barley, lighten flavor, reduce cost

Oats, Wheat, Rye, ...
Add specific flavor/aroma or body characters

Lack of enzymes necessitates special handling
Raw form => cereal mash
Flaked => mill and add directly to mash
Torrified (puffed) => mill and add to mash
Grain Type
Barley (2 row or 6 row)
Wheat
Oats
Rye
...
Malt Type
Variety/Strain
Maris Otter
Golden Promise
Klages
Optic
Halcyon
...
Pils
Pale
Vienna
Munich
...
Maltster
Crisp
Weyerman
Briess
...
Specifics
Origin
Color
Modification
...
Malt Types
Base Malts
Sufficient enzymes to self convert

Up to 100% of grain bill

2 row
Pils
Pale
Vienna
Munich
Rauch
Other malted grains
(oats, wheat rye)
Specialty Malts
Character and Flavor

Can be steeped or added to mash
Don't need to convert

Small % of grain bill

Aromatic
Melanoidin
Biscuit
Victory
Special Roast
Honey Malt
Amber
Brown
Crystal Malts
Character, Color and Flavor

Small % of grain bill

Sugars already converted during malting/stewing

OK to steep

Crystal
Caramel (cara-X)
Special B
Cry/Cara wheat/rye
Roasted Malts
Character, Color and Flavor

Small % of grain bill

Steep OK

Chocolate
Coffee
Black Patent
Carafas
Roasted Barley
technically unmalted
also wheat rye etc
Malting Process
Purpose
The controlled germination of
cereal grains

Break down cell walls

Enzyme development

Degradation of protein and starch (modification)

Maillard Products
Color and flavor
Enzyme Development
and Activity
Cytolitic (cell walls)
Beta-Glucanase
Cytase

Proteolytic (protein)
Proteinase
Peptidease
Diastatic (starches)
Alpha and Beta Amylase
Glucosidase (1-6 link)
debranching, malting only
Acid Forming
Phytase
Phosphatase
Steps
Steeping
50-60°F for 2-4 days

Germinating/Sprouting
50-70°F for 6-10 days
rootlet and acrospire

Enzyme action
90°F over 24 hrs



Pre-Kiln (drying)
120°F for 24 hrs

Stewing (cara/crystal)
158°F for 1-2 hrs

Kilning
Cooling
100°F
Clean and remove rootlets

Binning/Resting
Store cool and dry for 20-30 days
US Lager
130-180°F
British Pale
200-220°F
Czech Pils
178°F
Dortmunder
195-205°F
Vienna
210-230°F
Munich
210-220°F
Dark Munich
230°F

Amber
340°F
Aromatic
240°F
Biscuit
430-460°F
Brown
355°F
Crystal
250-275°F
Caramel
212-275°F

Chocolate
420°F
Black
435-480°F


Rauch/Smoked/Peated
kilned over open
hardwood or peat fires
Continued drying
Character development
Stops modification
Denatures some enzymes
Acid Rest
Beta Glucan Rest
Protein Rest
Saccharification
Rest
Beta-glucanase and proteolytic enzymes are most active during malting, but there is some activity during the mash.


Diastatic enzymes are most active during mashing, but there is some ability to favor/activate other specific enzymes by temperature (and other minor factors)
Gelatinize - to swell from hydration

Crushing/Milling malt helps to expose the starches to hydration

Most effective 140-150°F
Helps Phytase acidify mash for proper pH

Not typically used today due to knowledge of water chemistry

86-126°F
Breaks down gums in grists with 20%+ unmalted barley, oats, wheat or rye

Not needed unless using high amounts of glucan rich grains that could slow lautering

95-113°F
Proteolytic enzymes break down proteins into smaller proteins, peptides and amino acids

113-152°F , best at 120-131°F

Some activity even at single mash rest of 140-155°F
Convert starches to sugars

alpha-amylase

beta-amylase

limit dextrinase

glucosidase
breaks 1-4 links at random
as close as 1 glucose from branch
150-158°F
breaks 1-4 links at at ends
as close as 3 glucoses from branch
131-150F°F
breaks leftover dextrins
at branch
140-153°F
breaks 1-6 links (branch points)
negligible activity in the mash

140-158°F , target 150-155°F
Factors Effecting Mash Enzyme Activity
Temperature
primary factor as noted previously

Time
reactions do not happen instantaneously
denaturing of enzymes takes time
different enzymes denature at different rates

pH
4.6 - 6 decent range for diastatic activity
5.4 - 5.8 is ideal

Grist/Water ratio
minimal effects due to enzyme concentrations
Theory =/= Practice
Most of these numbers come from laboratory grade chemistry

Few breweries are laboratories

Compromise is key
150-155°F
1 hour
5.4 - 5.8 pH
1.5 - 2 qts/lb
Infusion
Direct Heat
Decoction
How is the heat applied?
Water addition(s)
Single Infusion
Multiple Infusions
Mix grains, water, done

Simple
Least equipment/labor
Only fully modified
Can't thoroughly control enzymes

Add hot water multiple times to hit different "steps"

Better control of enzymes

Allows undermodified malts and other grains

More time, resources, labor

Heat the mash directly with flame, electric, etc.
Indirect Heat
Heat the liquor portion only
HERMS, RIMS
Requires pumping
Cereal Mash
Gelatinize and convert unmalted grains

Combine small amount of base malt with unmalted cereal grains to provide enzymes

Combine with water, hit, hold, heat, repeat
barley, oats, rye, or wheat
115°F for 15min, 150-155°F 15min, boil 10-15 min
rice or corn
145°F for 15min, 165-172°F 15min, boil 10-15 min

Return to main mash , likely raising temperature
90% of styles
Other rests
Ferulic Acid
111-115°F
promotes 4VG in Weizen
Lauter Rest/Mash Out
168-170°F
Denature enzymes
Ease lautering
Flaked grains don't need cereal mash, but should be milled to increase accessibility

Hybrid - directly heated mixed (grain/liquor) infusion

Portion of mash removed and separately heated through sacc rest and boil, possibly multiple times

Reduces starch and protein size in boil

Multiple trips through rests gives better extraction and allows use of undermodified malts, or low enzyme malts such as Dark Munich

Boiling denatures enzymes, so keep decoctions thick

Never with well modified (esp. British) malts

Maillard reactions help develop melanoidins
Lipids (fats)
.05 percent of malt extract

Overzealous sparging can extract, causing goaty or soapy flavors and reduced foam stability
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